Kiruna Town Hall by Henning Larsen

A town hall with the balance between a fresh image and town heritage

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Kiruna是一座瑞典最北部的小城,其旧城址坐落于地球上最大的铁矿区上。经过长年累月的开采,城市地面开始开裂并下陷,市内的建筑也面临着坍塌的危机。Kiruna的新市政厅被命名为“水晶宫(The Crystal)”,坐落于旧城以东的新城的中心位置,不仅赞美了Kiruna的建筑历史,还连接了城市功能与社会空间。在建筑事务所Henning Larsen的领导和其合作事务所Temagruppen以及WSP的配合下,建筑师们通过探索新旧城迁移之间的身份认同问题,最终找到了新城与旧城遗产之间的平衡点。新的市政厅将为所有的市民和他们的子孙后代带来欢乐。

Because of a century of mining operation on the largest iron ore on the planet, the old Kiruna, the northernmost town in Sweden, is suffering from the ground breaking and sinking, causing the instability of existing structures, especially the ones in the central town. “The Crystal”, the new town hall of Kiruna, located in the center of new town, which is three kilometers east to the old one, celebrates Kiruna’s architectural history, combining civic functionality and social spaces. By exploring the identity challenge between the new town and the existing one, the leading architects, Henning Larsen, together with partner firms Temagruppen, WSP, have found the balance between the fresh image and town heritages. The new building will be of joy to all citizens and future generations in Kiruna.

▼项目概况,overview ©Hufton+Crow

 

建在铁矿上的城市 | A town built on iron

建筑基地坐落于Kiruna,瑞典最北部的城市。Kiruna位于北极圈以北75英里处,在地理条件上是一座“孤岛”。冬天来临时,黑暗便会笼罩这个极北的边境小城,皑皑的白雪则是这个城市一年中最常见到的景象。Kiruna不仅是欧洲最后一个未经开发的文明聚落,更为特殊的是,它还是一座建在地球最大的铁矿上的城市。

During the second half of December, the sun does not rise on the 18,000 residents of Sweden’s northernmost town. Situated 95 miles north of the Arctic Circle, Kiruna exists in relative isolation – The closest neighboring town, Gällivare, is 75 miles away. Darkness defines the winter months, and snow blankets the landscape for the better half of the year. The town marks Sweden’s arctic frontier, the last concentration of civilization bordering some of Europe’s largest expanses of undeveloped wilderness. What sustains Kiruna in this remote setting is the fact that the town sits on top of the largest iron ore mine on the planet.

▼远景图,perspective view  ©Peter Rosén/LapplandMedia

自1898年起,欧洲90%的铁矿都来源于Kiruna,这里每日出产的铁矿量可以建造六座埃菲尔铁塔。Kiruna的前身是一座矿产小镇,随着新铁路线的发展,逐渐成为矿业公司LKAB的主要供应地。经过长达一个世纪的开采,Kiruna每年仍能出产超过2600万吨的铁矿。可以说,铁矿成就了Kiruna这座城市。而如今,这座边境小城很有可能因为铁矿而覆灭。

Each day, the Kiruna mine produces enough iron ore to build six Eiffel Towers. The mine provides 90 percent of Europe’s iron ore, having produced 950 million metric tons of ore since mining operations began in 1898. Kiruna was born as a mining town, emerging along the tracks of a new rail line that connected the immense iron deposit to the Norwegian trade harbor of Narvik. The town owes its existence to the management and financing of the Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara mining company (LKAB), which owns the mine and remains Kiruna’s largest employer. After over a century of constant operations, Kiruna continues to extract over 26 million tons of ore from the mine every year. The mine birthed Kiruna – And now, the mine threatens to erase it.

▼鸟瞰图,bird’s-eye view  ©Peter Rosén/LapplandMedia

经过长年累月的开采,钻井不断深入地表以下,对Kiruna这座城市的生存现状产生了威胁——地表正在破裂并逐渐下陷,严重影响了建筑结构的稳定性。更为令人担心的是,地裂缝和下陷正在逐步靠近市中心,这意味着市中心的建筑将面临着损毁甚至是坍塌的威胁。

In the 1960s, mining operations at Kiruna shifted from surface mining to subsurface cave mining. Today, the mine’s subterranean shafts have plunged 1,365 meters beneath the earth’s surface, tunneling downward at an angle to follow the ore body deeper into the earth. More than a kilometer beneath the light of day, these operations are vital to the continued existence of the town itself. But on the surface, warning signs have begun to appear: The ground is breaking, splitting into deep rifts and falling into sinkholes. The extensive mining operations are causing surface-level subsidence, meaning that the earth above the tunnels is weakening and sinking downward. For Kiruna, this could mean severe structural instability: Studies of the expanding rifts show them moving toward the town, putting the buildings of the city center at risk of damage or collapse within the century.

▼新市政厅由独特的内外建筑体量共同组成,the new town hall consists of distinct inner and outer building volumes  ©Peter Rosén/LapplandMedia

 

“移动”的城市 | A community on the move

为了应对这个前所未有的威胁,矿业公司LKAB提出了一个直截了当的解决方案:迁移城市。从2004年开始,LKAB就计划将这座容纳了18,000位居民的城市搬迁到距离预计下沉边界外的3公里处。这个想法听起来容易,但具体实施起来却要面临重重困难。LKAB预计将搬迁3,050座住宅,以及将近20万平方米的商业、办公、学校和城市公共地面空间。对于这场大规模的城市迁移活动,LKAB表明,一切的搬迁费用均由其承担。

In response to this threat, mining firm LKAB has proposed a direct solution: Move the town. Since 2004, the company has planned to shift the town of 18,000 citizens some three kilometers east, outside of the projected spread of ground level subsidence. Perhaps simple in concept, the logistics of this operation are anything but. LKAB anticipates relocating 3,050 houses, in addition to nearly 200,000 square meters of commercial, office, school and civic floor space. LKAB has offered to purchase existing houses at 125% of market price, or pay for a new residence in the relocated Kiruna. LKAB, now state-owned, is footing the bill for this grand relocation: While an expected completion date of 2100 complicates final price estimates, the company has already allocated some 12 billion kronor, or $1.3 billion.

▼新市政厅设计包括了旧城原有的钟楼,the design includes the original bell tower  ©Hufton + Crow

该项目实际所面临的困难远不止后勤和财务问题这么简单。摧毁旧城建立新城意味着当地流传了世代的遗产被连根拔起,不仅打破了原先联系紧密的邻里关系,还抹杀了传承数代的家族商店。目前,LKAB保留并搬迁了21座旧城的原有建筑,但其余的城市部分均将新建。这种大规模的迁移带来了一个身份认同的问题:如何在新环境下保留原有的社会文化?新城与旧城遗产之间的平衡点该如何把握?想要回答这些问题,要从城市规划和居民个人历史两方面入手,探索建筑和社区之间的关系。Henning Larsen作为本项目的设计方,希望在保护旧城建筑遗产的同时,打造一个宜居的新城。

The difficulties of this endeavor are larger than logistics and finances. Demolishing the old Kiruna and moving residents to a fresh city uproots generations of local heritage, interrupting tight-knit neighborhoods and erasing multigenerational family stores. LKAB is preserving and relocating 21 buildings from old Kiruna, but the rest of the city will be built anew. This relocation is a challenge of identity – How does one preserve communities in a new space? Where is the balance between a fresh image and town heritage? Answering these questions spans city planning and personal histories, exploring the relationship between architecture and community. Henning Larsen is proud to contribute to this process with our design for the new Kiruna Town Hall, an architectural tribute to Kiruna’s heritage and a public focal point for a new community.

▼一个覆以天然石材的光滑的圆形玻璃体量将内部的金属体量包裹起来,the outer volume covers the inner metallic crystal with a sleek circular glass and natural stone façade  ©Hufton + Crow

瑞典文化部部长Alice Bah Kuhnke说:“我希望这座新的市政厅能够成为一个人们聚集的场所。在这里,人们可以畅所欲言,无论是国家大事,还是鸡毛蒜皮的小事,无论是全球化议题,还是当地时政,一切与大家的生活息息相关的话题讨论都可以发生在这个空间里。”

“I hope that the Crystal will succeed in becoming a place where people meet – on the foundation of small and big topics, private or political, local or global, that concerns all of us.” said Alice Bah Kuhnke, the Swedish Minister of Culture and Democracy.

 

新城之基|The foundation for a new Kiruna

Kiruna的新市政厅设计是对其旧城历史和新城框架的致敬。这座建筑被命名为Kristallen,我们也可以称其为“水晶宫(The Crystal)”,其设计灵感来源于铁矿冷硬的几何形状。独特的内外建筑体量共同支撑着市政厅作为社区活动中心和城市空间的双重作用。棱角分明的金属体量构成了建筑的内部核心空间,主要用于社交活动如:公共展览室、工作室以及公共交流空间等,这些功能空间确保了市政厅作为一个社区中心的重要功能。这个中心体量使这座市政厅的意义不再局限于公共服务和地方治理,更多的是为市民创造了一个与老友和旧邻叙旧的场所,在Kiruna城市迁移的短暂时间内提供一种社会凝聚力。

在建筑的外部,一个覆以天然石材的光滑的圆形玻璃体量将内部的金属体量包裹起来。这部分体量涵盖了建筑的市政功能,组织了不同市政机构的员工办公室,同时也有助于建筑的功能设计。此外,这个外部体量也有助于建筑内环境的调节:圆形的体量不仅能迫使风在外表面擦过而不侵袭建筑内部,还能确保冬季里的雪不会在建筑表面上堆积。市政厅位于新城的中心位置,来自四面八方的市民都能够轻松地进入建筑内部,这样的设计将圆形所代表的团结统一的意味发挥得淋漓尽致。在亚北极的阳光下,水晶宫光芒四射的白色外观使其成为一个明显的地标性建筑。

Kiruna’s new town hall is a tribute to the town’s history and a framework for emerging communities. Named Kristallen, or “The Crystal,” the building draws physical inspiration from the angular geometry of iron minerals. Distinct inner and outer building volumes support the building’s dual roles of community and civic benefit. An inner core of these angular metallic volumes makes space for community functions: Public exhibition rooms, workshops and social common spaces ensure the building’s vital function as a community hub. This central crystal allows the town hall to serve Kiruna beyond civic logistics and local governance – It is a space for old friends and longtime neighbors to meet within the new city center, supporting a sense of social unity during the transitory period of Kiruna’s relocation.

The outer volume covers the inner metallic crystal with a sleek circular glass and natural stone façade. Housing staff offices for various municipality departments, this section houses the town hall’s civic function, but also contributes to the building’s functional design. The circular exterior forces wind to move around the building, ensuring that the winter’s heavy snowdrifts will not settle against the façade. The circular form symbolizes unity and solidarity: Centrally located in the heart of new Kiruna, the building encourages equal access to all citizens. In the subarctic sunlight, The Crystal’s radiant white exterior establishes it as a visible landmark for a resilient community.

▼市政厅的白色外观使其成为一个明显的地标性建筑,the Crystal’s white exterior establishes it as a visible landmark for a resilient community  ©Hufton + Crow

圆形的外部体量的玻璃面确保了建筑室内的自然采光,为市民创造了一个更加温馨舒适的交流环境。同时,外部体量也在室内空间中创造出环形的长廊,长廊俯瞰着室内中庭,增加了人们视线交流的机会。

The circular glass volume introduces the natural light into the interior building, creating a meeting environment with more warmness and comforts. Meanwhile, the outer volume creates circular corridors at each level, overlooking the interior courtyard, as well as increasing the sight communication opportunities for users.

▼圆形的外部体量的玻璃面确保了建筑的室内自然采光,the circular glass volume introduces the natural light into the interior building  ©Hufton + Crow

▼外部体量在室内创造出环形的长廊,the outer volume creates circular corridors at each level  ©Hufton + Crow

▼长廊俯瞰着室内中庭,增加了人们视线交流的机会,the corridor overlooks the interior courtyard,  increasing the sight communication opportunities for users  ©Hufton + Crow

该市政厅是Kiruna旧城建筑遗产的延续。其设计包括了旧城原有的钟楼,同时还回收了搬迁中计划拆除的于1958年建成的旧市政厅的建材,作为新建筑的材料之一。通过这种方式,新市政厅不仅勾勒出一幅城市的重构图,也代表了Kiruna历史的实际延续。

The Crystal is a continuation of Kiruna’s architectural heritage. The design includes the original bell tower and recycles building materials from the 1958 town hall, slated for demolition during the move. In this way, the new town hall represents not only a visual reimagining of the town, but a physical continuation of Kiruna’s history.

▼室内走廊连接了方形的内核和圆形的外部体量,the corridor connects the inner core and outer volume  ©Hufton + Crow

“可持续性是竞赛首要关注的核心概念。除此之外,我们还看重设计方案中空间的开放性、灵活性等等。如今,我可以自豪地说,最终建成的市政厅正是我们梦寐以求的成果。”Kiruna市市长Kristina Zakrisson如是说。

“Sustainability was one of the core values from the very start of the design competition. Other important values was openness and flexibility … Today, I can say that we are proud of the result.” said Kristina Zakrisson, the Mayor of Kiruna Municpality.

▼棱角分明的金属体量构成了建筑的内部核心空间,an inner core of these angular metallic volumes makes space for community functions  ©Hufton + Crow

水晶宫的内部空间将作为一个活动中心和一个充满活力的交流讨论空间,吸引着市民前去体验,同时支持着当地政治和社区发展。

The Crystal’s interior will be a hub of activity, an energetic and accessible forum supporting the interplay of local politics and community development.

▼内部体量采用金属建造,the inner core is made of metal  ©Hufton + Crow

“令人激动的不仅是新市政厅的形式,更因为它满足了高要求的环境标准。也就是说,它是一个非常现代化的市政厅,在不久的将来,它甚至会变成Kiruna的中央会客厅。在这里,一切行为活动每时每刻都在上演。无论是聚会、工作、艺术,甚至是文化,都在这里占据不可撼动的一席之地。”H.M King Carl XVI Gustaf这样说道。

“The building is not just exciting in form – It is also designed to meet high environmental standards. It is in other words a very modern city hall, which in the future will become a living room for Kiruna. It is a place for meetings, work, art and culture in equal measure.” said H.M King Carl XVI Gustaf.

▼位于建筑五层的会议厅,the council assembly on the 5F floor  ©Hufton + Crow

该市政厅于2018年11月22日对市民开放。作为Kiruna新城的首个主要地标,市政厅为城市创造了一个吸引人的聚集点。这座水晶宫静静伫立在城市的中心,代表着Kiruna经久不衰的城市遗产的文化符号。

Opened on 22 November 2018 as the first major landmark of the relocated Kiruna, the town hall establishes an inviting gathering point for the town, standing as an enduring architectural illustration of Kiruna’s heritage.

▼室内透视,interior view  ©Hufton + Crow

▼室内金属板细节,the detailed image of inner metallic boards  ©Hufton + Crow

▼周边环境,context ©Peter Rosén/LapplandMedia

▼首层平面图,1F floor  ©Henning Larsen

▼五层平面图,5F floor  ©Henning Larsen

▼剖面图,section  ©Henning Larsen

PROJECT FACTS:
Project name: The Crystal – Kiruna Town Hall (In Swedish: Kristallen – Kiruna Stadshus)
Address: Linbanevägen 9, 981 41 Kiruna, Sverige
Client: LKAB
Architect: Henning Larsen (Lead Design Architect)
Engineer: WSP
Landscape Architect: Temagruppen
Contractor: PEAB
Competition period: 2012-2013
Construction period: 2014-2018
GFA: 13,180 m2 / 141,870 ft2
Clocktower: Relocated from the original town hall, built 1958
Building height: 34.5 meter
Piping: 200,000 meter
Cord: 16,000 meter
Golden boxes: 5000+
CREDITS:
Drawings: Henning Larsen
Photos: Hufton + Crow OR Johan Ylitalo
Drone photos + movie: Peter Rosén/LapplandMedia

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