2020 ASLA住宅设计类荣誉奖: 垂直绿洲:干旱气候下的绿色可持续,美国亚利桑那州 / Floor Associates, Inc.

首个在干旱环境中采用大面积和浅层绿色屋顶系统的项目

项目标签

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“绿色屋顶在气候干旱的亚利桑那州并不常见,而该住宅项目却“铺”上了一条足有50万平方英尺的“绿毯”,700个住宅单元均享有私人的绿色露台。位于低处的当地树群为种植着低水分耐旱植物的屋顶花园系统留出了空间;位于首层的水景营造出绿洲般的环境,同时起到了蒸发冷却的作用。得益于系统背后的深入研究以及与建筑内部环境谨慎细致的结合,该项目得以成为在干旱环境中打造可持续、多层级种植的未来范例。”
– 2020年评审委员会

“As hard as it may be to imagine green roofs in the arid Arizona climate, this project deploys a blanket of them across half a million square feet, with each of 700 units on the site receiving its own private green terrace. Lower-level clusters of native trees give way to a shallow green roof system filled with low-water, drought-tolerant plants; ground level water features contribute to an oasis-like feel while providing evaporative cooling. The thorough research behind this system and thoughtful integration within the architecture allow it to stand as a future case study for sustainable, multi-level planting within arid environments.”
– 2020 Awards Jury

来自 ASLA 对gooood的分享。
Vertical Oasis: Verdant Sustainability in an Arid Climate| Floor Associates, Inc.

 

项目陈述
PROJECT STATEMENT

Optima Camelview住宅项目是一个优秀的设计实践案例:突破性的研究、整体化的设计和集体性的愿景共同创造出一种真正可持续的、沉浸式的景观体验。

这座住宅综合体位于亚利桑那州斯科茨代尔市中心,共包含700个住宅单元。超过50万平方英尺(约46451平方米)的绿色屋顶覆盖着全部7个楼层,呈现出令人惊叹的观感。每个住宅单元都拥有可适应沙漠环境的私人花园露台。街道层的公共空间创造出独特的透明感,使建筑与周围的城市环境相融合。

Optima是首个在干旱环境中采用大面积和浅层绿色屋顶系统的项目。它在技术和管理方面无疑带来了诸多挑战,但景观设计师凭借合作研究和创新性的设计将这些问题逐一解决。项目取得的巨大成功使其设计概念得到了有力的证明,并获得了包括LEED黄金级认证在内的一系列可持续奖项。

Optima Camelview is a beautiful case study example of best design practices, where groundbreaking research, integrated design and collective vision came together to create a truly sustainable and immersive landscape experience.

The 700 unit condominium complex, located in downtown Scottsdale, AZ, has over 500,000 SF of green roofs enveloping every layer of the seven-story building. The effect is stunning. Every unit has its own private, desert adapted, garden terrace. The street level public space creates a unique sense of transparency and integration with the surrounding urban environment.

Optima was the first project of its kind to utilize an “extensive” or shallow green roof system in an arid environment. This presented a number of technical and logistical challenges, which the landscape architects addressed through collaborative research and innovative design. The overwhelming success of the project has provided a strong proof of concept and the project has received numerous sustainability awards including LEED Gold Certification.

▲沙漠类型学:概念性的景观规划。该项目的景观概念从大自然中汲取灵感。亚利桑那州拥有葱郁的高地、开阔的冲击平原、原生树林以及深入地下的沙漠棕榈峡谷。这些天然形成的景观类型被用作本项目的组织原则。Desert Typologies: Conceptual Landscape Plan. The landscape concept draws from Nature’s design. In Arizona, we have high verdant mesas, broad alluvial plains with bosques of native trees and recessed desert palm canyons. These naturally occurring landscape typology was adopted as the project’s organizing principal. ©Floor Associates, Inc./ David Hovey

 

项目说明
PROJECT NARRATIVE

垂直绿洲:干旱气候下的绿色可持续

Optima Camelview公寓楼项目是一个杰出的设计实践案例。在该项目中,景观设计师将研究、美学、功能性和可持续性结合起来,在亚利桑那州斯科茨代尔市中心创造出一处令人赞叹的景观。在这座以自然美和环保意识著称的城市里,该项目不仅恰当地融入了周围环境,更成为了其中最为独特和显著的存在。

景观理念

项目拥有17英亩(约68796.56平方米)的景观平台,超过了13英亩的场地总面积。

景观的整体设计理念以周边地区的生态环境为灵感。屋顶上种植着来自于附近山地的植物,包括棕榈和仙人掌等。低处的楼层选种了枝叶更加繁茂的植物,例如当地的“bosques”豆科灌木和铁木。下沉式的线性中央庭院营造出峡谷般的氛围;庭院中的水池和反射池使人想起河岸绿洲的景象,并带来自然降温的额外功效。

与城市环境相融

这一非常具有技术含量的跨越式住宅区由11座相互连接的花园塔楼构成,超过50万平方英尺(约46451平方米)的绿色屋顶跨越了综合体的所有楼层,为其所在的区域营造出惬意的休闲环境。

设计取消了地面停车场,为景观化的开放空间留出了更多位置,同时起到增强社区连接性的作用。这对于常常被停车场占用大量面积的城市环境而言无疑是一项创新的举措。

一系列公共庭院将项目连接起来,创造出公园般的环境。综合体内部的中央长廊构成了斯科茨代尔艺术区的北侧边界,造型独特的雕塑艺术作品遍及公共区域的各个角落,包括整个街道层和中央下沉庭院。

高度的可持续性

Optima项目获得了包括LEED黄金级认证在内的多个可持续发展奖项。绿色屋顶在环保和可持续发展方面、尤其是在高密度城市环境中的作用均得到了详细记录:

– 提供蒸发降温
– 为空气补氧
– 减少大气颗粒物
– 显著减少雨水径流
– 缓解热岛效应
– 减少城市噪音
– 为野生动物创造栖息地
– 降低20%的整体耗能
– 延长整个屋面系统的使用寿命
– 降低长期的运营和维护成本
– 减少基础设施需求

此外,每个公寓单元都拥有自己专属的绿色屋顶露台,为居住者创造了有利于身心健康的环境。

挑战

Optima项目是首个在真正干旱的环境中使用“大面积”浅层绿色屋顶系统的项目。场地中5英寸(12.7厘米)深的可用土壤层为设计团队带来了许多技术和管理方面的重大挑战。虽然这种屋顶系统曾应用于气候更加凉爽的环境中,但在西南部的沙漠地区还从未有过使用的先例——它要求土壤的深度至少达到24英寸(约61厘米),这样才能保持足够的土壤湿度和温度,使植物得以在恶劣的环境下生存。

突破性的研究

为了解决以上问题,景观设计师组建了一个合作性的研究团队,成员包括亚利桑那州立大学可持续发展学院的在读研究生和当地的园艺家,为的是共同开发出测试种植床的原型,最终得出能够让设计成功落实的最佳屋顶系统。

项目团队建造了一系列高架的测试种植床,用于系统地测试绿色屋顶系统中每个组成部分的可行性,包括:

– 不同植物类型(包括本地植物、沙漠植物、观赏植物、吸引性植物、多肉植物等)
– 土壤类型(有机土壤、沙质土壤、淤泥)
– 表层覆盖物(沙漠砾石、风化花岗岩、有机覆盖物)
– 灌溉系统(滴灌、喷灌、地下浇灌)和灌溉方案(频率、持续时长、当日灌溉时间)

测试种植床被抬高并放置了玻璃板,用来模拟预先设定的屋顶条件。结构模型复制了公寓北面、东面和低楼层的室内光照条件。土壤探测器和监测仪记录了每种系统组件组合方式的环境变量,包括施水量、排水量、土壤湿度和温度以及周围环境条件等。植物的生长和健康状况得到了为期18个月的密切监测。

研究结果被用于确定形式和功能在最终设计阶段以及项目运营和维护阶段内的正确平衡关系。该方法对于在干旱环境中采用大面积绿色屋顶系统有着开创性的意义,同时也帮助实现了高效、低维护且美观的设计。

Optima Camelview项目的成功,为将绿色屋顶技术融入干旱的城市环境提供了一个兼具技术性与美感的概念研究范例。借助广泛的传播和发表,基于该项目产生的研究和技术将持续为世界各地具有相似环境背景的案例提供宝贵的参考资料。

▲每间住房都拥有私人的绿色屋顶平台:与人们普遍的看法不通,干旱环境中的可持续景观也可以是葱郁且多彩的,同时富有视觉上的震撼力。具有突破性的研究和创新性的建造技术正改变着行业和公众对于干旱城市环境下的可持续性的认知。Private Green Roof Terraces at Each Residence: Counter to public perception, sustainable arid landscapes can be lush, colorful and visually stunning. Groundbreaking research and creative construction techniques are changing the industry and public perception of what defines sustainability for urban arid environments. © Timmerman Photography

 

▲沙漠台地和峡谷:Optima项目反映了附近山脉和峡谷的形态,垂直叠加的私人住宅平台内设有水平的景观层,形成微气候的多样化混合体,并在13英亩的场地上成功地营造出17英亩的景观。Desert Mesas and Canyons: Reflecting the form of nearby mountains and canyons, Optima has horizontally layered landscape strata, within the vertically layered private residence terraces, creating a diverse mixture of microclimates, for a total of 17 acres of landscape on the 13 acre site. © Christopher Brown

 

▲内部庭院:Optima Camelview是一个颇具美感的设计实践范例,它结合了突破性的研究、创新性的设计解决方案以及协作式的工作方法,创造出一种真正可持续且沉浸式的景观体验。Interior Courtyards: Optima Camelview is a beautiful case study example of design best practices, where groundbreaking research, innovative design solutions and a collaborative process were brought together to create a truly sustainable and immersive landscape experience.  © Timmerman Photography

 

▲随季节变化的植被材料:通过大量的实地研究和测试,项目团队开发出一种动态的植被材料搭配方案,可令植物在浅层(5英寸)的绿色屋顶中茁壮成长——这一点是基于严格的建筑结构设计而实现的。Seasonally Dynamic Plant Materials: Based on extensive field research and testing, a dynamic plant material palette was developed that would thrive in the shallow (5” deep) green roof soil profile, dictated by the strict architectural structure design. © Christopher Brown

 

▲LEED黄金级认证,绿色与可持续:高架平台上的蔓生植物营造出层层叠叠的观感,让原本宽阔而开放的建筑群看上去更具亲切感。在维持葱郁外观的同时,Optima项目也实现了高度的可持续性,获得了包括LEED黄金级认证在内的多项环保认证。LEED Gold: Verdant and Sustainable: Trailing groundcovers on the elevated terraces create a cascading planting effect, bringing an intimate feeling to the otherwise large and open complex. Although lush in appearance, Optima is highly sustainable and has received numerous environmental accreditations including LEED Gold certification. © Christopher Brown

 

▲“沙漠棕榈峡谷庭院”位于地面之下,反映了亚利桑那州南部索诺兰沙漠中天然形成的棕榈峡谷内的河岸绿洲。该庭院对公众开放。Central “Desert Palm Canyon” Typology: The Central Palm Canyon Courtyard is located below grade and reflects riparian typology of the natural palm canyons found throughout the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona. The courtyard is open to public access.  © Timmerman Photography

 

▲度假酒店风格的泳池展现出现代建筑设计的审美。两个简单的水池反映了现代建筑的形式、材料以及克制的语言特征。Resort Style Pools Reflect Modern Architectural Design Aesthetic: Two simple pools were designed to reflect the form, materiality and restraint of the modern architectural forms.  © Timmerman Photography

 

▲取消地面停车场,与城市边界相融:项目中没有设置任何地上停车位,为的是尽可能地提高土地利用率、减少城市热岛效应并加强项目与附近城市步行环境之间的互动。Integrated Urban Edge with no Surface Parking: The site is designed with no surface parking, in order to maximize land utilization, minimize urban heat island effects and to fully engage the project within the adjacent urban pedestrian context. © Christopher Brown

 

▲场地中分布着具有纪念意义的公共艺术作品。作为斯科茨代尔公共艺术区的北部终端,Optima的整个街道层都向公众保持开放。Monumental Public Art Throughout 10 Care Public Open Space: Monumental Public Art pieces are integrated throughout the public open spaces. Optima serves as the northern terminus of Scottsdale’s Public Art District and the entire street level has open public access. © Christopher Brown

 

▲花丛中的桥:在Optima Camelview项目之前,在沙漠气候中建造浅层的绿色屋顶系统是具有风险且未经验证的做法,它涉及到技术和管理等方面的巨大挑战,包括维持热量、湿度和长期维护的问题。Bridge in Bloom: Prior to Optima Camelview, shallow depth (5” soil profile) green roof systems were a risky and unproven option for desert projects, because of serious technical and logistical challenges, including heat, moisture and long term maintenance concerns. © Christopher Brown

 

▲广泛的实地研究/测试种植床示意:为了解决这些问题,景观设计团队开发了一系列种植床原型,用于测试各种系统组成部分的可行性,从而确定出能够适应亚利桑那极端沙漠环境的最佳系统。Extensive Field Research / Test Bed Diagram: To address these concerns, the landscape architect developed a series of prototype planting beds to test the viability of the various system components to determine the optimum system for Arizona’s harsh desert environment. © Floor Associates, Inc.

 

▲MSWN绿色屋顶系统测试:项目团队地面层上方建造了一系列测试种植床,并对构成绿色屋顶系统的每个部分进行不同的组合,包括植物、土壤、表层覆盖物和灌溉方式等。在最终设计和施工前,这些测试床经过了18个月的监测期。Green Roof System Testing at MSWN: An extensive series of above ground test beds were established with varying combinations of each component of the greenroof system including plants, soils, topdressings and irrigation protocols. The tests were monitored for 18 months prior to final design and construction. © Christopher Brown

 

▲绿色和可持续:距绿色屋顶平台的首次安装已过去了十年。Optima作为斯科茨代尔市的地标性建筑将继续发展和成长,并激励整个地区的大批开发项目将可持续战略作为其设计中不可或缺的一部分。Green and Sustainable: It has been ten years since the initial installation of Optima’s green roof terraces. The project continues to thrive as a Scottsdale landmark and has inspired numerous other developments throughout the region to integrate sustainable strategies into their designs. © Christopher Brown

 

PROJECT NARRATIVE

Vertical Oasis: Verdant Sustainability in an Arid Climate

Optima Camelview is a shining example of design best practices. The landscape architects combined research, aesthetics, functionality and sustainability to create a stunning landscape in the heart of downtown Scottsdale, Arizona. In a city known for its natural beauty and commitment to environmental awareness, this project fits right in and immediately stands out.

Landscape Concept

Optima Camelview boasts 17 acres of landscaped terraces, exceeding the total 13-acre site area.

The overall landscape concept is inspired by the natural ecology of the surrounding region. Rooftops are planted with the type of arid plants found on the surrounding mountains such as palo verde and cacti. The environment transitions into lusher plantings at the lower levels with ‘bosques’ of native mesquite and ironwood trees. The canyon-like feeling is reinforced by the linear form of the recessed central courtyard and includes pools & reflecting ponds reminiscent of a riparian oasis with the added benefit of providing natural cooling effects.

Integrated Urban Context

This highly technical over-structure community consists of eleven interconnected residential garden towers, which incorporate more than 500,000 square feet of green roof across all levels of the complex providing a welcome respite in the local environment.

Surface parking was eliminated to provide more landscaped open space and promote stronger neighborhood connections. This is an innovative move in an urban environment where parking lots claim large of amounts of square footage.

A series of public courtyards link the project together to create a park-like environment. The central promenade of the complex forms the northern terminus of Scottsdale’s Art District and dramatic pieces of sculptural art are integrated throughout the public realm which encompasses the entire street level and central sunken courtyard.

Highly Sustainable

Optima has received numerous sustainability awards including LEED Gold Certification.

The environmental and sustainability benefits of green roofs are well documented, particularly in a dense urban setting –

– provides evaporative cooling
– re-oxygenates the air
– reduces airborne particulate matter
– dramatically reduces stormwater runoff
– mitigates the heat island effect
– reduces urban noise
– creates habitat for wildlife
– provides a 20% reduction in overall energy costs
– increases the life cycle of the overall roofing system,
– lowers long-term operating and maintenance costs
– reduces infrastructure requirements

Additionally, every unit has its own private green roof terrace providing physical and psychological benefits to residents.

Challenges

Optima was the first project of this scale to utilize an ‘extensive’ or shallow green roof system in a truly arid environment. The available 5” soil profile presented a number of serious technical and logistical challenges for the design team. While this approach has been successfully employed in cooler climates, there were no comparable precedents in the desert southwest where it’s typical to have at least 24” of soil depth in order to maintain adequate soil moisture and temperature for plants to survive harsh conditions.

Groundbreaking Research

To address these concerns, the landscape architect organized a collaborative research team including graduate students from Arizona State University’s School of Sustainability along with regional horticulturists to develop prototype test beds to determine a best system approach to ensure successful design.

A series of elevated test beds were established to systematically test the viability of each component of the green roof system including –

– various plant types (native, desert adapted, ornamental, attractors, succulents)
– soil type (organic, sandy, silt)
– topdressings (desert pavement, decomposed granite, organic mulch)
– irrigation systems (drip, spray, subterranean) as well as irrigation protocols (frequency, duration, time of day)

Test beds were elevated and glass panels were placed to replicate the proposed rooftop conditions. Structures were mocked up to replicate shade conditions for the north, east and lower interior exposures. Soil probes and monitors recorded the environmental variables for each combination of the system components, including water application and drainage, soil moisture and temperature and ambient conditions. Plant growth and health was closely monitored over an 18-month period.

The results of this research were used to determine the right balance between form and function in the final design as well as the ongoing operations and maintenance of the project. This approach was groundbreaking for this application in an arid environment and led to a highly water efficient, low maintenance and aesthetically beautiful design.

The remarkable success of Optima Camelview has provided a beautiful proof of concept case study for the integration of green roof technologies into an arid urban environment.

The project has been widely published and the research and technologies developed by the design team continue to inform similar projects throughout the world.

More:  ASLAFloor Associates, Inc.

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