Avala House by TEN

How design effort can turn sufficiency into a desirable form for living

Project Specs

Design:
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非常感谢 TEN 予gooood分享以下内容 。
Appreciation towards TEN for providing the following description:

Avala住宅位于贝尔格莱德附近的山地,享有优美的田园风光。该项目可作为一个研究案例来看待,它证明了如何通过设计来将“自给自足”变成一种理想的生活方式。

The Avala House is a residence situated in a pastural landscape on Avala mountain near Belgrade in Serbia. The house is a case study on how design effort can turn sufficiency into a desirable form for living.

▼项目概览,general view © Maxime Delvaux

 

开放的框架
The open frame

单层的住宅被建造在一处向南倾斜的果园之上,基于以3.2米为单位的网格框架布局,形成一个边长为16米的正方形空间。内部区域按照9.6m x 9.6m的尺度进行分隔,呼应了下方的场地地形。

▼轴测图,axon © TEN

The house is a single-story space built over an existing southward inclining orchard garden. It is organised by a 3.2 metre grid frame, measuring 16 by 16 metre square, with an interior cut out of 9.6 by 9.6 metres revealing the terrain below.

▼住宅建造倾斜的坡地上,the house is built over an inclining orchard garden © Maxime Delvaux

▼住宅立面,facade © Maxime Delvaux

住宅的外墙在构成居住区域的同时也定义出建筑的边界。这一开放的框架通过80毫米的方形钢管焊接而成,并固定在场地上的三个基座上。这些基座定义了地面层的到达区域以及两个大型混凝土结构的位置――它们就像是景观中的巨石,容纳了户外花园楼梯和带有花园浴室的储藏空间。

▼剖面图,section © TEN

The surrounding surface forms both the inhabited area of the house and delimits the building perimeter. The frame utilises 80 millimetre square steel tube profiles welded in place and fixed to the structural minimum of three foundation points on the terrain. These points define the arrival area on the ground plane, and the positioning of two large concrete forms –like boulders in the landscape – dedicated to both an outside garden staircase and a storage space with a garden bathroom.

▼住宅固定在场地上的三个基座上,the house is fixed to the structural minimum of three foundation points on the terrain © Maxime Delvaux

倾斜的场地在基座之间和房子下方延伸,带来阴凉的户外起居空间,同时将景观、树木和天然的地表覆面引入建筑的中心区域。位于上方的主楼层在既有的坡地上设置了一个新的基准点,可以在俯瞰周围的森林。开放的结构得以让住宅充分拥抱景观,同时也为之赋予了清晰而的独特的形状和外观。

The sloping terrain continues between and underneath the house, offering a shaded outdoor living space, and introduces the landscape, trees and natural ground cover into the central space of the building. The main floor above sets a new datum within the topography of the existing slope overlooking the surrounding forest. The open structure embraces the immediate landscape while setting a new clear geometry and strong architectural outline.

▼地面层景观,ground floor landscape © Maxime Delvaux

房子的平面是基于外部网格而布局的,可以被看作是四个在拐角处互锁的平台空间,为住宅带来了全新的视野。每个平台都采用了不同的铺装材料,以适应各种不同的用途。刚制框架的边界需要不断适应材料的改变(例如挂网、钢板、预制混凝土和开放框架)以及它们的灵活移动。通过改变这些元素的搭配,住宅也将呈现完全不同的尺度和氛围。朝向中央空间的不透明墙体由10扇大型旋转钢门构成,使起居室可以从一个50平方米的单体空间转变为与四个户外平台连通的156平方米的开阔区域。

▼起居层平面图,floor plan © TEN

The plan is developed on the outer grid as a sequence of four terraces interlocking at corners to offer a new horizon for dwelling. Each terrace holds a different surface material, providing possibilities for a variety of use. The boundaries of the steel frame are constantly challenged by these alterations in material (a hanging net, sheet steel, pre-cast concrete, the open frame) or through the performance of its movable elements. These allow the house to undergo a total transformation of scale and atmosphere. The opaque wall facing the central interior space is made of 10 large pivoting steel doors, allowing the living area to shift from a singular indoor space of 50 square metres to embrace the 156 square metre volumes of the four outdoor terraces.

▼主起居空间,main living area © Maxime Delvaux

▼餐厨空间,kitchen and dining area © Maxime Delvaux

框架南立面的大型玻璃墙使起居空间延伸至远处的山丘,定制的遮阳屏将这一开阔的空间封闭起来,形成一个单一的室内场地,并通过一系列通高的幕帘将睡眠区与厨房、餐厅、起居室和浴室划分开来。在幕帘打开时,起居空间便拥有了一个一体化的平面,在需要时可以作为开放空间使用。住宅颠覆了在自然环境中营造庇护所的传统做法,使建筑内的各种场景都能够与自然亲密接触。

The large stretch of glass on the southern facade of the frame extends the living space to the rise of the distant hills. The customised sun shading closes this expanse, giving a singular interior space, discretely partitioned by a series of floor to ceiling full-length curtains defining the sleeping area from the kitchen, dining, sitting, and bathroom. In its open state, the main living is one in plan, dedicating the entire space to a single program if desired. The house inverts the priority of building a traditional protected shelter in nature, by allowing various scenarios of exposure to nature within the building.

▼一体化的起居空间,the singular interior space © Maxime Delvaux

▼卧室,bedroom © Maxime Delvaux

▼幕帘和遮阳屏定义和划分空间 © Maxime Delvaux
the living area is discretely partitioned by a series of floor to ceiling full-length curtains

住宅中的每个元素都强调了结构和空间的性能,在特定的位置展现出不同的重量和疏密程度――这一点尤其体现在主钢架的可见缝隙、钢架与承重点的衔接以及外露的支撑和原材料饰面上。每一处细节都清晰地呈现在外,让所有人都能够直观地感受到这座房子的魅力。

Every element of the house emphasises the performance of structure and space, providing either weight or lightness at specific points, expanse or contraction at others. This is exemplified in the visible joints of the main steel frame, the connections to the bearing points, the exposed bracing and raw material finish. All details are revealed. There is a kind of directness that makes the house accessible to all.

▼钢框架细节,steel frame details © Maxime Delvaux

 

建造的方式
The means of making

房屋的主人是一位从事室内装修和维护的当地工匠,他邀请TEN工作室来担任住宅的设计、开发和建造。双方在经过沟通之后确定了附近地区可用的材料资源和工厂技术,并且提出了现场浇筑的混凝土地基与回收钢板相搭配的方案。浇筑时使用的自密实混凝土混合材料是与当地公司和承包商共同开发,在提升当地建造技能的同时也为经济做出了贡献。裸露的结构和细节证明了劳动力和技术在推动建造方面的潜力;而形式上的表达则体现了人在打造住房过程中的主观作用。

The owner – a local craftsman working on interior refurbishments and domestic maintenance – invited TEN to design, develop and build the house. The conversation identified material resources, workshop skill and capacities within the range of the immediate region. It also brought about novel solutions like the in-situ casting of the exposed concrete foundations with recycled steel sheets. The accuracy of the formwork was determined by interior joiners, the casting with a self-compacting concrete mixture developed in dialogue with local subsidiaries and contractors. This not only contributed to the local economy but through experimentation in the procedure of construction, offered new applications for local construction skills. Left exposed, this reveals the proof of labour and skill in the forces driving construction, while the formal expression demonstrates the human factor in the production of dwelling.

▼户外平台,outdoor terrace © Maxime Delvaux

该项目扩展了源自南斯拉夫现代主义先驱的理念:对于先进技术进行本地化的调整和适应,并在设计和建造过程中发挥自主性,将有助于推动社会的转型。Avala住宅展现的是一种当代住宅的理想形式,它使用日常的材料,借助本地制造商的技能创造出了一个对于整个区域都具有重要意义的作品。

This extends the dialogue originating from the pioneers of Yugoslavian Modernism – a movement instrumental in the transformation of society through the local adaptation of progressive technologies and self-determination in design and construction. In the same way, the making of Avala House in the form of the ideal contemporary home uses everyday materials, formed personally by the skills of local makers to create a product of regional significance.

▼模型,model © TEN

▼首层平面图,ground floor plan © TEN

▼剖面图,section © TEN

Project data
Name: Avala House
Architecture: TEN
Project Authors:
Nemanja Zimonjić MSc ETH Arch
Ognjen Krašna
Jana Kulić
Dr. Miodrag Grbić
Structural design: TEN
Landscape: Ganz Landschaftsarchitekten
Gross floor area  156m²
Address: Kragujevacki put 82e, 11000 Belgrade
Client: Confidential
Execution & main contractor: Client
Construction cost:  Undisclosed
Timeplan:
2017–19 Planning
2019 Start on site
2020 Completion on site
Photos:
Maxime Delvaux, Brussels
Milos Martinovic, Belgrade
Relja Ivanic, Sombor



More:TEN

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