2020 ASLA RESIDENTIAL DESIGN AWARD OF EXCELLENCE: Marshcourt / Reed Hilderbrand

A showpiece landscape in Hampshire, England, recalls the height of Britain’s Arts and Crafts movement

Project Specs

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“位于英国汉普郡的一处示范性景观,通过对著名建筑师Edwin Lutyens和景观设计师Gertrude Jekyll的共同杰作的精心修复与重塑,重新唤起了人们对英国工艺美术运动顶峰时期的记忆。大量的文献资料和严谨的历史分析指导了现代的修复过程以及历史元素业已消除的区域所需种植的花卉,在维持原有格调的同时增加物种搭配的可持续性。为了恢复Lutyens和Jekyll借助成排的植物为花园空地赋予的方直而精确的几何形状,场地上重新种植了数以百计的紫衫树篱;在住宅远处,新置入的元素与花园的历史风格保持了一致,使精心排布的景观得以向更远的地方延伸。”
– 2020年评审委员会

“A showpiece landscape in Hampshire, England, recalls the height of Britain’s Arts and Crafts movement through a thoughtful restoration and reinvention of work by acclaimed architect Edwin Lutyens with landscape design by Gertrude Jekyll. Troves of documentation and rigorous historical analysis guided the contemporary restoration process and informed floral choices in areas where historic elements had been eliminated, adhering to original stylistic intent while incorporating a more sustainable palette of plants. Restoring the precise geometries of Lutyens’s and Jekyll’s design for an orthogonal set of garden rooms lined with parallel rows required replanting hundreds of yew hedges; away from the house, new interventions in keeping with the historic style extend the site choreography farther afield.”
– 2020 Awards Jury

来自 ASLA 和 Reed Hilderbrand 对gooood的分享。
Marshcourt | Reed Hilderbrand;更多关于Reed Hilderbrand on gooood

 

项目陈述
PROJECT STATEMENT

Marshcourt是由Edwin Lutyens和Gertrude Jekyll共同建造的一座风景如画的庄园,坐落在英国汉普郡特斯特河沿岸的白垩岩山丘上。庄园建造于1901至1904年间,是工艺美术运动的完美代表,其住宅与花园均被列入国家历史公园和花园名录。Lutyens与Jekyll的设计精准地捕捉到场地的独特条件,以大胆而细致的方法创造出能够唤醒记忆并启迪心灵的场所氛围。庄园在过去的几十年间数次易主,以至于日渐萧条,直至2010年春天,新的主人委托设计团队为Marshcourt制定一项整体的规划方案。

项目的业主希望在保护景观的同时将其改造成适于生活的居所。项目团队面临着将这座国家级的珍贵建筑作为现代住宅融入到新时代的艰巨任务。项目需要在不同位置采用保护、更新或重新诠释等不同的景观设计手法,余下的地方则需要完全被重新设计,就像Lutyens和Jekyll所做的那样:挖掘并展示Marshcourt独一无二的场所特征。

Marshcourt is the estate and gardens created by Edwin Lutyens with Gertrude Jekyll in the chalk-veined hills above the River Test in Hampshire, United Kingdom. Constructed between 1901 and 1904, both house and gardens are listed on the National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens — Marshcourt is a quintessential expression of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Lutyens and Jekyll’s design seized particular site conditions in ways bold and subtle to produce an evocative, inventive genius loci. In spring of 2010, the owners of Marshcourt commissioned our practice to develop a master plan for Marshcourt, which, after decades under different owners, lay in decline.

The owners charged us to preserve the landscape while also adapting it to serve as a home for their family. Together we faced the formidable task of stewarding this national treasure into a new era as a contemporary home. This project required different landscape architecture approaches in different places: preservation, renewal or reinterpretation, and, elsewhere, entirely new design that sought, as Lutyens and Jekyll did, to articulate Marshcourt’s extraordinary genius loci.

▲保护和创造:在100英亩的庄园土地上,该项目的推进持续了6年之久,其中包括修复、重建和新功能的置入。PRESERVATION AND INVENTION: Six years of work on the one hundred-acre estate encompassed restoration and rehabilitation approaches and included interventions for new uses of the property ©Reed Hilderbrand

 

项目说明
PROJECT NARRATIVE

Marshcourt庄园在20世纪初时曾占地超过1300英亩,而本次项目主要针对的是庄园周围约100英亩的土地。多样的场地和条件需要采取一系列不同的介入方式,包括敏感环境下的翻新和全新元素的置入。

设计团队的首要任务是了解原始建筑中有哪些已经消失,哪些还依然存在。从历史平面图、地形测量和照片(来自1913年和1932年的《乡村生活》)等资料中可以清晰地看出建筑衰落的过程。20世纪40年代,庄园成为了Marshcourt预备学校的用地,马路被拓宽,砖石结构被拆除,多年生植物遭到遗弃,紫杉树篱也缺少看护,或者索性完全被移走。1990年代,庄园在成为私人财产之后,围护着车道的白垩路堤被铲平,原先种植着本地植物的草场和林地被替代为更加易于维护的宽阔草坪。

通过对历史记录的研究,以及在现场发现的资料,项目团队得以了解到那些已经丢失的元素,同时也找到了原始设计的独特之处,那就是Lutyens为其发现的场地和其设计的场地之间所赋予的一种独特关系。调查追溯到了1897年,揭示了当时存在于场地的乡村特征:由树篱和护堤所界定的场地,拥有耕地般的肌理,此外还包括Marshcourt Copse(一片古老的林地)以及一个白垩矿场(小型采石场)。1912年的调查记录了Lutyens的设计方案,其中包括一项大体量的土方工程,它通过深入的切割,在白垩岩层中塑造了一个戏剧性的空间序列,并使其与从山坡一路延伸至住宅周围的阶梯花园相连接。在此处,Lutyens和Jekyll精心打造了一系列的空间体验——从被密林环绕的私密房间,到拥有河谷视野的开放平台,更加重要的是,住宅、花园和场地的设计共同将庄园的场所精神强调出来——这也是两位设计师在工作中始终坚持的目标。

保护遗产

基于研究以及与客户的沟通,设计团队决意在所有证据充分的位置恢复空间的原貌,在证据不足的地方则会实施修复,以使其适应住宅的新方案。修复的重点首先是庄园的车道,其次则是围绕着主屋附近花园空地的紫杉树篱系统。

精心编排的抵达路径

庄园的车道是一条贯穿整个场地的动脉,提供了令人难忘的路径和抵达体验。原先,前后方车道的陡峭护堤被铲平,林下叶层也被清除,草坪取代了原先的牧草,此外还移除了树篱。在该项目中,团队重建了他们从历史记录中推测出的原始构造关系,并在谨慎的实施过程中发现了资料中未曾显示的几何关系和校准方式。在此基础上,车道的走向得到了调整,宽度被缩小,并增加了正方形和圆形的“转弯场地”;护堤和紫衫树篱被重新修复,重新种植了橡树、冬青树、山楂树和角树林下植被。Marshcourt的原生白垩草甸被迁移至种植过的位置,或在没有生长的位置播种。

花园空地

房屋本身是一座巨大的白色建筑,由白垩搭配燧石、石灰石和砖瓦构成。建筑的体量坐落在一个抬升的基座上,与山坡独特的阶梯状地形融为一体。为了回应陡峭的地势,Lutyens沿着住宅塑造了一个由砖石墙和护堤构成的线性系统,使其成为花园空地的结构序列。花园的整个砖石结构都得到了修复,砖墙和栏杆的尽端精确地种植着一系列紫杉树篱,完善了花园空地的几何轮廓。

大部分树立或被拆除,或已经比预期尺寸超出了数英尺。场地调研表明,树篱规模与铺装及砖墙的衔接之间存在特定的既定关系,例如,树篱的中心线被设置在砖垫的中心线上;树篱的顶部与主屋或花园墙壁上的燧石条带保持平齐。为了重新建立树篱与房屋以及花园结构之间的既定关系,项目团队重新种植了数百株紫衫。

在JEKYLL之后

虽然房屋和庄园的设计主要由Lutyens负责,但档案资料还显示了其长期合作伙伴Gertrude Jekyll在主屋周围的花园设计中所做的贡献(主要在二者合作初期)。一些未署名作者的历史照片清晰地记录了花园最初的种植方案,其中一些则体现了Jekyll所倡导的原则:通过种植朴素的多年生植物、当地常见的路边植物以及与石头相搭配的地中海植物来强调花园的季节性特征。

历史图片还揭示了既有场地中仅存的两棵巨大的无花果树。原始的种植方案的缺失阻碍了修复的可能。尽管业主并不在意是否要重新恢复Jekyll的设计,项目团队还是一致认为可以尝试对Jekyll的理念和敏感度进行表达,同时实现更加可持续的管理。最终使用的种植方案相比于Jekyll的设计更显得克制,但仍然呈现出相似的粗野感和印象主义效果,与房屋精致的砖石结构相得益彰。

创造

在距离房屋更远的地方,存在着一系列与原项目“脱节”的场地区域,Lutyens和Jekyll并未设计它们。项目团队在这些区域看到了创建新元素的机会,并使其可以融入从特斯特河的泛滥平原到主屋再到山顶的抵达路径。具体的干预措施分为不同的规模,首先使用一组耐候钢楼梯来跨越高大陡峭的护堤。为了将历史景观与外围的田野连接起来,设计团队还铺设了一条500英尺长、6英尺宽的石板路,其采用的石灰石材料与入口庭院保持了一致,在地面上构成一条显著的白线,引导来访者穿越橡树和山楂树林,最终到达高处的草地。从这里开始,一条弧形的草地小路顺应地势伸展,最终通往一个被欧洲山毛榉包围的白色预制混凝土座位。随着时间推移,山毛榉的树冠将会合拢起来,形成一片荫蔽的林地。

山毛榉林地下方的山坡上新修了一个带有围墙的厨房花园。在极简的褐色手工砖墙内,设有用耐候钢围合的高架花槽、带有橡木门的混凝土堆肥架以及用于支撑树篱的不锈钢缆绳,此外还设有一间温室,其东端设有一个盆栽棚。

场所精神

与土地建立的深刻且富有意义的联系让Marshcourt成为了一处极具魅力的场地。Lutyens的设计从地质学中汲取灵感,凭借经典又富有本地特征的语言,以熟悉却又新颖的方式完成了一个宏大的项目。清晰、精确又富有表现力,时而沉静,时而高亢,历史性的框架得以在绘画般的光影效果、变化的季节以及17种雨水的映衬下被阅读出内涵。在这里,特斯特河谷和外围的田地形成交错和相互掩映的关系,吸引着人们去更辽阔的景观中探险。基于Lutyens和Jekyll的最初构想,设计团队在一个不同的时代、以另一种方式实现了这些品质:根据平面图中展示的不完整记录,对既有条件进行谨慎的考量,通过当代的形式和材料语言来进行具有敏感度的介入,最终使Marshcourt庄园成为了一个能够满足21世纪家庭生活的新住所。

▲历史平面图:1898年和1913年的历史平面图展示了场地在经过Lutyens设计前后的对比关系。树篱、灌木丛、农田护堤和白垩采石场的位置同时影响了设计的组织和表达。HISTORIC ORDNANCES (BEFORE AND AFTER):1898 and 1913 ordinance surveys reveal relationships between the site Lutyens discovered on arrival and the site he designed. The language of hedgerows, the copse, agrarian embankments and the chalk quarry not only organize his design, but provide its expression. ©Reed Hilderbrand

 

▲地质学特征:Marshcourt位于巨大的白垩地质岩脉中。表层土覆盖在深层混合着燧石的白色基质上。这样的地质构造使为构成场地的陡峭护堤提供了条件。GEOLOGY AS IDENTITY: Marshcourt sits within a large geological vein of chalk. Thin topsoil rests above a deep white substrate layered with flint. This geology allowed the steep embankments structuring the site. ©Reed Hilderbrand

 

▲削减与遮蔽:林荫道和深入场地的车道体现了“削减”与“遮蔽”并行的手法,这一手法也促使Lutyens将景观设计扩展至更大的范围。CUT AND CANOPY: The Linden Allee and the deep cut of the entry drive exemplify the motifs of “cut” and “canopy” that drive Lutyens design for the larger landscape. ©James Ogilvy / Reed Hilderbrand (Site Visit Photo)

 

▲“X光透视”:早期的概念图对既有的树冠分布和地势状况进行了“透视”,清晰地揭示了原始“骨架”的退化过程。方案恢复并重新诠释了原先的土方工程,并将形式向东面延伸,以容纳新的功能空间。“X-RAYS”: Early concept diagrams “x-ray” the existing conditions of canopy, cut (embankments), and extension (terraces), clearly revealing the deterioration of the design’s original “skeleton”. Proposed diagrams restore and reinterpret the original earthworks and extend motifs to the east for new programs. ©Reed Hilderbrand

 

▲抵达庄园的路径:原先的业主清除了Lutyens为抵达路径设计的景观(下图)。在该项目中,原先的白垩护堤得以恢复,并重新种植了树木和林下植被,恢复了原生的白垩草甸,从而为场地找回了Lutyens所设想的那种张弛有度且明暗互补的观感。ARRIVAL TO MARSHCOURT: Previous owners eradicated Lutyens design for the approach to the house (below). The design reinstates chalk embankments, replants canopy and understory, and reestablishes native chalk meadow, restoring the modulation of compression and release, darkness and light that he intended (above). ©James Ogilvy / Reed Hilderbrand (Site Visit Photo)

 

▲花园空地:原设计中用于界定房屋周围花园空间的紫衫树篱系统或者生长超出了预期,或者已被完全拆除。新的方案重新种植了数百株紫衫,以建立起一个配比精确的常绿框架。GARDEN ROOMS: The system of yew hedges designed to define garden rooms surrounding the house had either overgrown their intended dimensions or been removed altogether. Hundreds of yew plants were installed to reestablish the carefully proportioned evergreen frame. ©Reed Hilderbrand

 

▲重建:平整的山坡上进行了大规模的挖掘和填土工作,以恢复原先用于界定农场车道的白垩护堤(8’-15’高)。RECONSTRUCTION: Large-scale cut and fill operations of the smoothed hillside re-establish the original 1:1 chalk embankments (8’-15’ high) that defined the farm drive. ©Reed Hilderbrand

 

▲网球场草地:从项目完成后的照片可以看到护堤和绿篱在场地上的修复情况(可参考前一张图中展示的相同角度的照片)。TENNIS LAWN: “After” view reveals the restoration of the embankments and hedges at the tennis lawn (see previous images for 1932 and 2010 photos from same point). ©James Ogilvy

 

▲下沉花园:远处的无花果树(右图)是Jekyll的种植方案中唯一留存下来的元素。为了重现原来的场所精神,项目团队进行了大量的砖石修复工作以及多年生植物的种植。SUNKEN GARDEN: The fig tree in the distance (right) was all that remained of Jekyll’s original planting design for the Sunken Garden (left). Extensive masonry restoration and perennial planting were necessary to recapture the spirit of the original. ©James Ogilvy

 

▲在JEKYLL之后:Jekyll钟爱的睡莲、排草和绵杉菊等植物被搭配以热情洋溢的刺棘蓟和海甘蓝。与原作相比,新的种植方案显得更加简单,但依然展现出对本土植物、异国植物以及传统花园植物的共同赞美。AFTER JEKYLL: Jekyll favorites like water lilies, centranthus and santolina combine with the scale of the ebullient Cardoon and Crambe. A simpler plant and color palette than the original prevails, but the celebration of native, exotic, and traditional cottage garden plants remains. ©James Ogilvy

 

▲花卉矩阵:矩阵中的每个象限各自代表了用于恢复房屋周围四处花园空地的植物搭配方案。FLOWERS OF MASHCOURT: Each quadrant of the matrix indicates the plant palette used to rehabilitate four garden rooms around the house. ©Reed Hilderbrand

 

▲白色步道:通往山顶的石灰石步道穿越了既有的山楂树林。铺地材料在与树干相遇的位置被移除,使路径尽可能向树木让步。ON THE WHITE WALK: A new limestone path leading to the hilltop slides through an existing plantation of hawthorn. Where trunks would interfere with the path alignment, sets are removed and the path yields to the tree. ©Reed Hilderbrand

 

▲山毛榉树林:白色预制混凝土座位融入路堤,作为对当地地质特征的一种回应。在座位的周围,96棵欧洲山毛榉呈五点梅花状排列。 BEECH GROVE: At the apex of the arcing walk, a chalk-white bench of precast concrete emerges from the embankment, a nod to the site’s geology. Above and below it, 96 European Beech are set in a quincunx over the hilltop. ©James Ogilvy

 

▲氛围:Marshcourt庄园的草甸上修建出一条弧形小路,作为一种介质将光线与天气的不同质感展现出来。PHENOMENA: An arcing path is mowed through Marshcourt’s meadow grasses, a medium against which the varying qualities of light and weather play out. ©James Ogilvy

 

▲日晷草坪:设计团队与一位专业的历史学家合作,恢复并重新诠释了Marshcourt花园露台和空地精致的硬景观和植被。特斯特河谷和外围的田地形成交错和相互掩映的关系,吸引着人们去更辽阔的景观中探险。SUNDIAL LAWN: Working with a specialist historian, we restored and reinterpreted the elaborate masonry and plantings of Marshcourt’s garden terraces and rooms. These alternately hide and disclose views of the Test River Valley, enticing one to adventure out into the larger landscape. ©James Ogilvy

 

PROJECT NARRATIVE

While Marshcourt once comprised over 1,300 acres in the early twentieth century, our work addressed the 100 acres surrounding the estate house. Here, many diverse sites and conditions called for a range of approaches, from sensitive renewal to fresh invention.

Our first task was to understand what of the original had been lost and what remained. We turned to historic plans, ordnance surveys and photographs (from the pages of Country Life 1913 and 1932). The decline of the original was evident. Beginning in the 1940s, when Johnson was forced to sell and the property became the home of the Marshcourt Preparatory School, drives were widened, masonry components removed, perennial beds abandoned, and yew hedges either not maintained or removed altogether. Loss continued after the property returned to private ownership in the 1990s, with the flattening of the chalk embankments that structured the drive and the removal of native meadow and woodland to establish expansive lawns for easier maintenance.

Research into the historic record as well as documentation found on-site revealed what had been lost. But it also illuminated what was unique about the bones of the original design — the relationships Lutyens intended between the site he found and the site he designed. Surveys, which date back to 1897, reveal rural features that existed – an agrarian pattern of fields defined by hedgerows and embankments, the Marshcourt Copse (an ancient woodland) and a chalk pit (a small quarry). A survey of 1912 documents Lutyens’ scheme, specifically the monumental earthwork that shaped a dramatic spatial sequence ascending the hill through deep cuts in the chalk, to then arrive at elaborate terraced gardens that extend from the hillside around the house. Here, Lutyens and Jekyll crafted a series of experiences ranging from enclosed rooms of intensive planting to open platforms with views over the river valley. Above all, the design for the house, gardens, and grounds emphasized the genius loci, a goal which he and Jekyll pursued everywhere they worked.

PRESERVING THE LEGACY

Based on our research and conversation with the client, we established that where we found sufficient evidence to restore the original condition, we would do so. When evidence was insufficient, we would rehabilitate to accommodate new programs appropriate to a home for a large family. Restoration focused, first, on the estate drive and, second, a system of yew hedges enclosing garden rooms at the main house.

CHOREOGRAPHED ARRIVAL

The estate drive is an artery through the entire property that choreographs the unforgettable experience of procession and arrival. Here Lutyens’ fabric had been particularly compromised. Steep, precise embankments on both the front and back drives had been smoothed, understory cleared, meadows replaced with lawn, and hedges removed. Rebuilding the original tectonic relationships we had inferred from the historic record, we proceeded carefully and found geometric relationships and alignments not found in the historic record. Based on these, the drive was re-aligned and narrowed; the square and circular “turning courts” re-figured; the embankments and yew hedges re-instated; an oak canopy and holly, hawthorne, and hornbeam understory replanted; and Marshcourt’s native chalk meadow either allowed to reemerge where extant or seeded where not.

GARDEN ROOMS

The house itself is a vast white building constructed of chalk with flint, limestone, and brick tile inlay. Its mass rests on an elevated plinth established through dramatic terracing of the hillside. To respond to the steep conditions, Lutyens utilized a rectilinear system of masonry walls and embankments that extend from the house and structure a sequence of garden rooms. The entire masonry architecture of the gardens has been restored. Where masonry wall and balustrades ended, a precisely regulated series of yew hedges completed the geometric figure of the garden rooms.

Much of the hedging had either been removed or had overgrown their intended dimensions by feet. Research had revealed specific intended relationships between the dimensions of the hedging and the articulation of the paving and masonry. For example, centerlines of hedge were set on centerlines of brick pads; tops of hedges were set to align with flint bands of the house or garden walls. To re-establish these intended relationships between hedges and house and garden architecture, we planted hundreds of yews.

AFTER JEKYLL

Although the house and estate design is attributable to Lutyens, archival evidence shows that his long-time collaborator Gertrude Jekyll played a role in the design of the flower gardens around the house. It was early in their partnership. The original planting design for some of the gardens, most clearly documented in historic photographs, appear almost authorless. However, a few demonstrated an approach to plants that exemplified principles espoused by Jekyll: the emphasis on the garden’s ephemeral qualities and seasonal effects through the use of perennials, especially humble cottage garden flowers, familiar roadside natives, and plants from the Mediterranean used in combination with stone.

Historic images revealed the only remaining original plants were two large fig trees. The absence of original planting plans prevented restoration as an option. And while the client was not interested in a historicist recreation of Jekyll’s work, all agreed that the design opportunity lay in giving expression to her beliefs and sensibilities about plants while achieving a more sustainable regime. Our palettes are more restrained than Jekyll’s would have been, but the planting is similarly robust and focused on impressionistic effects to complement the exquisite masonry.

INVENTION

Farther from the house are sites areas that felt physically and experientially disconnected from the original project; Lutyens and Jekyll had not designed them. In these areas we saw opportunities for invention and the promise to complete a choreographed experience of moving from the Test River floodplain past the house and up to the hilltop. Here our interventions ranged from small to large. We used sets of weathering steel stairs that negotiate the steep, tall embankments. To join the historic designed landscape to the outlying fields, we conceived of a 500-foot long, six-foot wide stone path, paved with limestone sets like those in the original entry court, a visual white line in the ground that takes the visitor through oak and hawthorn groves to the high meadow. From here one finds an arcing grass path carved into the grade, leading to a quincunx of 96 European Beech trees around a white precast concrete bench. These Beech canopies one day will unite, forming a shaded woodland.

Just below the beech grove and set into sloping land is a new walled kitchen garden. Within the minimalist handmade brown brick walls that emerge like a sliver out of the land, sit extensive raised beds edged with weathering steel, concrete compost bays with oak gates, stainless steel cables to host espaliered berries, and a greenhouse capped by a potting shed on its east end.

GENIUS LOCI

Deep, visceral ties to the land make Marshcourt a wonderfully special place. Lutyens’ design draws from the geology, and structures an ambitious program using classical and vernacular language in ways both familiar and novel. Clear, precise, and expressive — sometimes quiet, sometimes loud — the historic frame is always read against the painterly effects of shadow and light, the changing seasons, and seventeen different qualities of rain. Here, the Test River Valley and outlying fields are alternately hidden and disclosed, always enticing one to adventure out into the larger English landscape beyond. While Lutyens and Jekyll first envisioned these qualities, we achieved them differently in our own time, according to a plan that interprets an incomplete record, rigorously considers existing conditions, and makes sensitive interventions using a contemporary language of form and material for a family making Marshcourt their home in the 21st century.

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