Contemporary Rural Cluster – Dongziguan Affordable Housing for Relocalized Farmers in Fuyang, Hangzhou by gad · line+ studio

The project brings an opportunity to regenerate the countryside besides providing quality affordable housing.

Project Specs

Location:

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中国的城市化使得城乡差距非常大,乡村空心化,人员外流,大量原住民仍然居住在年久失修的历史建筑中,居住环境非常恶劣,本案面对的就是一个非常典型的江南村落,为了改善居民的居住与生活条件,当地政府决定一期先外迁50户,遵循宅基地一户一宅的分配方式,在老村落的南侧,进行回迁安置。

The project tackles a current social issue within the extensive urbanization process in China: the cities keep exploiting the labor and resources of the countryside resulted in the increasing urban-rural disparity in China. Currently the living conditions in large part of rural China are desperate for amelioration. Committed by the municipal government of Hangzhou in China, the project aims at providing 15,300 square meters of affordable housing for 50 households in Dongziguan Village.

The overall project budget is approximately 3 million USD, meaning an average construction cost of 190 USD / 1300 RMB per square meter. This budget is far below the average construction cost, even for the countryside of Hangzhou. How to design and construct quality housing for relocalized farmers with such a low budget, while maintaining their original lifestyle of collective living, becomes the major challenge of this project.

▼ 非常典型的江南村落,An untypical Jiangnan Village

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传统聚落丰富形式的背后具有相似的空间原型。本案设计试图从类型学的思考角度抽象共性特点,还原空间原型,尝试以较少的基本单元通过组织规则实现多样性的聚落形态。设计从基本单元入手,将宅基地轮廓边界与院落边界整合同步考虑,在建筑基底占地面积不超120平方米的前提下,确定了小开间大进深(11*21米)和大开间小进深(16*14米)两种不同方向性的基本单元,建筑基底边界和院落边界形成了一种交织关系,而非传统兵营式布局中宅基地和户内院落的平行关系。

Different from typical bar-shaped highrises built for affordable housing in China, the project seeks to organize the form of the buildings in the vernacular style of a courtyard typology, a local traditional urban morphology. Every six different buildings in two different types of footprints (11×21 meter and 16x14meter) belonging to six different households, surround a courtyard as a place for communal communication and participation. Thus, it forms a cluster and community as a prototype for collective living. This reacts against previous affordable housing projects where traditional modes of communal living were not maintained.

▼ 建筑基底边界和院落边界形成了一种交织关系, It forms a cluster and community as a prototype for collective living

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▼ 建筑与开放空间,Building and the open space

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两个基本单元建筑基底的适度变化演变出四种类型,将单元通过前后错动、东西镜像形成一个带有公共院落的规模组团,与传统行列式布局相比,在土地节约性、庭院空间的层次性和私密性上都有显著提升。每个规模组团都有一个半公共开放空间,有助于邻里间交往及团体凝聚力和归属感的形成。考虑到村民们对自宅“独立性”的强烈诉求,户与户之间都完全独立,不共用同一堵墙,间距在1.6-3.2米不等。若干个组团的有序生长衍生便逐步发展成有机多样的聚落总图关系,这种从单元生成组团,再由组团演变成村落的生长模式与传统中国古建筑的群体生成关系逻辑一致,也为未来的推广提供了较强的可操作性和可能性。

The prototype varies in four different specific types of courtyard in the overall site plan which generated through the aggregation of courtyards following a fundamental principle, providing shared open space. The siteplan also reflects the pattern of vernacular clusters in historical Chinese urban tradition. Out of the fire-safety concern, each building is separated, not sharing the walls.

▼ 单元通过前后错动、东西镜像形成一个带有公共院落的规模组团,The aggregation of courtyards provide shared open space

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基本单元的功能空间设置从农民真实需求出发, 并以问卷的形式定向采集了信息,并根据各户家庭人员构成,年龄结构等实际问题沟通和调查,找出大家的共性需求。最后设计中遵循了当地堂屋坐北朝南,院落由南边进入的习俗。后院洗衣池,电瓶车位,农具间,空调设备平台,太阳能热水器堂屋,杂物间等实用功能一一考虑。同时将使用者生活方式和传统院落情结相结合,注重逻辑的推导分析,通过三个院落串接功能空间,并通过院落界面的不同形成三个透明度完全不一样的院落。前院开敞,内院静谧,后院私密,构建出一个从公共到半公共再到私密的空间序列。

During the process of layoutting the plan of buildings for each households, architects firstly conducted an investigation to communicate with different families for their living habits and the age structure, and then design the plan layout based on the common requests and information gained. The final layout besides meets the functional requirement, but also indicates a particular spatial order, from public to private towards north.  

▼ 院落空间,The courtyard space

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如何在控制造价、降低建造和后期围护难度的同时,在新住宅中延续传统的形式意向是项目的另一难题。设计中将江南民居中曲线屋顶这一要素作为切入点,提取、解析,并加以抽象,将传统的对坡屋顶或单坡顶重构成连续的、不对称坡屋顶,并且针对不同单元自身的形体关系塑造相匹配的屋面线条轮廓,单元体量的独立性与群体屋面的连续感产生微妙的对比,形成一种若即若离的状态,构建出和而不同的整体关系,多样性与统一性并存。深灰色的压顶与白色大面实墙形成了强烈的白与灰、线与面的色调构图关系。在虚实关系的营造方面,外墙以实面为主,朝向院落的界面以半虚及玻璃为主,既能保证采光需要,又能形成内向感。实墙上的方窗与延续进每家每户的木质感格栅,在虚实之间完成了对外实内虚这一传统建筑界面特质的现代转换。

The buildings are designed in a vernacular language with detailed considerations to the roof. The traditional dual-slope roof is developed into continuous slope roof asymmetrically. The construction materials are mainly grey and white bricks built in different patterns. Wooden panels have been used for mediating the traditional bricks and the contemporary grass.

▼ 单元体量的独立性与群体屋面的连续感产生微妙的对比,The traditional dual-slope roof is developed into continuous slope roof asymmetrically

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回归到建造的本质,注重建造过程与完成形式之间的逻辑关系,探索工业化模式与传统形式元素之间的关系。选择了砖混结构形式、保温刚性屋面楼板、保温防水外墙以及双层中空玻璃,用白涂料,灰面砖以及仿木纹金属等商品化成熟材料代替木头、夯土、石头等传统材料;在墙体的构造方面,以24厚的砖以不同的砌筑方式形成不同通透度的花格砖墙,对应于楼梯间、设备平台、围墙以及开启扇窗户等处,屋顶檐口设计上以内檐沟做法进行有组织排水,将落水管于“立面”中隐藏;顶部压顶直接由混凝土浇筑出挑,近人尺度的一层挑檐等细节则采用传统的木构工艺建造。以工业感衬托手工感,增加适度的丰富性和层次感,呈现出江南白墙黛瓦大基调下的肌理质感的变化通过对传统住宅的形式要素加以提炼与转译,使得所选材料的加工方式得以体现在建造结果中。

The design for construction drawings explores the best usage of the brick, steel and glass to ensure the best thermal and ventilation performance. The 24mm brick wall is equipped with waterproof coating and hollow glass and the solid wall varies at the place of stairs with staggered pattern. The roof cantilever out aesthetically reminds the vernacular architectural style in Hangzhou, functionally as part of the shelter considering Hangzhou has a raining season.

▼ 传统江南白墙黛瓦肌理质感的变化的现代化呈现,The design for construction drawings explores the best usage of the traditional Jiannan elements

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项目的完工为东梓关带来了复兴的机遇,乡村论坛的举办,多家设计公司工作室的进驻,农家乐、酒作坊、咖啡厅等生活配套的逐步跟进,原住民的回归,使得整个村庄的人气活力都得到了大幅提升,这个已经被遗忘的小村落重新走入了大家的视野。

Since moving in, the new residents have reported a high quality of life due to the new housing. The project brings an opportunity to regenerate the countryside besides providing quality affordable housing. Now different programs have been attracted to Dongziguan Village, inclusive of hotels and other recreational and commercial activities.

▼ 夜景, Evening View

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▼ 模型,Model

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▼ 总平面图,Master Plan

Model

▼ 各层平面,Floor Plan

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▼ 立面,Elevation

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▼ 节点,Detail design

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设计单位 gad绿城设计
地 点 杭州市富阳区东梓关村
业 主 杭州市富阳区场口镇政府
建筑面积 15286.98㎡
建筑造价 198美元/㎡
竣工时间 2016
景观设计 上海爱境景观
摄 影 姚力 缪纯乐 门阁 胡栋

Architects: gad
Location: Dongziguan Village, Fuyang District, Hangzhou, China
Client: Hangzhou Fuyang District Government
Area: 15286.98m²
Cost: 190 usd/m²
Photograph: Li Yao, Chunle Miu, Ge Men,Dong Hu

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