Lakewood Garden Mausoleum @ Lakewood Cemetery By Halvorson Design Partnership

Refreshing. It functions in a way that isn’t necessarily part of our vocabulary

Project Specs

“Refreshing. It functions in a way that isn’t necessarily part of our vocabulary. There are different moments in the design.”
—2013 Professional Awards Jury

“耳目一新,非同凡响。”–2013年专业奖评审委员会

Lakewood Garden Mausoleum @ Lakewood Cemetery By Halvorson Design Partnership ,更多请至:Halvorson Design Partnership on gooood 
(All Photo © Paul Crosby, Drawing © Halvorson Design Partnership)

The 142-year-old Lakewood Cemetery faced a challenge: how to create a commemorative 21st century space within a revered, landmark setting. The Garden Mausoleum project meets this challenge adroitly, sustainably and gracefully. With the landscape enveloping two thirds of the building within a south-facing slope, architecture opens out onto an expansive, peaceful landscape with a quiet reflecting pool, groves of nativetrees and contemplative alcoves—a distinctly contemporary design in harmony with its historic environment.

有着142年历史的莱克伍德公墓曾面临着一个挑战:如何在一个受人尊敬的地标式的环境中创造出一个具有纪念性的属于21世纪的空间。花园陵园项目正好巧妙地、持久地、优雅地迎接了这个挑战。这个景观涵盖了朝南斜坡上三分之二的建筑,建筑风格展现了一幅空旷的、和平的风景,伴着静静的倒影池、本地树木构成的小树林以及沉思的壁龛——鲜明的当代设计与它的历史环境和谐地融为一体。

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▲ 总平面图:1 教堂(1909)2 陵园(1967)3 “花园地下墓室”(1960’s)
4 新陵园+接待中心  5 绿色屋顶   6 新花园壁龛“房间”
7 新花园地下“房间”  8 阶梯状的草坪台阶 9 倒影池
0 中心聚集区   11 设计精致的花园  12 服务通道

 

莱克伍德公墓始建于1871年,是一个典型的美国式的“草坪规划”墓地。在这里,大片大片宽阔的草坪上处处点缀着一些精致的纪念碑,碑的四周被树木和大而宁静的湖泊所围绕。这种风格是19世纪50年代由辛辛那提的春天的树林陵园首创的。而莱克伍德公墓正是这一经典墓地类型现存的最纯净的范例。

认识到了这个景观的价值和重要性之后,莱克伍德公墓的托管人于2002年委托一个由景观建筑师为首的团队制作了一份《历史景观报告》和一份全面的《景观总体规划》。他们的目的是要明确这个墓地最重要的特征,为墓地未来的管理和发展提供指导。全国范围内的历史性墓地所面临的一个问题就是:如何在不损害国人深爱的景观的价值的同时使之带来持续的收入。

这个计划慢慢地变成了与莱克伍德公墓陵园的一种持续不断的关系,后者是迄今为止几个已经实施的项目中最大的一个。通过与客户紧密沟通合作,园林建筑师对建筑师的选择过程给予了建议,并作为设计团队的成员参与,从前期设计一直到项目完工。这一过程的结果是产生了一个有深远意义的整体建筑和景观设计方案,这个方案彻底改变了一个恶化的、“沉没”的空间,从而创造出了一个诗意般的现代化景观,在一个充满意义的环境中为人们提供了慰藉和美丽。

Lakewood Cemetery, established in 1871, is a quintessential American “Lawn Plan” cemetery, wherein broad sweeps of lawn are punctuated by a few fine stone monuments framed by trees and large serene lakes. This style was pioneered by Cincinnati’s Spring Grove Cemetery in the 1850s and Lakewood is the purest surviving example of this classic cemetery type.

Recognizing the value and importance of their landscape, in 2002, the Trustees of Lakewood commissioned a team led by landscape architects to produce a Historic Landscape Report and comprehensive Landscape Master Plan. Their goal was to define the most important features of the cemetery and to guide future management and development. The problem confronting historic cemeteries nation-wide: how to generate continued revenue without impairing the values of their beloved landscapes.

This planning effort grew into a on-going relationship with the Garden Mausoleum, the largest of several implementation projects undertaken to date.

Working closely with the client, the landscape architect advised on the selection process for the architect and participated as a design team member from pre-design through completion. The result of this process is a profoundly integrated building and landscape design solution that transformed a deteriorated, “sunken” space, creating a poetic modern landscape offering solace and beauty in a setting rich with meaning.

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▲一个新的陵园和接待中心被融进了空间中现存的斜坡上。沿着街道这个建筑群大部分渐渐淡出视线,只有5500平方英尺的花岗岩亭子在保存完好的橡树样品中间映入视线。
A new mausoleum and reception center is nestled into the existing slopes of the space. From the street, the building mass largely fades from view with only a 5,500-square-foot granite pavilion visible among the preserved specimen Oak trees.

 

地址+环境
为新的陵园选的地址是公墓景观中几个不协调的特征之一。在墓地的入口附近,环绕着巨大的老树林,新址是一块比较大的凹陷的区域,从1967年以来被作为一个四层楼高的陵园/骨灰安置处建筑的前院。一片巨大的绿色空间,侧面是长满了草的斜面,中间被一排排高大的常青树所分割,这个分割线正处在陵园和另一端像莱克伍德的宝石般的拜占庭风格的教堂(1909)之间的轴线上。由“花园地下墓室”构成的高高的整体石墙矗立在不朽的楼道的两侧,从此处一直通往教堂。这个地方从整体上来看供人们步行的小路有限,也没有可以坐的地方。它里面确实是有一个“倒影池”,这是一片狭长的长方形水域,曾经受到来墓地的游客们的爱戴,但是维护问题一直没有搞好,尤其是因为明尼苏达漫长的冬天而干涸时,就更不是一处吸引人的风景了。

项目
总体规划要求为新的陵园和接待设施选一个地方,以满足日益增长的火化需求和地上的葬礼服务,但同时要对这个较大的历史性墓地景观造成最小的影响。通过创造一处新的、融合了新陵园和现存的陵园的特征以及那个具有象征意义的教堂的中心风景区,景观建筑师以一种无缝的方式解决了容纳新的项目空间的难题。新的陵园景观——周边是一排排的长凳,枫树和山楂树组成的庄严的丛林,还有一个重新设计的零边缘的倒影池——不仅为大型团体在阵亡将士纪念日举行户外集会/活动提供了空间,而且还为安静的沉思、慰藉和疗伤开辟出一块空间。整个项目都采用了可持续性设计的原则,从绿色的屋顶到创新的暴雨排水策略,到建筑废料的的转移和种植大量的本地植物。设计师们力图打造一个不管是从视觉上还是功能上都对环境产生最低影响的工程项目。

设计意图
这个设计试图以一种愉快的、引人注目的方式重新使用现存的墓地空间,把拥有当代美学的项目和谐地融合进一个重要的历史景观。它通过仔细地规定建筑发展来最小化其对较大的墓地景观的影响和充分利用这个地方柔和的倾斜比例做到了这一点。较低地平面强大的几何结构逐渐向斜坡上过渡到地上“草坪规划”风景的田园风格。这个设计在内部和外部空间之间建立一种统一的关系,增强了彼此的经验。提供了一个很明显的空间层级,突出了一个较大的中心聚集空间,同时为沉思提供了次级空间。零边缘倒影池的位置是不对称的,以便与这个景观中已建的东西形成重要的轴线关系,并为这个空间创造出一个动态的视觉中心。成荫的绿树林强化了边缘的同时还部分地遮挡了1967年建造的陵园的正面风景。低矮的装饰性的观花乔木保护了那个标志性的教堂的风景,同时又形成了一道漂亮的柔软的边缘,使陵园东面地下室的墙变得美观。

可持续性
莱克伍德公墓陵园力图保存这个历史性景观的特征,同时为多达10000人提供高贵的埋葬和纪念空间。由于这个建筑项目很大的一部分要建造在山坡上,因此保留了大量的开放空间,对周边环境的自然之美的视觉效果也得到缓解。通过风铲、根部修剪和用板桩支撑,已经长成的树木被保留了下来。一个新的可使用的绿色屋顶扩展了周围墓地的开放草坪,还能得到像减少碳排放、减少制冷负担、产生氧气、减少热岛效应并最大限度地提高径流渗透等传统的益处。这个建筑是东西方向的,以便最大化受到太阳的照射。创新暴雨排水策略以最大化现场的水流渗透。由于这个发展,所有的停车区都能透水,从而降低了下暴雨时的水流量和速度。所有的停车区都设置在现场的墓地周边的路上。现场的一口水井被保留了下来,减少了饮用水的使用用来灌溉。众多大型树木和灌木/地面植被被种植,以此来增加树荫,从而减少因蒸发和蒸散而造成的水份的流失,提高水的利用效率。当地出产的花岗岩具有较高的反照率的特征,大多数景观和较低的花园里所有的小路都是用这种花岗岩铺成的。照明设计也最低化,以减少光污染。

意义
莱克伍德公墓陵园景观作为一个安静的、受人尊重的历史环境里的当代设计具有重要意义,为最基本的人类需求提供了尊严和优雅。这一建筑和风景的结合已经被波士顿的美国景色美化设计师协会所认可,并获得了很多建筑奖项。

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▲分析图 (竖排)

外部/内部连接可进入的绿色屋顶:与墓地景观无缝过渡组织轴结构种植范围和明确中心仪式空间通过风铲和架设板桩支架得以保护的现存的树木样本保留下来的教堂风光

 

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▲空间中央的一大片草坪,在阵亡将士纪念日举行活动时能容纳350人。周边为更加亲密的聚会设计了舒服的、沉思空间。莱克伍德公墓的教堂的壮观景色也被保留了下来。
A large central lawn anchors the space and accommodates Memorial Day events for upwards of 350 people. Comfortable, contemplative spaces have been designed around the perimeter for more intimate gatherings. Spectacular views to Lakewood Cemetery’s chapel beyond have been preserved.

 

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▲新的倒影喷泉是一个零边缘的水池,是在基座上的一层铺路板上的一英寸深的水平面。冬天干涸时,这里就成为了一个活跃的广场。
The new reflecting fountain is a zero-edge pool with a 1” deep “scrim” of water over a layer of pavers on pedestal mounts. When drained in the winter, it becomes an active plaza space.

 

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▲成熟的大乔木通过风铲、根部修剪和用板桩支撑而被保存,立于陵园后方。梯状的台地缓和了建筑和景观之间的过渡,也为未来的纪念用地提供了可能性。
Mature trees were preserved through air spading, root pruning and shoring with sheet piling in order to build the back wall of the mausoleum. Terraced walls ease the transition between building and landscape and offer opportunities for future memorialization.

 

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▲绿色屋顶使得公墓的“草坪规划”之美无缝地延展成一道新的风景。建筑和风景之间的融合集中体现为有青铜框架的泥土造型,包含地下墓室的天窗。
The green roof allows the cemetery’s “Lawn Plan” aesthetic to seamlessly extend to a newly created overlook. The union between architecture and landscape is epitomized by the bronze framed earth forms containing skylights to the crypt rooms below.

 

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▲暮色中的新花园陵园。低矮的地平面使得人的注意力集中在窗户周围强有力的马赛克图案上。在突出的地下墓室之间设计了外部骨灰龛位,这样就可以在花园中进行葬礼。
The new garden mausoleum at twilight. The low ground plane focuses attention on the powerful mosaic motif around the windows. Exterior columbarium niches are designed between the projecting crypt rooms permitting interment in a garden setting.

 

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▲在教堂的窗户外面能看到的新的花园式地下墓室。突起的草坪面板让人联想到在公墓的土地上的家庭耕地。
A view of the new garden crypts outside the commitment chapel windows. The elevated lawn panel is reminiscent of family plots within the Cemetery grounds.

 

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▲ 花楸树的名字来源于它那雅致纤弱的花朵,对于早期的美国殖民主义者来说,这些花预示着这里的土地已经解冻可以挖掘来建造坟墓并举行葬礼。雨花石能够收集雨水径流使之到达下一级的渗透系统。
The Serviceberry tree derives its name from its delicate blossoms, which signified to early American colonists that the ground had thawed enough to dig graves and have burial services. River stones collect runoff to a below grade infiltration system.

 

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▲(left)建筑上没有留通风处,以便通过凸起的青铜或花岗岩边石来建造一系列神圣的区域。
Circulation was shifted away from the building to allow for the creation of a series of sacred zones defined by raised bronze or granite curbing.
(right)从倒影池上方看到的其中一个外部“花园式龛位”房间,用来纪念骨灰。
View from beyond the reflecting pool into one of the exterior “Garden Niche” rooms for memorialization of ashes.

 

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▲(left)从内部空间到外面的风景都密切注意了风景的协调。地面上微妙的连接处和一个简单的植被调色板创造出了一种围合感,同时使得建筑的几何形状延伸至景观内部。
Close attention was given to coordinating views from interior spaces to the landscape beyond. Subtle articulations on the ground plane and a simple plant palette create a sense of enclosure while extending the building’s geometries into the landscape.
(right)一个倒影池起到了教堂和现存的陵园之间的组织轴的作用。这种形式上的关系被一条林荫道所强化,提供了一个供沉思的僻静的地方。
A reflecting pool acts as the organizing axis between the Chapel and the existing mausoleum. The formal relationship is reinforced by an allée of trees offering a secluded place for reflection. Additionally, Hawthorne trees ameliorate the existing outdoor crypt walls.

 

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▲ (left)秋日中沉思时刻。
Quiet reflection on an autumn day.
(right)冬日里包围公墓的景观,成阶梯状的草坪台阶无人来打扰。
An invitation to the Cemetery beyond, the terraced lawn steps rest undisturbed in the winter landscape.

 

Site + Context
The site chosen for the new mausoleum was one of the few incongruous features in the Cemetery’s landscape. Near the cemetery’s entrance,
surrounded by groves of majestic mature trees, the site consisted of a large sunken area, which served as the forecourt for a four-story-high
mausoleum/columbarium building from 1967. A massive green space flanked by grassy inclines it was divided down the middle by rows of tall
evergreen trees on the axis between the large mausoleum and Lakewood’s jewel like Byzantine-style Chapel (1909) at the opposite end. High,
monolithic walls made up of “garden crypts” stood on either side of a monumental stairway leading up from the space to the chapel. The area
as a whole had limited walking paths and no seating. It did include a “Pool of Reflections,” a long rectangular water feature revered by cemetery
visitors, but plagued with maintenance issues and when drained for the long Minnesota winters, a less than attractive landscape element.

Program
The master plan called for the siting of a new mausoleum and reception facility (to meet growing demand for cremation and above ground burial
services) with minimal impact on the larger historic cemetery landscape. By creating a new central landscape space that is the unifying feature
for the new & existing mausoleums as well as the iconic chapel, the landscape architect solved the problem of incorporating new program space
in a seamless manner. Providing an outdoor gathering/event space for large groups on Memorial Day, the new garden landscape—bordered by
benches, solemn bosques of maples and hawthorns, and a redesigned, zero edge reflecting pool—also offers a space conducive to quiet
contemplation, solace and healing. The principals of sustainable design were employed throughout the project from green roofs, to innovative
storm water strategies, to diverted construction waste and extensive native tree plantings. The designers strove to create a project that minimizes
its impact on the environment both visually and functionally.

Design Intent
The design seeks to reuse existing cemetery space in a lyrical and compelling manner integrating program with a contemporary aesthetic
harmoniously into an important historic landscape. It accomplishes this by carefully defining building development to minimize impact on the
larger Cemetery landscape and taking full advantage of a gently sloping portion of the site. The strong geometry of the lower ground plane
transitions gradually up the side slopes to the pastoral character of the “Lawn Plan” landscape above. The design establishes a unified
relationship between interior and exterior space, heightening the experience of each. A clear hierarchy of spaces was provided, highlighting a
large central gathering space while offering secondary spaces for contemplation. Asymmetrically placed, the zero edge reflection pool responds
to import axial relationships among the built elements of this landscape while creating a dynamic visual center to the space. Strengthening the
edges, groves of shade trees partially screen views of the 1967 Mausoleum façade. Low ornamental flowering trees preserve views to the iconic
Chapel, while at the same time create a beautiful, soft edge that ameliorates the impact of the eastern garden crypt walls.

Sustainability
Lakewood Garden Mausoleum seeks to preserve the character of the historic landscape while creating dignified burial and commemoration
space for as many as 10,000 people. With so much of the building program tucked into the hillside, considerable open space is conserved and
visual impacts on the natural beauty of the surroundings were mitigated. Mature tree cover was preserved through air spading, root pruning
and shoring with sheet piling. A new accessible green roof extends the open lawn of the surrounding cemetery with traditional benefits of carbon
reduction, reduced cooling loads, generation of oxygen, heat-island reduction, and maximizing runoff infiltration. The building is oriented east-
west to maximize solar exposure.
Innovative storm water strategies were implemented maximizing on-site infiltration. No impermeable parking areas were created as a result of
this development reducing storm runoff volume and rates. All parking is accommodated on existing surrounding cemetery roads. An on-site well
was preserved reducing potable water use for irrigation. Numerous large trees and shrub/groundcover areas were planted to increase shade
thereby reducing loss of water due to transpiration and evapotranspiration, improving water use efficiency.
Locally-sourced granite with high albedo properties was used for the majority of landscape uses and on all paths in the lower garden. Site
lighting was minimized to reduce light pollution.

Significance
The Lakewood Garden Mausoleum landscape is significant as a contemporary design expression in a historic setting conducive to quiet,
respectful reflection providing for fundamental human need with dignity and grace.
The combined building and landscape has already been recognized by the Boston chapter of the ASLA and has received numerous architectural
awards.

More:Halvorson Design Partnership,更多请至:Halvorson Design Partnership on gooood 

English text and photos via ASLA

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