gooood Interview NO.20 – Li Xinggang

Combine theoretic thinking with practice, seeking for strategies to deal with the reality.

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gooood团队采访世界各地的有趣创意人,欢迎您的推荐和建议。第20期为您奉上的是中国建筑设计研究院有限公司总建筑师,北京冬奥会延庆赛区总规划师 李兴钢。更多关于他:Atelier Li Xinggang on gooood

gooood team interviews creative from all over the world. Your recommendations and suggestions are welcomed! gooood Interview NO.20 introduces Li Xinggang. More: Atelier Li Xinggang on gooood

出品人:向玲 Producer: Xiang Ling
编辑团队:向玲,陈诺嘉,武晨曦,鹿璐 Editor: Xiang Ling, Chen Nuojia, Wu Chenxi, Lu Lu

 

▼视频,Video(全文深度采访见下方文字。视频为5分钟精华版,建议选择高清1080p观看。)

 

 

Interview
gooood x Li Xinggang 李兴钢

 

▼李兴钢工作室部分作品展示,part of the projects of Atelier Li Xinggang

 

1. 

请谈一谈李兴钢工作室现状。
What is the current situation of Atelier Li Xinggang?

我们是一个小工作室,包括我在内有15个人左右,都是建筑师。最近因为在做北京冬奥会的项目,工作室扩充到了20多人。在我之下有几位主任建筑师,他们都跟我一起工作了十几年,默契程度很高,工作经验也比较丰富。主任建筑师之下是组长,他们相对比较资深,一个人可以负责两三个项目。再之下是项目负责人,然后是一般设计师和实习生。虽然人不多,但是我们依然采用了分层级的人力框架和工作方式,可以提高工作效率,在减轻我工作负担的同时保证每个设计都能有效受控。一年中我们大概会做十几个项目,有的在概念设计和方案设计阶段,有的在中期深化设计和施工图设计阶段,还有一些项目在进行施工配合。

We are a small studio consisted of about 15 architects. However, our team has been expanded to 20 members recently because of the project for Beijing Winter Olympics. The operation of our studio is based on a hierarchical system: the director; principal architects who have worked together for more than 10 years and are very experienced; team leaders who can take charge of two or three projects at the same time; the project leaders, and then the junior architects and interns. This type of system can improve our work efficiency while guarantee that each of our projects can be well controlled. Generally, we work on a dozen projects every year, part of which are in concept phase, while the others are in development phase or under construction.

▼李兴钢工作室入口,entrance of Atelier Li Xinggang

▼办公环境,working space

▼李兴钢办公室,Li Xinggang’s office

 

2. 

最近在进行的主要项目是那些?
What are the main projects under going?

去年年初开始我们主要进行的是北京冬奥会延庆赛区项目。北京冬奥会分为三个赛区:张家口赛区,延庆赛区和北京赛区,其中延庆赛区由我们负责设计,我是总负责人。这是一个规模很大的项目,占地范围十几平方公里,建筑面积30多万平方米,位于高山密林之中,难度非常大,设计工作紧张而复杂。我们的设计团队是一个设计联合体,包含中国建筑设计研究院,北京市市政设计研究总院,还有一家德国的赛道设计公司和一家加拿大的雪道设计公司。我是这个联合体的总设计师,也是整个延庆赛区的总规划师,负责从规划到场馆、建筑,甚至市政设施的方方面面。不同专业的设计由对应专业的工程师负责,但所有的设计内容都要在我们的统筹之下完成——大到竞赛和非竞赛的场馆群,小到一个水泵房、变电站、垃圾站,都要跟整个赛区环境有机协调,不可随意设计和建设。

▼北京冬奥会延庆赛区总体鸟瞰效果图,项目占地广阔,地形复杂,bird view of Yanqing competition zone of Beijing Winter Olympics with enormous site area and complicated topography

We have been working on the project for Beijing Winter Olympics since the beginning of last year. There are three competition zones including Beijing, Yanqing and Zhangjiakou and we are committed to design the Yanqing Competition zone. As the chief architect, I found it quite challenging to take charge of such a complicated and huge-scaled project that occupies over 10 square kilometers field with a floor area of more than 300,000 square meters. The site is located in a dense mountain forest, which makes the implementation even harder. Our studio is part of a consortium that includes China Architecture Design & Research Group, Beijing General Municipal Engineering Design & Research Institute and two international companies from Canada and Germany who respectively dedicate to ski trail and racing track design. I was appointed as the principal architect of the consortium as well as the planner of Yanqing project, which means I need to engage with every part of the project from the master planning to the construction of the stadium building and even the public facilities. All of the technical issues will be handled by professional engineers and consultants, while I have to supervise the entire project to make sure that every component is organically coordinated into the context of the site.

▼国家高山滑雪中心效果图,rendering of National Alpine Skiing Center

▼国家雪车雪橇中心效果图,rendering of National Bobsleigh and Tobogganing Center

此外我们还在进行其他一些项目。比如上海万科的雅宾利学校,这是一个跟幼儿园,养老院以及社区中心结合在一起的项目,尚处在方案设计阶段;四川的安仁博物馆,开始进入深化设计阶段;延庆2019世园会的青年文创中心刚刚完成施工图;我们还有一个重要的项目正在施工,在浙江台州的玉环,由两栋建筑组成,分别是博物馆和图书馆。

In the meantime, we are pushing forward with some other projects, including Yabinli project, a complex that combines a school, a nursing home and a community center in Shanghai, which is still in concept phase; Anren Museum in Sichuan, which has entered the detailing process; Youth Cultural and Creative Centre for International Horticultural Exhibition that will be held in Yanqing in 2019; and a quite important project of a museum and a library under construction in Yuhuan, Zhejiang.

▼部分正在进行中的项目,part of projects in proces
上海万科雅宾利学校幼儿园养老项目(左上)/ 安仁博物馆(右上)/ 延庆园艺小镇文创中心(左下)/ 玉环县图书馆及博物馆(右下)
Wanke Yabinli project (up left) / Anren Museum (up right) / Yanqing Youth Cultural and Creative Centre (bottom left) / Yuhuan Library and Museum (bottom right)

 

3. 

胜景几何理念在近几年有哪些发展与变化?请结合实践谈一谈。
What kind of development and evolution has your theory “Scenery and Geometry” experienced in these years, especially in the cases that relate to your practices?

2013年,我在方家胡同的作品微展提出了“胜景几何”理念,作为展览主题,它是对我多年建筑设计经历中理论思考和实践的总结。中国传统营造体系中的城市、建筑、园林和聚落,包含很多有价值的思想和做法,如何将这些思想和做法转化到当代建筑设计中,是我一直感兴趣的方向;2003年到2008年间,跟赫尔佐格.德梅隆事务所合作,我参与了国家体育场“鸟巢”的设计,在这个过程中,我开始对建筑结构、形式、空间与几何逻辑之间的互动和转化产生兴趣。“胜景几何”理念就来自于我在这两方面的兴趣。它不是纯理论化的思想,而是伴随着不断的建筑实践慢慢发展、逐渐成熟起来的。

I proposed the theory of “Scenery and Geometry” in the exhibition at Fangjia Hutong in 2013, which can be seen as a summary of my conceptual thinking and architectural practice. There has been a number of valuable ideas and methodologies generated from the practices on urban planning, architecture and landscape in Chinese history, and what I am interested in is to apply these ideas into contemporary architectural design. During 2003-2008, I participated in the project of Bird’s Nest (National Stadium) in collaboration with Herzog & de Meuron. Since then I found it interesting to study the interaction and transformation between structure, form and geometric logic of architecture, which later contributed to the theory of Poetic Scenery and Integrated Geometry. In fact, it is not only theoretical, but also developed and extended through a long term of architectural practice.

▼方家胡同作品微展,提出胜景几何理念,introduced the idea of “Scenery and Geometry” in the exhibition at Fangjia Hutong ©夏至

▼在国家体育场的设计中与赫尔佐格德梅隆合作,对建筑的结构、形式、空间和几何逻辑之间的互动和转化产生兴趣,cooperating with Herzog & de Meuron in the design of National Stadium, becoming interested in the relationship between form and geometry ©Iwan Baan(右上) / ©张广源(下)

后来这个理念有了进一步的发展。2015年,我们应邀在南京大学的“格物工作营”做了一个研究性的建筑装置,叫作“瞬时桃花园”。在“胜景几何”的理念里,人工和自然之间是一种交互关系,二者可以互动,甚至可以相互转化。我们在瞬时桃花源项目中对“胜景几何”的具体操作手段进行了探讨,获得了一些自我的触动和启发。

这个项目位于南京的花露岗(古称凤凰台),这里有典型的中国城市环境特征,将当代城市建设的各种问题和现象像标本一样呈现出来:历史悠久的城市地段,李白曾在此题诗,有竹林七贤的遗迹,有明代的城墙;同时,这里还有拆迁中的民房,废弃的工业厂房,以及房地产开发背后的诸多矛盾和现状。在种种交织的矛盾之中,人们离理想的生活空间越来越远,这是一个非常严峻的现实,也是未来的设计必须要面对的问题。另外,中国地大物博,地域环境丰富多变,像我们这样并非聚焦于某个特定地方工作的建筑师,还需要面对这种多样的现实。因此,我们的思考和实践需要跟以上的诸种现实结合,解决这些现实中的问题和挑战。现在我更倾向于把“胜景几何”理念称作对“现实的理想空间模式”的思考:我们希望找到一种相对稳定的策略去面对多样而严峻的现实。

▼瞬时桃花源,探讨人工和自然的交互关系,Instant Garden, discussing the interlaced relationship between built and natural environments ©孙海霆

The theory was further developed in 2015, when we were invited to create a research-based installation called “Instant Garden” for the workshop held by Nanjing University. According to the theory, there is an interlaced relationship between built and natural environments, which can be mutually transformed. We investigated the specific methodology of “Scenery and Geometry” during the implementation of “Instant Garden” and obtained some inspiration.

The Instant Garden was located on the Hualu Terrace(once called Terrace of Phoenix)in Nanjing Province, which is a good sample of a typical Chinese city, showing various problems in contemporary urban construction. It was a historic site once celebrated by Li Bai with his famous poem. There located the relic from Seven Sages, and the ancient city wall built in Ming Dynasty. In parallel, it was also surrounded by demolished houses and discarded industrial plants, facing with a lot of problems and contradictions due to the exploitation of real estate. People are living in a severe reality and are pushed away from the ideal environment. In addition, China is a country with vast territory and abundant resources, and has diverse geographical environments, which requires architects to engage with various realistic problems in their everyday work, rather than just focusing on a specific aspect. Therefore, the practice and theory should be based on such conditions to effectively solve the problems and challenges that are possible to arise. I am inclined to regard the Poetic Scenery and Integrated Geometry as a thinking on the ideal pattern of realistic space. We hope to find a relatively stable strategy to deal with the varied conditions of reality.

▼瞬时桃花源,在严峻的现实中寻求理想的生活空间,Instant Garden, seeking for ideal living space in the severe reality ©孙海霆

有三个项目可以体现在胜景几何理念下的实践,天大新校区体育馆,唐山第三空间,以及“微缩北京”——大院胡同28号院改造。

The theory of “Scenery and Geometry” has been embodied in three of my architectural practices: the Gymnasium of New Campus of Tianjin University, “The Third Space” in Tangshan, and “Micro-Beijing”, a reconstruction for 28 Dayuan Hutong in the historic district of Beijing.

▼可以体现胜景几何理念的三个实践项目,three practical projects embody the idea of Scenery and Geometry
天津大学新校区综合体育馆(左)/ 唐山第三空间(中)/ 大院胡同28号(右)
The Gymnasium of Tianjin University (left) / The Third Space (middle) / 28 Dayuan Hutong (right)

天津大学新校区综合体育馆位于天津海洋园教育园区的新校区,实际是建造在一大片盐碱地上的新城区,可以说这样的环境几乎没有什么场所感,这也是中国当代城市建设中非常典型的一个状况和现实。在这种情况下,我们想通过强调结构元素,为这个空白的场地带来特定的存在感,给生活在其中的人带来归属感,重塑一种新的场所特征。同时,在内部空间,这些结构元素跟人的体育运动相呼应,——我们把人视为自然的一部分,人的身体运动形成一种内在的“自然风景”,也是一种特殊的“胜景”,与结构的“几何”元素互动,产生一种动人的、诗意的空间氛围。

The gymnasium of Tianjin University is located in the new-built Educational Ocean Park that rest on an extensive saline-alkali land with almost no “Genius Loci”, which also presents the common condition of contemporary urban development in China. In this case, our purpose was to give a unique identity to the empty site by emphasizing the structural elements, and to generate a new spirit of place. In the meantime, the interaction between structure and people will provide a kind of poetry in spatial dimension. We treat people as a part of nature. The movement of human body is a poetic scenery in itself, which interacts and integrates with the geometry of building structures, and finally results in an engaging spatial experience.

▼天津大学新校区综合体育馆,强调结构元素为空白的场地带来存在感(点击这里查看更多),The Gymnasium of Tianjin University, bringing identity to the empty site by emphasizing the structural elements (click HERE to view more)   ©张虔希

▼从操场看去,起伏的屋顶本身成为景观(点击这里查看更多),the arched roof itself becomes scenery (click HERE to view more) ©孙海霆

▼人体的运动是一种特殊的“胜景”,与结构的“几何”元素互动(点击这里查看更多),the movement of human body becomes a poetic scenery, interacting with the geometric elements of the structure  (click HERE to view more)  ©张虔希

唐山第三空间位于唐山的城市中心区。曾经在1976年的大地震中被夷为平地,经过三十年的快速重建,这里变成了一个枯燥无趣的“行列式城市”,这个项目试图在这样的城市环境中建造一个垂直的城市聚落。居住单元空间中楼板以错层的方式层叠交错,形成人工化的台地,在区分出公共与私密的不同使用功能的同时,创造出丰富的空间层次,赋予了居住生活多样的体验性和视觉化特征,在城市中心区的高密度环境实现“理想居住”,并向城市展示出一个个生动的生活舞台,自身成为城市中的新景观。

“The Third Space” is located in the central area of Tangshan. The city was flattened by the earthquake in 1976, and has become a “formal” and to some extend “boring” city after a rapid 30-year construction. The project tried to create a vertical arranged settlement in such an urban context. The living units were stacked to form a series of geometric artificial terraces containing the transition of functions from the public to the private while providing rich layers that vary in visual and sensual characteristics. This project integrated a dense but “ideal” stage for living, and became a new landscape in the city.

▼唐山第三空间,垂直的城市聚落实现高密度环境中的“理想居住”,其本身 也成为城市的新景观(点击这里查看更多),The Third Space, vertical living clusters provide ideal living space in the dull city as well as becoming a new landscape itself (click HERE to view more) ©张广源

大院胡同28号改造项目位于北京旧城区,原本是一个大杂院,我们希望通过设计改造,把它转化成有秩序、又有诗意的日常生活空间,并将其作为样板,解决北京旧城区更新一直以来存在的人口密度、理想居所和旧城风貌等难题。北京的城市是非常典型的分形结构,可以随着人口密度的增加持续加密,以有限的空间容纳更多的人口。北京从元代建立到明清便是经历了这样一个不断加密的过程,胡同数量不断增加,四合院的尺度也总体在缩小。后来由于各种复杂的历史原因终止了这一加密过程,而是形成了大杂院的状态,被动地解决人口问题。我们试图通过大院胡同28号的改造项目进行一次“拨乱反正”的实验,北京即旧城继续有序加密的可能性。保持原来大杂院里容纳的家庭数量,但缩小居住单元的尺度为小合院,并形成有序组合的小合院群,把院子变成一个微缩社区。同时把院落外的胡同路网向内延伸为更加细密的小胡同(“主巷”和“支巷”),把所有的小合院串联起来。每个小合院是一个独立的“宅园”,主要起居空间对景于小院/园庭,生活品质得到提升。我把它称为“宅园合一”——院子变成了一个园林般的空间,在这里,人们的日常生活和精神生活合而为一,在城市高密度的环境现实中拥有了“理想生活空间”。

▼大院胡同28号入口,entrance of the 28 Dayuan Hutong project ©苏圣亮

28 Dayua Hutong is located in the old town of Beijing, which used to be a traditional courtyard dwelling. In this project, we tried to transform it into a neat, ordered living space with a poetic quality, and use the form of the courtyard as a prototype to resolve the problems that had been existing for long time in the city. Beijing has a typical urban form, which can be seen as a fractal pattern. It is a large set of small blocks, which can be densified following the increasing population to accommodate more inhabitants. This densification continued from Yuan Dynasty to Qing dynasty, and has now stopped due to complicated historical issues. Therefore, we chose courtyard as a prototype for the solution, which made the project become a radical experiment. The old town still got a potential to be densified. We kept the number of the families while decreasing the scale of the living units to create a well-organized group of small-sized yards. Afterwards, the existing hutongs outside the courtyard would be internally spread as smaller ones (“main alleys” and “sub-alleys”) , unifying all of the small yards as a network that defined the micro-community. Each yard was an independent “inhabited garden” that offered a scenery to the main living space thus to improve the quality of life. This is what we call as the “residence combined with yard” – a landscaped space where people enjoy their material and spiritual life, an ideal living space built in a high-density urban region.

▼大院胡同28号,在大杂院中创造有序的理想生活空间,28 Dayuan Hutong project, creating a well-organized living space in Dazayuan ©苏圣亮

在设计中我最感兴趣的是人工和自然的交互,我看重场地中自然要素和人造建筑的关系,它们不分彼此,同等重要。而这种对人工和自然交互关系营造和强化的结果,就是我心目中的理想建筑或者理想空间,这也是“胜景几何”理念所强调的重点。几何对应主要建筑本体为代表的人工要素,胜景则主要对应自然要素和由于自然与人工交互所带给人们的精神性感受,一种“空间诗意”。

What interests me the most in design is the interaction between artificial and natural environment. I regard the natural elements and built structures as equally important. In my opinion, the ideal architecture or space results from a strengthened interrelationship between these two things, and this is what “Scenery and Geometry” emphasized on. the “Scenery” indicates the artificial elements represented by architectural entities, while the “Geometry” corresponds to the natural elements, as well as the spiritual experiences offered by interactions between such artificial and natural elements, a poetry of space.

▼人工与自然交互带来“空间诗意” – 绩溪博物馆(点击这里查看更多),space poetry created by the interaction between artificial and natural elements – Jixi Museum (click HERE to view more)  ©夏至

▼人工与自然交互带来“空间诗意” – 元上都遗址工作站(点击这里查看更多),space poetry created by the interaction between artificial and natural elements – Entrance for site of XANADU (click HERE to view more) ©李兴钢(左上)/ 张广源(右上,下)

 

4.

您心中理想的中国城市图景是什么样的?建筑师在其中起怎样的作用?
Please describe the ideal Chinese urban landscape in your mind. What is the role of architects in such a prospect?

中国的城市有很多问题,特别是近年来,几十年高速发展的恶果越来越显现出来,比如交通问题,空气质量问题,人居生活空间问题等等。城市化程度越来越高,人们都涌入了大城市,然而城市空间是有限的,一方面无休止地扩展,推土机式地扩展,完全不顾自然环境的保持和与城市空间的协调, “千城一面“;另一方面,原本的历史城区又处于一种不合理的密集状态。人类与自然越来越隔离、疏远,虽然表面上经济发展生活水准提高,但生活环境和质量其实越来越不如从前,人们实际上已经不再拥有理想的生活(工作、学习、居住和娱乐)空间。希望通过建筑师的努力,用我们的思考和实践对这样一种不理想的空间状态进行修正。特别希望每个建筑师都能有这样的一种意识,在严峻且多样的现实条件下,通过自己的工作和努力,为人们营造理想生活空间。这也是建筑师这个职业的责任和愉悦所在。

Chinese cities have many problems to solve, especially in recent years. The bad consequences of a rapid development have gradually emerged, such as traffic problems, air pollution and the increasing density of living space. On the one hand, with the process of urbanization, people flood into big cities, resulting in an endless urban expansion, regardless of the maintaining of natural environment and the coordination of urban spaces. Cities look the same. On the other hand, the existing historical districts are stuck in an abnormal situation. Human beings are more and more isolated from nature. The economic conditions seem to be improved a lot, yet the quality of living environment becomes far worse than before. People actually have lost their ideal living (working, studying and entertaining) space. As an architect, I really hope that this situation can be modified, through our efforts and expertise, despite the severe reality, to provide people with veritable comfortable living spaces. This is our responsibility, but also where our happiness relies on.

▼高速发展下北京面临着严峻的问题,Beijing facing severe problems under its rapid development ©张雷

▼大院胡同28号,在严峻的城市环境下为人们营造理想的生活,28 Dayuan Hutong, create ideal living space in the severe city environment ©苏圣亮

 

5. 

通常你的设计是怎么开始的?是从剖面,平面,还是其他?你的设计中哪个要素是最重要的?
How do you usually start a design? Do you start from sections, plans or anything else? What do you think is the most important factor of design?

可能始于平面,也可能始于剖面,但这都不是设计最开始的时候所要做的。设计的第一步从场地开始,去现场观察,做各种研究,包括项目所在的地域、历史、文化、气候条件、业主的需求和使用方式、相关案例等等。基于这些研究,提出一些可能的设计发展方向,可能是图纸,可能是模型,甚至只是一个想法或意见。我会从中发展出一个初步的结果,画一些草图。至于是从平面入手还是剖面,则视每个项目的具体情况而不同。

It may start from the plan, or from the section. However, this is not what design bases on. A design begins from the observation and investigation of the site, which refers to territory, history, culture, climate, requirements from the clients, as well as the previous cases. The principle can be demonstrated in drawings, models, or even a piece of idea. Whether starting form plan or from section, it will lead to an initial result.

▼李兴钢的部分设计草图 – 元上都遗址工作站(点击这里查看更多),some design sketches by Li Xinggang – Entrance for site of XANADU (click HERE to view more)

在场地考察中,我们十分注重其中自然要素的状态。建筑作为后来构思的人工构造物,一定要回应场地原本的自然要素,并与其产生互动。有的场地,如天津大学新校区的体育馆项目,几乎是空白,没有明显的自然要素呈现,但这也是场地的一种特征,而建筑则应该有相对应的策略。不管怎样,对场地的观察和研究从根本上决定了建筑设计的方向。

As for the site investigation, we focus much on the status of the natural elements. Architecture as an artificial work conceived afterwards, it must response to and interact with the original natural elements of the site. Sometimes a site can be empty without any obvious natural elements, just like the site of the gymnasium of Tianjin University, which still can be seen as a characteristic. In any case, site investigation fundamentally determines the direction and tendency of architectural design.

▼李兴钢的部分设计草图,以不同策略回应场地的自然要素 – 瞬时桃花源,some design sketches by Li Xinggang, responding to the site by different strategies – Instant Garden

▼李兴钢的部分设计草图,以不同策略回应场地的自然要素 – 天津大学新校区综合体育馆(点击这里查看更多),some design sketches by Li Xinggang, responding to the site by different strategies – The Gymnasium of Tianjin University (click HERE to view more)

 

6. 

天津大学新校区综合体育馆的草图明确展现了建筑的基本单元和结构形式的创作过程,您为什么决定采用带拱的Y型结构?该结构是在设计的哪一步介入进去的?
The sketch of the Gymnasium of New Campus of Tianjin University clearly shows the design process of the basic units and structure of the building, why did you chose to use the Y-shape structures and arches in your design, and in which step will this kind of form be involved in your design?

2012年设计天津大学新校区综合体育馆的时候,我还没有明确地提出“胜景几何”理念,但是已经在思考这个理念里所包含的一些重要问题,其中建筑的结构、空间、形式在几何逻辑基础上的互动操作占有很大份量。几何操作跟场地是什么关系?跟内部空间和结构又是什么关系?这是天大体育馆项目设计的核心环节。在这样的思考前提下,我们决定以结构为主导,确定空间乃至建筑的形式,以及建筑跟场地、跟内部空间和人的活动之间的关联。我们想用一种结构形式覆盖所有空间,并且延伸到建筑的立面上,选择的是直纹曲面壳体结构。这种结构由直线和曲面相连形成,跨度适宜,高侧窗可以满足采光需求,并且可以实现自然通风,减少能耗——各个方面都有很强的对应性。在设计过程中,通过跟结构工程师的探讨,我们对结构系统进行了一些优化和调整,最后不仅采用了大量原来的直纹曲面壳体,还加入了由Y型柱和锥形柱支撑的其它壳体,有锥形的,也有筒形的,以满足不同的结构和空间需求。

▼天大新校区拱形屋顶(点击这里查看更多),view of the arched roof of the The Gymnasium of Tianjin University (click HERE to view more)   ©孙海霆

The theory of “Scenery and Geometry” had not been proposed in 2012 when the project of Tianjin University was proceeding. However, in some terms, the theory had been reflected on some of the most important issues of the project, especially in the aspects of architectural form, space and geometric logic. What was the relationship between geometric operation and the site? What was the relationship between internal space and structure? These questions were the key points of the design of gymnasium Tianjin University. Basing on such considerations, we decided to use structure as a guideline to define the form of space and architecture, and also the relationship among architecture, site and activity of the users. We tried to cover the entire space with a single structure and extend it to the building’s facade. Therefore, we chose a wave-shape structure constituted by straight ribs and curved surfaces, which provided long span space and high side windows allowing for a natural lighting and ventilation, decreasing energy consumption. During the design process, we discussed a lot with the structural engineer to optimize the proposal. The result was that other structures was introduced into the building, such as the Y-shape columns and the cone-shape and barrel-shape shells they supported, meeting different needs of the space.

▼直纹曲面屋顶在室内的呈现(点击这里查看更多),structures in the gym (click HERE to view more) )©张虔希

▼锥形壳体和Y型柱(点击这里查看更多),cone-shape shells and Y-shape columns (click HERE to view more)  © 孙海霆(上)/ 张虔希(下)

 

7. 

天津大学新校区体育馆里面采用的直纹曲面钢筋混凝土结构在设计和技术上难度相当大,结构的创造和运用对于建筑师来说可能是一个技术壁垒,请您结合过往实践的大型项目,谈谈在这方面的积累、成长与领悟。
The use of the gradient wave-shaped structure with ruled curve surfaces in Tianjin University project leads to a quantity of challenges and difficulties in design and technical aspects. What are the gains and experiences that you accumulated from large scale projects, considering that the creation and use of forms and elements may become a technical barrier for an architect?

从2003年参与“鸟巢”的设计开始,我对建筑和结构基于几何的互动产生兴趣。那个项目里有很多关于结构和空间、形式,甚至建造以及材料之间关系的探讨。在这个过程中,我越来越认识到结构是建筑中最关键的本体要素之一,它是建筑所有构成要素中寿命最长的,是一栋建筑成立与否的最基本条件。很多年以后,建筑的围护和装饰可能都消失了,功能可能也发生了变化,但结构还是原来的结构,存在那里。同时,结构可以使空间和形式具有某种非常直接的特征,进而影响人在空间里的行为以及对形式的感受。除了跟空间、形式有所关联,结构还可以跟场地发生非常密切的联系。比如在天大新校区体育馆项目中,结构营造出了一种全新的氛围,很大程度上重塑了人们对于场地的感受。当我意识到这一点,我开始有意识地在设计过程中主动思考结构的作用。这个思想在其它作品里也有体现,比如绩溪博物馆,唐山第三空间,元上都遗址工作站等。对结构元素的思考和处理使这些项目呈现出了各自不同的特点。我们也做了一些特殊结构的尝试,如天大体育馆的锥形柱和直纹曲面壳体结构,玉环图书馆和博物馆中由混凝土悬索结构创造的无柱空间等。当然,对特殊结构的探讨是为了应对具体的空间需求,它是在建筑师对建筑整体思考的框架之下发挥作用的。

▼天津大学新校区综合体育馆拱形屋顶室内(点击这里查看更多),The Gymnasium of Tianjin University, interior view of the arched roofs  (click HERE to view more)  ©张虔希

▼结构细部(点击这里查看更多),structure details  (click HERE to view more)  ©孙海霆

Since participating in the project of the “Bird’s Nest” in 2003, I have paid interest in the geometry-based interaction between different structures. Relationship among structure, form, construction and material was widely discussed in that case. I increasingly realized that structure is one of the most significant components in architecture. It is the most long-lasting part of a building, and also the essential condition to define the feasibility of a building. After hundreds of years, the structure may still be existing while the envelopes and decorations of a building might have been disappeared for a long time. Structure endows spaces with intuitional characteristics, which also influences people’s behavior and their perception of forms. In addition to being related to the spatial form, structure also builds an intimate relationship with its site. Take the gymnasium of Tianjin University for instance, it creates an atmosphere that can significantly affect people’s spiritual feelings. After I realized it, I started to consciously think about the role of structure in my design, and have experimented in my own works (Jixi Museum, “The Third Space” and Workstation of XANADU Park etc.) by using unique structural elements. For example, a suspension concrete structure was used in the project of Yuhuan Library to create column free interior spaces. Of course, the consideration on unique structure depends on the specific requirements of functions, which works within an integral framework of thinking by architects.

▼元上都遗址工作站,使用膜结构,如同一个个小帐篷,与草原环境融合(点击这里查看更多),Entrance for site of XANADU, use of membrane structure created small tents being harmony with the environment (click HERE to view more) ©张广源

▼绩溪博物馆,现代结构与传统建筑技术和材料的结合呈现当代感(点击这里查看更多),Jixi Museum, combination of modern structure and traditional architectural technics (click HERE to view more) ©夏至

▼玉环图书馆及博物馆,混凝土悬索结构创造无柱空间,Yuhuan Library and Museum, column-free space created by suspension concrete structure

说到建筑师在结构方面存在技术壁垒,我并不太赞同。我认为本质上建筑师的工作就应该是一体化的,需要了解或者掌握各个方面的专业知识,不应该因为技术上的障碍影响对于建筑整体性的思考。结构是否成为壁垒实际上取决于建筑师对它的认识。如果建筑师认为它是建筑整体思考的一部分,自然会通过学习、合作等方式去解决这个问题。结构不是单一的部件,不是一个可以自我存在的技术性的东西,它是建筑整体性的一部分,会跟建筑的其他部分发生密切关联,起到结构支撑之外的更多作用。

Speaking of the technical barrier in structure, I don’t think it is really a problem. I believe that the the work of an architect should be integrative, which requires a comprehensive understanding of different expertise. Holistic thinking of a project should never be obstructed by technical barrier. In fact, whether it is a barrier or not depends on how architects understand the structure. When you think of it as a part of the building entirety, you will spontaneously try to find the solution by self-study and team working. Structure is never a technical object that could exist alone. It is closely associated with other aspects of architecture and plays different roles besides supporting the building.

▼研究结构,突破壁垒,break the structure barrier by study

 

8.

您在材料上有多重尝试,如PTFE膜和GRC还有混凝土。请问您是如何看待材料的?喜欢什么材料?为什么?
We have noticed your experiments on various types of materials, such as PTFE membrane, GRC and concrete etc. What is your opinion on materials? Is there a material that you prefer the most? Why?

不同的项目,不同的结构,会对应不同的材料。一方面,我希望通过实践去认识新的结构和材料,而对结构和材料的选择,实际上取决于它们是否适合这个项目,建筑师需要对其做出判断,这种判断则表达了建筑师对这个建筑的想象和思考。我比较喜欢带有一定自然性的材料,如砖瓦、混凝土等。金属、膜材、化学涂料等比较现代的材料跟自然离得比较远,但并不是不可以用,因为运用得当的话,它们也可以跟自然有所关联。PTFE(聚四氟乙烯)膜材是一种化学材料,它在光线作用下会产生半透明的朦胧效果,白天的时候日光透过材料,在内部形成一种自然肌理均匀的漫射环境,晚上则会把室内的灯光透到外面,使建筑成为自发光体。

My choice of materials changes according to different projects and structures. One the one hand, I hope to understand new types of structure and material through practice. An architect should have the capability to estimate whether the structure or material is suitable for the project. This kind of choice shows the reflection and imagination made by the architect. As for me, I prefer to use materials that have strong natural qualities, like bricks, tiles and concretes. Metal, membranes and chemical coatings are less involved with nature, but still have the potential to blend into the natural environments. PTFE membrane is a chemical material that can bring a translucent, hazy surface under the play of light. During the daytime, the membrane filters the natural light to create a space with harmonious atmosphere, while diffusing the light to make the building glow at night.

▼北京地铁昌平线西二旗站,PTFE膜结构形成独特的灯光效果(点击这里查看更多),Xi’erqi Station, unique light effect created by PTFE membrane structure (click HERE to view more)

这方面的案例比如我们前几年做的北京地铁昌平线西二旗站,膜材料虽然是一种无机材料,但是跟自然的光产生了关联。另一个例子是铝板,我很少使用这种材料,但是在四川的建川镜鉴博物馆,我们局部采用了铝板幕墙,跟砖砌墙形成当代和乡土的对比,并对它的表面进行了不规则打磨处理,使之具有更加自然的质感。GRC即玻璃纤维增强混凝土,通常的混凝土材料会带有一定的自然感,浇筑过程中使用的模板可以使它的表面呈现出不均匀的纹理,而GRC的制作方式是它容易呈现出过度人工化的表面,所以在使用这种材料的时候我们要多想办法做些处理,使其表面呈现出更自然的状态。

Xi’erqi Station is one of the examples that use membranes as the main material, which generates a dialogue between natural light and the inorganic material. Aluminum is another material that I rarely use in my design. However, we applied aluminum plates in the Jianchuan Mirror Museum in Sichuan Province, which shows a remarkable contrast to the fabric of the surrounding brick constructions. GRC, whose full name is glass fiber reinforced concrete, usually presents an obvious artificial texture offered by the process of pouring, which requires for more in surface treatment to obtain a natural quality.

▼建川镜鉴博物馆暨汶川地震纪念馆,砖、混凝土及铝板幕墙相结合,Jianchuan Mirror Museum, combination of brick, concrete and aluminum curtain walls ©张广源

▼唐山第三空间,表面处理使GRC材料更具自然感(点击这里查看更多),The Third Space, make the GRC more natural by surface treatment (click HERE to view more) ©张广源

▼其他使用不同材料的作品,other projects composed of various materials ©张广源
Hiland·名座(左上)/ 地铁四号线国家图书馆站出站口(右上)/ 地铁四号线西四站出站口(左下)/ 复兴路乙59-1号改造(右下)
Hiland·Mingzuo (up left) / Line4 National Library Station Exit (up right) / Line4 Dongsi Station Exit (bottom left) / Renovation of 59-1 Fuxing Rd. (bottom right)

 

9. 

您追求自然化的材料,但如果涉及到极大尺度的项目,比如说一些大型体育馆,还会使用自然的材料吗?
Will you still choose to use natural materials when it comes to huge-scale projects such as gymnasiums?

我所说的自然性材料并不一定是完全来自自然的材料,而是有一定自然感,让人有亲近感的材料。有些自然感比较弱的材料可以结合一些更具自然属性的材料,就会弱化人工感,产生更为生动的效果,带给人更为温暖亲近的感觉。比如将木材和混凝土结合以调和混凝土的冷硬状态。在北京冬奥会的项目中,由于在深山里进行混凝土结构施工非常不便,我们采用了钢木结合的结构形式。材料的混合使用可以赋予建筑独特的特征,它既不是完全自然化的,也不是完全工业化的,它处于一种混合的状态,非常有意思。

The natural material that I’m talking about is not necessarily produced by nature. It should be a material that makes people feel welcomed and intimate. The combination of materials that have different levels of intensity will lead to dramatic effects. For example, the coldness and roughness of concrete will be neutralized by integrating with wooden elements. In the project for Beijing Winter Olympics, we adopted a steel-and-wood structure as it is difficult to apply concrete construction in a mountainous region. The mixed use of materials brings peculiarity to buildings, producing an interesting fusion of natural and industrial attributes.

▼北京冬奥会延庆赛区高山滑雪中心及奥运村,钢木混合结构增加自然感,Alpine Skiing Center and Olympic village in Yanqing competition zone, steel-and-wood structure bringing in some natural feelings

 

10.

您的工作室是隶属于中国大型国有设计院旗下的名人工作室,这种体系模式在其它国家并不常见,它跟市场上的独立公司相比有哪些优势和劣势?
As a famous atelier affiliated with a large state-owned institute in China, what do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of its operation and working pattern when comparing to those independent firms in the market?

李兴钢工作室是2003年成立的,当时叫院总工作室或者专家工作室,主要是为了应对建筑设计行业国外事务所以及越来越多的民营海归事务所带来的的竞争压力。这种方式是对大院体系的一种调节,相当于在大型国有设计院里成立院属的建筑师事务所,非常适合建筑师的工作状态。现在国内很多设计院都设立了很多类似的工作室。这种工作室的好处在于它介于独立事务所和大院的生产部门之间,既享有事务所较为自由的工作状态,又可以充分利用大设计院的历史、技术和人力资源。一个项目在设计和建造过程中往往需要建筑师、结构工程师、机电工程师,甚至预算工程师等多专业相互配合。对于独立的事务所来说,它们就得去跟社会上的相关专业设计单位对接合作才能完成整个工程设计工作;而在我们这里,这个步骤可以在设计院这个平台内部组合完成,效率非常高。我们这类工作室的劣势也是有的:它的独立性不如完全民营的事务所,需要回应和完成很多国家政策上的要求,并受到体制的限制,在经济、财务以及人力方面必须要跟随整个体系。

Atelier Li Xinggang is founded in 2003, and was called Institute Atelier or Expert Atelier, aiming to cope with the pressure of competing with the foreign design firms and studios founded by individuals with an overseas education background. The found of our Atelier somehow adjusted the system of big-scale institutes. It was like to establish an architectural studio in a state-owned institute, which provided suitable environments for the architects to work. There now has been a number of similar studios and ateliers in China. The advantage of this system is that its scale is between independent firms and the large institutes, combining a free working atmosphere with rich resources of history, technique and labor. The completion of a project always requires for effective collaboration of architects, structural engineers, mechanical engineers and budgetary engineers. For independent firms, they have to find and corporate with other specialist and institutes of the industry to proceed a project to the end. This will never be a problem for us because it can be easily and rapidly accomplished in our system. Certainly we have our shortcomings. Due to the system itself, we have less freedom in economic, financial and human resources, which means we must follow the rules and policy set by the government.

▼李兴钢带领同事开会、讨论方案,Li Xinggang working with colleagues

 

11.

您在这个体系下做出了哪些探索?
Have you managed to do specific explorations within such a system?

我们的工作模式是研究性设计和设计性研究的结合。在设计实践方面,我们提倡研究性的设计,设计的每一步都是通过研究的方式不断推进,最终产生一个建筑。而所谓设计性研究,就是工作室所有的员工一起做一些研究,这些研究不同于大学里纯粹的理论性研究,是与设计结合,跟实践对应的研究,比如我们的“大匠阅读”系列,园林-聚落研究等等等。我们企图通过这些研究对设计实践产生一些影响,经过这么多年我们也确实获得了一些成效。另外作为大院里的工作室,我们有机会去争取和承担一些大型的,对国家、社会有重大影响的项目,而不是一味做小型实验性项目。因此我们的项目种类和规模跨度非常大,有几十平米的小项目,也有几十万平米的大项目,有文化项目和住宅项目,也有商业项目和体育项目等等,对我们这样的工作室来说,也算是一种特别的探索吧。

Our work pattern is a combination of research-oriented design and design-oriented research. In terms of design practice, we advocate to push forward the work in a way of doing researches in each of the stages, and ultimately, to produce a building. In terms of design-oriented research, all of our staff will work together to investigate specific themes that correspond to realistic cases, which is different from the purely theoretical researches we did in school. We aim to use the researches to accelerate the process of our design practice, and we have indeed got some achievements. Moreover, as a team working for a large state-owned institute, we have been given more opportunities to play a role in important projects that may significantly influence the country and society. Therefore, we engage with projects in various scales and categories, which can be regarded as a special challenge for exploration.

▼”阅读巴拉甘“展览现场,”Read Barragan” exhibition ©姜汶林

▼李兴钢及工作室的出版物,publications
《李兴钢》当代建筑师系列-20128月第一版,中国建筑工业出版社(左)/ 《李兴钢:静谧与喧嚣》建筑界丛书第二辑-20159月第一版,中国建筑工业出版社(中)/《李兴钢:胜景几何》作品专辑(中英文双版本)-20141月,中国建筑工业出版社(右)

 

12.

请谈谈您未来的计划。
Please talk about your plans for the future.

我从来不做很长远的计划,因为未来是多变的,不容易判断,特别是在中国以及当代建筑师的工作环境,我们要面对的未来更加不可预测,所以我只做眼前的中短期计划。2018年是工作室成立15周年,我计划出一本新的作品集,整理我和我们15年来的思考和实践,可能的话,还打算再办一个展览,邀请大家来讨论交流。今年的工作特别紧张,这些都不知道能不能实现。我感到思考得越多,未来的方向也会越清晰和融会贯通。我希望能有更多跟这些思考相匹配的实践项目,将思考的结果体现其中,然后通过实践所得的反馈再来修正思考,继续前进。

I never make long-term plans because the future is unpredictable, especially for contemporary architects working in China. In this case, I would only plan for the near future. In 2018, when our atelier celebrates its 15th anniversary, I plan to publish a new portfolio as a collection of our thoughts and practices in the last 15 years. If possible, I’m willing to organize an exhibition to invite everyone to come and share his or her ideas. I’m not sure if these plans can be achieved since that we have been very busy this year. However, I hope to encounter more projects that could reinforce our innovativeness and indicate a clear direction to our practice. The experiences and feedbacks from the practice will push us to make further progress in the future.

▼正在接受采访的李兴钢,Li Xinggang during interview

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