神圣雷斯迪图塔教堂,捷克 / Atelier Štěpán

漂浮的天堂

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Appreciation towards Atelier Štěpán for providing the following description:

建筑师Marek Jan Štěpán在过去的30年间断断续续地调整着对这座教堂的设计和构思。事实上,他从1968年就提出了建造教堂的想法,50年之后,这座教堂终于被建造出来。这是第一座为纪念修女Marie Restituta而建造的教堂,它距离Restituta出生的地方只有大约1英里。场地上设有一个长方形的基座,定义出神圣空间的范围。

Architect Marek Jan Štěpán has occupied himself with the idea of this church intermittently for the past 30 years. However, the intention to build a church first came up in the relaxed atmosphere of 1968 and was finally fulfilled after 50 years. It is the first church to be dedicated to beatified Marie Restituta who was born approximately 1 mile from its location. A rectangular plateau is laid out on the plot that defines the sacred district.

▼教堂鸟瞰,aerial view ©BoysPlayNice

▼教堂外观,the exterior view ©BoysPlayNice

教堂位于住宅区的中心的一处峡谷边缘。场地上坐落着三个体量:教堂、高塔和由Zdeněk Bureš设计的宗教中心。教堂基于一个圆形的平面而建,象征着天堂与永恒(相反,正方形象征着大地与短暂)。教堂的屋顶下方环绕着一圈彩色的玻璃窗,反射出天空的景象。圆环漂浮在Lesná的上空,而从一种更加具有比喻性和超验性的层面上,我们或许也可以说,是天堂漂浮在Lesná的上空。

▼场地轴测图,Axonometric of area © ©Atelier Štěpán

▼设计概念:天堂漂浮于Lesná的上空,design concept: Heaven above Lesna © ©Atelier Štěpán

The church is located in the heart of the housing estate at the mouth of the Old scratch ravine. There are three basic masses on it – the church, the tower and the spiritual centre (designed by Zdeněk Bureš). The church has a circular floor plan. The circle is an age-long symbol of heaven and eternity (in contrast to the square, which refers to earth and transience). The heaven is reflected back in the colourful annular window that embraces the church just below the roof. It might be said that the circle is floating above Lesná or, on a figurative, transcendental level, that the heaven is floating above Lesná.

▼教堂的屋顶下方环绕着一圈彩色的玻璃窗,反射出天空的景象 ©BoysPlayNice
the heaven is reflected back in the colourful annular window that embraces the church just below the roof

▼教堂主体和高塔,the church and the tower ©BoysPlayNice

▼高塔和连桥,the tower and the bridge ©BoysPlayNice

▼仰视连桥,view up to the bridge ©BoysPlayNice

圆环本身也非常接近当代人对教堂内圣餐仪式的认知,它代表着耶稣与一众门徒围坐在餐桌旁的情景。圣坛被设置在教堂左侧的高大的拱顶下方,由上方的天光照亮。在这一位置,教堂的墙壁被三角形的窗户“撕破”,作为对撕裂的耶路撒冷圣殿帷幕的引用。教堂的内部空间构成了一个内在的宇宙,作为一个与上帝沟通的器官。这是一个简单、镇定和冷静的空间,身在其中的人将收获到安全、平衡且不受外界打扰的体验,就像停留在母亲的子宫里一样。

▼内部空间草图和圣餐仪式的意象表达 ©Atelier Štěpán
Sketch of the church interior & Figuratin expression of the liturgy

▼彩虹环形窗设计示意,Diagram with rainbow ©Atelier Štěpán

▼教堂内部,interior of the church ©BoysPlayNice

The circle is also very close to the contemporary perception of liturgy in church that represents the community of the Apostles and Jesus around the table during the Last Supper. The tabernacle is located in a tall apse illuminated from above that is situated on the left side of the church. The church wall is torn by a triangular opening at this point, which serves as a reference to the tear in the Jerusalem temple curtain. The interior of the church forms an inner universe. It is an organ for communication with God. It is simple, composed, and collected. The visitor should feel safe, balanced, and undisturbed by the outside world, almost like in the mother’s womb.

▼教堂的墙壁被三角形的窗户“撕破”, the church wall is torn by a triangular opening at this point ©BoysPlayNice

▼教堂的内部空间构成了一个内在的宇宙,作为一个与上帝沟通的器官 ©BoysPlayNice
The interior of the church forms an inner universe. It is an organ for communication with God

▼天顶,the dome ©BoysPlayNice

▼唱诗空间,choirs space ©BoysPlayNice

▼室内细节,interior detailed view ©BoysPlayNice

柔和而圆润的结构线条形成了一个无实体的内部空间,它的形式由上方环形窗投下的光线所定义。设置窗户的目的并非投下清晰的阴影,而是为空间带来间接且柔和的日光。窗户全长80米,其彩虹般的色彩描绘了上帝和他的子民之间所立下的契约。圆形彩虹是一种可以从高空观察到的现象(例如从飞机上)。这里,光线被转化为某种超越物质现实边界的事物,某种我们很难直接用官能去理解的事物。

▼彩虹窗廊,the rainbow panorama window ©BoysPlayNice

▼天顶细节,dome detailed view ©BoysPlayNice

▼透过彩虹窗看到的风景,sceneries seen through the rainbow window ©BoysPlayNice

The soft and sleek lines of the structure form a disembodied inner space shaped by the light coming from the annular window above. Its purpose is to give indirect, soft daylight that does not cast hard shadows. The symbol of the covenant between God and His people – the rainbow – is depicted on this 80-meter-long window. A circular rainbow is a phenomenon that can actually be observed from high altitudes, often from planes. The light is turned into an element that hints on something beyond the limits of material reality, something barely perceivable with our senses.The tower stands further from the church.

▼教堂和高塔夜景,night view of the church and the tower ©BoysPlayNice

▼1991年原始手稿,First sketch 1991 ©Marek Jan Štěpán

▼一层平面图,Ground floor plan ©Atelier Štěpán

▼唱诗空间平面图,Floor plan of choirs ©Atelier Štěpán

▼窗廊平面图,Floor plan of ledge ©Atelier Štěpán

▼剖面图,section ©Atelier Štěpán

▼横剖面图,cross section ©Atelier Štěpán

▼剖面分析图,diagrams ©Atelier Štěpán

Studio: Atelier Štěpán
Author: Marek Jan Štěpán, principal architect
Website: www.atelier-stepan.cz
Co-author: Vanda Štěpánová, architect
František Brychta, architect
Jan Vodička, architect
Martin Kopecký, architect
Client: Roman Catholic Parish of Brno-Lesná
Project location: Nezvalova street, Brno – Lesná
Project country: Czech Republic
Completion year: 2020
Built-up Area 1220 m2
Usable Floor Area: 2350 m2
Photographer: BoysPlayNice, www.boysplaynice.com
Collaborator Facade drawings: Petr Kvíčala
Dimensions:
church – diameter 25 m, height 18.5 m
tower – 5.7 x 5.7 m, height 31 m
asymmetric dome – diameter 23 m, elevation 3.5 m
rainbow ring window – length 80 m, height 4 m, 120 glasses

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