当地首屈一指的咨询公司Khaled Al Fouzan与葡萄牙建筑、景观设计师合作，赢下了这次修复性设计的竞赛。设计师结合现状建筑，提出了一个城市带状绿地方案，同时对应当地水资源稀缺的自然条件，严酷的气候以及城市维护状况，选用了大量的本土植物。项目从开始设计到最终完工仅用时22个月。
This reconversion of a formal garden by Kuwait Amiri Diwan built in the early 1960’s, to celebrate the city’s modernization, and named as “Shaheed Garden” after Saddam’s Invasion in memory of the war martyrs, will definitely top the categories of urban park and city reconversion this year in all MENA region. To be officially inaugurated by the Emir of Kuwait during the National and Liberation days (February 25th and 26th) the project is expected to be the main feature of this year festivities with an awarded 9million EUR contract for fireworks and media spectacle.
The 20Ha urban park contains two museums, large underground car park and other facilities as the 12000m3 artificial lake hiding a telescopic pole with 30m for the national flag raise and a visitor center for the Emir official receptions to foreign state representatives.
The Lead local Consultant Khaled Al Fouzan teamed up with Portuguese architects and landscape designers on the competition-winning redesign. Their reconversion of the Kuwait Green Belt included the integration of several buildings in the existing garden and the selection of a native vegetation scheme that could respond to water consumption restrictions, the harsh environmental conditions and urban maintenance practices. The project was developed and implemented in a record time of 22 months.
▽ 建筑，景观与城市，building，park and the city
科威特领导人办公室于2012年回应烈士管理局的担忧，强调对Al Shaheed 公园不仅将用于国庆庆典，也将用以缅怀牺牲的烈士。科威特宪法颁布五十周年纪念碑将成为公园重建的第一步，其后将有一些系列的公共建筑，包括两个博物馆、停车场、访客中心、人工湖以及旧公园的鸟舍建成。重建方案受到1969-75年期间Peter and Alison Smithson对同一地块的设计的影响，继承并延续了该方案许多策略性的价值取向。
After the concerns raised by the Martyrs’ Bureau regarding the integrity of the park during the last years, the Emir Office (Kuwait Amiri Diwan) reclaimed, in 2012, the use of the Al Shaheed Park for national celebrations and festivals under the memory of war martyrs. The monument to celebrate the “golden jubilee of Kuwait Constitution” was the first action towards the reconversion, followed by a broad program of public buildings, including two Museums, Car Park, Visitor Centre, a lake and an Aviary for the old Park. The re-design process was determined and strongly affected by the precedent strategic value of this unfinished project, mainly through the instrumental understanding of Peter and Alison Smithson’s proposal for the same area years before (1969-75).
The landscape proposal uses an existing grid, made of underground services and existing trees, that will distribute all the programmatic outdoor and indoor events – the buildings – that will be then converted into mounds due to a consideration of the acoustic studies – the noise protection – and the visual impact of the surrounding. At a larger degree this grid will be a medium climate mitigating wind, noise, dust and sun orientation. It generates a referential that is able to recognize the existing Park limits and trees, underground services, the Constitution Monument and Mecca orientation, as well as providing connections between all proposed elements through three pathways – the Emir path, visitors path and jogging track. The volume of soil, its transport and storage, innate to the artificial lake and underground car park (program requirements), identified the opportunities to transcend the norm and provide the architectural resources to design the buildings’ fundamental elements. The permission of the Municipal Council was clear regarding the built program, reclaiming the argument that no single building could be erected from the Green Belt grounds, therefore, all proposed buildings are submerged under planted soil. The possibility of introducing extensive green roofs for larger areas in Kuwait will become a challenge similar to the use of concrete and steel structure for the construction of the Shuwaik Power Station and Desalinization Plant in 1953, first modern structures built in Kuwait.
▽ 公园的拆除与保留，demolition and protection plan
▽ 公园步行系统，pathway system of the park
The Habitat Museum, ‘Mathaf AlMawten’ in arabic, is a long sand dune planted with native plants that moves into proximity with the garden paths and covers the exhibition galleries, library, laboratory, offices, cafeteria, bookshop and a children learning centre. From the underground car park green roof, the soil drops under the ground to access the museum’s lower level, buried with single structure vacant frames towards the saline depression and desert canyon.
Al Shaheed 公园原有的标志性喷泉和圆形露天剧场则被一个12000立方米容量的人工湖取代。湖水的容量将决定园区植被种植的数量，以实现自给自足。景观建筑师从设计初期便着手于将国家的原生态景观融入方案中。从北部的沙漠高原一直到南部的绿洲，从盐碱洼地到阿拉伯胶树林，土壤和植被的使用如实地在公园的截面上反映了科威特自然景观的状态。位于人工湖一侧的访客中心和行政办公楼则是中庭建筑试验性的改造。访客中心的室内地平略低于室外，建筑的两侧设有开口，与中庭一起形成了一个自然的通风系统，带走室内的热空气。由于在设计阶段建筑功能尚未完全确定，建筑在整个过程中不断的围绕核心叠加功能，如同一个古代的城镇一般逐渐扩张，纵使完全被土壤所覆盖，仍能从起伏的地形和体量一窥这个过程。
The old Al Shaheed Park’s dominant elements, the fountain and amphitheater, were replaced by the twelve thousand cubic meter lake. The water capacity of the lake will determine a limit to the vegetation and plantation capacity of this reconversion responding to the Amiri Diwan’s request for irrigation water autonomy. The landscape architect was from the early moments interested in understating continuity and unity along with the native landscape of the country. The soil movement was there instrumental to recreate along the park a section of Kuwait’s landscape, from the desert plateau and springs in the north to the oasis of the south, including saline depressions and Acacia woodlands. Flanking the new lake, both the Visitors Centre and the Administration Building, are tentative translations of the courtyard building type. In the Visitors Centre, the ground is lowered -80cm under the garden level, and opened in two directions allowing the cross ventilation of air and its cooling movement through the building when connected to the internal patio. The programmatic instability of this building during the design stage generated a series of additions around the core, almost as an old town villa with its later additions. The mass resulting out of this process will define the constitution of the mound in its topography and volume – the soil is covering all annexes.
▽ 访客中心，visitor center
▽ 访客中心图纸，line drawings
在花园朝向Sha’ab 大门的另一端，是战争烈士博物馆。建筑沿用Peter and Alison1970年引入科威特的“毯式建筑”形式，在入口层为城市打造了一篇“阴影绿洲”。建筑依照不同的功能被划分为不同的体块，展厅、咖啡厅、办公室、研究中心都覆盖在自由的种满了枣椰树的屋顶平面之下。顺着建筑延伸部分之上的小枣椰树林前行，穿过一个建于战争年代的地下通道，将来到城市的古城大门。枣椰树林的边界台阶式的花园所限定，铺地采用了葡萄牙式的立体铺装，行人亦可在其上穿行。相同的台阶式元素也出现在博物馆和花园共用的卫生间、祈祷室和服务设施处，以界定它们的边界。
On the opposite end of the garden, towards the old Sha’ab Gate, the museum of war martyrs reclaims the “architectural language of protection: at the ground level of providing an ‘oasis’ of shade in the city” ingrained in Kuwait building culture since Peter and Alison brought it in the discipline contemporary agenda with the 1970 “demonstration mat-building” for the Kuwait Ministries Offices. The new museum is defined by a free roof on top of pilotis “plan drawn through the regularity of the trunks in a grove of date palms” that contain the different programmatic dimensions of the building divided in pavilions, from the exhibition gallery to the cafeteria, offices and research centre. Under the slab the pilotis expand outside the building as the trunks of a new palms grove that will lead you to the city’s old wall gate through an under-passage built during ‘those years of war’35. The limit of the palms grove is defined by a system of retaining “rampart gardens” cladded, not in Persian- type tiles, but with Portuguese three dimensional tiles that move sufficiently often into proximity with the geometry of the site limits allowing a number of pedestrian paths. These retaining elements when defining the internal faces of the building contain toilets, prayer rooms and other service facilities that are shared between the use of the museum and the surrounding garden. “The ‘faces’ to” these ‘gallerias’ that define also the building circulation “have glass walls which are self shaded and cooled by transverse air movement”.
At the lowest and coolest point of the garden the visitor will be guided through the underpass towards an amphitheater, the old city gate “maidan”, where the walls are still rampart gardens with tiles, and the chairs are portable for occasional encounters or major performances. The audience sits between the lower stage, protected from the sun and surrounding roads’ noise, and the higher platform where the old gate stands in front of Sour Street. At the lower level the next tunnel towards the south indicates the possibility to connect with a further extension of the Amiri Diwan reconversion plans, a the sort of “Sports Maidan”, a multipurpose field that can function as a teaser to engage the young population in sports and entrepreneurship.
▽ 城墙公园，rampart gardens
Al Shaheed 公园的重建方案正如A+P Smithson 在1982年威尼斯双年展中展示的方案所言：“在过去的1951年中城市里没有一个有历史性意义的地方。一个抬升的步行系统将成为科威特的必去之处”。但这不应该成为一个单一性的假设，有局限的范围或是一个仅是策略性的局部介入。这个由各种公共性建筑组成的区域将与城市从各种层次上有所联系，从而成为一个极具影响力的整体性概念。每一个被植入于公园的公共性建筑将被解读为有明确的逻辑意义和公共性的存在，成为一个阶段性的措施。这个综合性的项目将成为除了私人商场以外的，鼓励国民真正的去使用、介入的公共性场所。如今，这个宏大的构想正从政府的实践和公共政策中逐步显露出来。
The Al Shaheed Park reconversion scheme shares with the 1969 proposal the statement delivered by A+P Smithson in the Venice 1982 Biennale: “the post 1951 city is devoid of historic place; a system of elevated walkways offered ‘a place to go’ in Kuwait: (…) these would be definite places to visit”, but it does not confine on a single assumption, limited scope or tactical intervention. Instead, the multiplicity of public building programs and its relation with the city’s multiple dimensions have the potential to affect a larger strategic conception of the project as a whole. Each of the building programs inserted in this Park reconversion must be read as a carefully staged plan of action with precise formal and social objectives. These are components of a comprehensive project of the Amiri Diwan to instigate the participation of national citizens in the city’s public space beyond the private owned shopping malls ‘gallerias’. Today, this larger conception informs the Emir Office’s practice and social policies.
Client: Kuwait Al Diwan Al Amiri, Eng. Haifa Al Muhanna (Project Engineer)
General Contractor: Kharafi National, ENg Jacob Kurian (Project Construction Manager)
Lead Consultant: The Associated Engineering Partnership(TAEP)
Architecture and Landscape Consultants : Ricardo Camacho + Stroop | landscape urbanism (Portugal)
Lead Designers: Ricardo Camacho (Architecture) + Sara Machado (Landscape)
Interior Design: Sara Saragoca
Design team collaborators: Frederico Barosa, Sarah Behbehani, Abdulaziz Al Khandari, Rita Tadi, Fernando Martins, Nuno Sequeira, Hugo Ferreira, Graca Vaz, Miguel Costa, Yousef Abdulaal;
Structural Design: Al Farooqi Engineering Consultants Bureau (Kuwait, Serbia) + R5 Engenharia (Portugal)
MEP Design: Kharafi National, Eng Magdy Mohamed (MEP Design Coordination)
Irrigation Design: Geodesenho (Portugal) + Eng Pedro Nobre Correia
Civil Landscape: ProGolf (Brazil) + Eng. Benjamim Silva
Acoustics and Thermal: Psicometro (Portugal)
External Lighting: Atelier33 Architectural Lighting Design Beirut (Lebanon)
Facade Designer: Alico Projects Department (Kuwait)
Green Roof Design: ZinCo GmbH (Germany)
Identity and Project Communication: Ze Pedro Font Amado (Wang Design)
Environmental Consultant: Ali Al-Dousari ( Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research )
Environmental Consultant: Fahed Shuaibi (Amiri Diwan Consultant)
Photo by NGPhoto
Drawings: Ricardo Camacho + Stroop | landscape urbanism
English Text: Ricardo Camacho
Chinese Text: gooood