2017 ASLA RESIDENTIAL DESIGN HONOR AWARD: Casa Las Brisas – Formation of a Coastal Retreat by C. Stuart Moore Design

“This was a kind of restoration project at some level, and the transformation is remarkable.”

Project Specs

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“这是一处脆弱的场地……从某种程度上看,这是一个修复项目,它所带来的变化令人惊叹。”
-2017年评审委员会

“This was a compromised site… This was a kind of restoration project at some level, and the transformation is remarkable.”
– 2017 Awards Jury

来自 ASLA 对gooood的分享。
Abstracting Morphology by C. Stuart Moore Design
Appreciation towards ASLA for providing the following description: 

 

项目陈述
PROJECT STATEMENT

这座 6000㎡的建筑坐落在一个300公顷的住宅开发区的雨水排放点下方。位于陡崖顶端的排水系统中装置有两根直径为一米的管道,在遇到暴雨时容易形成严重的腐蚀。黑莓树的藤蔓很快替代了被腐蚀的天然植被。景观设计师的首要目的是控制雨水的排放并修复自然环境,然后在此基础上与建筑师合作,共同打造一栋全新而独特的住宅。这座地中海式别墅所在的场地有着独特的砂岩地貌与壮观的海景,呈现出多样化的特征和敏感性。基于细致而周全的场地分析,设计师将360度的全景视野引入场地,同时充分地利用了场地的特征,实现了雨水控制、泉水过滤、自然径流、栖息地修复和视觉美感构建等多项目标。

This 6000㎡ property is positioned below a discharge point for storm water drainage of a 300-hectare residential development. An engineered solution had two pipes, each one meter in diameter, at the top of a precipice, and consequently they created significant erosion during heavy storms. Invasive blackberry vines quickly replaced the eroded natural vegetation. The landscape architect aimed first to control the storm drainage and restore natural environments before combining with the architect to create a unique setting for a new residence. The new contemporary Mediterranean residence is balanced above a unique sandstone formation affording prominent coastal views. Besides the ocean, the site has a numerous characteristics and sensitivities. A full 360 degrees of views and considerations were taken into context. Storm water control, filtration spring, natural runoff, environmental habitat restoration, and visual appeal were the primary objectives to make the most of the site.

 

▲场地平面图,site plan

 

项目说明
PROJECT NARRATIVE

历史与目的

90年代中期,一个300公顷的别墅区被修建于智利圣多明哥南部8公里的一处滨海断崖上。大部分由新建公路和屋顶收集而来的雨水被转移至别墅区的东南角,随后从40米高的断崖顶端倾泻而下。在经历了几次暴雨之后,断崖上形成了一道峡谷,大量的泥沙被冲刷至海洋。黑莓树的藤蔓迅速侵占了布满沟壑的地表环境。景观设计师的挑战在于控制雨水的排放并重建良性的生态环境。尽管困难重重,崖壁上的沟壑却带来了治理和控制径流的机会。别墅的地理位置对于业主来说十分重要,因为它连接了未来规划中的社区和农场。基于这一点,设计师为别墅设计了能够分别通向农场和既有住宅区的入口路径。

项目愿景

引人注目的砂岩结构从场地的中央向着海岸延伸,自然而然地成为建筑所依赖的地基。这一独特的地形使住宅的主楼层和上方楼层得到充分的抬高,从而带来能够俯瞰花园和大海的视野。基于场地环境和地质构造的丰富性,设计师决定在既有的条件下为项目置入更多元素,以增加住宅的趣味性和吸引力。在建筑方面,设计师则致力于保持简洁的线条与结构特征。相应地,住宅周围的景观有着丰富的色彩和纹理,以及呼应着交通流线和视觉线索的微妙几何形态。雨水和生活废水通过一系列排水口从水池中排放至沿海湿地。从断崖中冒出的泉水被引导至花园,以降低液体静压力,同时保证了住宅地基的安全性。通过减缓场地坡度,海风的风向发生了改变,从而创造出新的微气候。

连接 – 住宅与景观

在清理场地的过程中,重达2吨的花岗岩石料被发现于砂岩构造的表层。这些石料明显是源自其它时代的海洋沉积岩,它们最终被用于别墅的入口庭院,并搭配以同样古老的木材。精心挑选的沙滩岩石被铺设于不同种类的古植物之间。屋顶上的圆洞使庭院和天空形成了连接。住宅的二层包含了厨房、餐厅、客厅以及主卧套房,每个房间均能够享受到独特的视野。从餐厅可以俯瞰到用于渗流的湿地,湿地中有一座新建的沙丘,用以遮挡视线,隐藏附近的高尔夫球洞。沉积的砂岩和被腐蚀的沟壑被彩色的多肉植物填满,与冷色调的海景相互映衬。主卧室下方是一片草地,与高尔夫球场相连,另外还可以看到一面简约而宽阔的石墙,以及分散在各处的砂岩块。急剧倾斜的山体将住宅与其周围的场地分隔开来,为花园带来多彩的背景。住宅的地下层嵌入砂岩,包含3间客卧和1个公共空间,每个空间均可通向种满绿植的露台。住宅的两个楼层顶端均以屋顶花园覆盖。

交通流线

走道、车道和平台分别选用了适宜的材料,包括石材、木材、花岗岩、鹅卵石以及硬土等。无渗透性的路面仅铺砌于停车场和室外露台区域。汽车道位于开放的车库下方,与住宅区和私人农场相连。简单的木门定义出场地的边界。人行道环绕在场地间,与集水设备和花园相连。室外露台包含一个以悬臂结构和帆布作为顶篷的休息和用餐空间。设计师减缓了场地的坡度,使视野能够越过高尔夫球场,从草坪一路延伸至海岸。一处独立的火坑作为主卧室视野的焦点,为住宅带来独特的魅力。路径蔓延至花园深处,台阶被嵌入砂岩内部,设置于花园中的过渡地带。木栈道从湿地上方横跨至浮木长椅所在的沙丘。高尔夫球场中还设有一个治疗中心。参照住宅的饰面处理方式,设计师利用一系列错落的石墙来分隔和遮挡从入口庭院望高尔夫球车道的视野。

泉水

来自断崖的泉水被引至室外就餐平台后方的石墙处,随后导向低处用于灌溉。另一部分泉水引至湿地中央的小型水池,积满时可用于植物的浇灌。泉水最终会与雨水处理系统的径流交汇并流向沿海湿地。灌溉用水完全来自泉水,其余的自然径流则保持不变。在建立新的排水系统之后,沙丘、屋顶和岩石花园等区域将不再需要或仅需少量的水源。

机遇

在距离场地南部几百米的区域,强烈的地震使脆弱的断崖发生了坍塌,并将山脚下的一部分湿地覆盖在下方。设计师将体块较大的碎石移到了场地之中,用于修建天然的墙壁。这些石墙定义出多个植物区域,呈现出与建筑类似的纵向观感。

沿海湿地和沙丘修复

雨水排放区域形成的沟壑被转化为水池、溪流和湿地,在开凿的过程中留下了大量的泥沙。场地中植物种类的选择参考了与之类似的环境,并在湿冷的冬季迅速完成了移植。在湿地的帮助下,沙丘上的植物仅需要在头年夏天进行补充性的灌溉。

技术挑战

在与工程师合作时,往往难以打造出一个“天然有机”的解决方案。隐藏硬性结构和混凝土材质的水槽均是项目的难点所在。在经过数次会面和研讨之后,设计团队得以增加径流区域的宽度,以减缓水流速度。这些改动使得植物最终可以被种植在混凝土材质的屋顶上。水槽的侧面几乎完全被隐藏起来。平缓的地面则被改造为塑形为水池,促进了自然沉淀和植物的循环生长。

 

▲鸟瞰视野,可以看到农舍、蓄水池和汇入沿海湿地的径流。泉水从左边的断崖流下并带来灌溉水源。住宅周围的交通路径自然地融入场地之中。Aerial view above the residence reveals a caretaker’s cottage, storm water pond and outflow to the coastal wetland. The precipice left, continuously weeps spring water and provides irrigation. Circulation around the home is casually informal in context with its environs.

 

▲建造阶段照片:1.植被平台塑形,2.构建湿地,3. 迁移入口处的巨石,4.利用砂岩建造挡土墙,5.初次种植。Construction photos: 1. Shaping of the grassed terrace, 2. Formation of the wetland, 3. Moving the boulder in the entry, 4. Positioning sandstone blocks as a retaining wall, 5. Initial planting.

 

▲入口花园-沙滩岩石搭配着浮木和不规则的巨石。花园中种植着蕨类、苔藓和莎草等远古植物。Entry Garden – Beach stone mosaic with a driftwood tree and unusual boulder. Primitive plants forms include ferns, moss and sedges.

 

▲住宅位于一处沉积的砂岩构造之上。巨大的石块被用于分隔草坪和下方的花园。石块间的空隙中填满了多肉植物、多年生植物和地被植物。The residence straddles a sedimentary sandstone formation. Large sandstone boulders were used to create elevation between the lawn and garden below. Voids between the boulders were filled with a medley of succulents, perennials and ground covers.

 

▲被砂岩包围的火坑成为主卧室视野的焦点。香鸢尾、苦槛蓝、薰衣草和袋鼠爪种植其间。The fire pit, a visual point of interest from the master suite, is centered within massive sandstone blocks. Crocosmia, creeping myoporum, lavender and kangaroo paws are a part of the planting composition.

 

▲倾斜的草地与高尔夫球场相连。为了拓宽视野,花园中未设置传统的围墙。品种丰富的植物带来四季的气息,融合了多种沿海植物的特征。A sloped plane of grass deftly links the garden to golf. Traditional perimeter fencing was eliminated to broaden the visual canvas. A wide variety of plants combine for seasonal interest and echo a random natural distribution of coastal plant associations.

 

▲从远景图可以看到宽阔的水墙、悬臂式的顶篷、位于湿地上方以桥梁连接的入口路径,以及覆盖着首层空间的屋顶花园。A perspective from the housetop reveals a weeping water wall, a cantilevered canopy shading the outdoor living room, a bridged entry crossing a small wetland and a green roof of succulents covering the ground floor of the residence.

 

▲色彩缤纷的屋顶花园,种植着野牛草、蓝羊茅和各类景天属植物。花盆内种植着非洲芦荟。A roof garden covering the lower level is filled with vibrant colors and textures. Sesleria and blue fescue were blended with a variety sedums and echeverias. Aloe africana, in the planters, add accent.

 

▲交通路径中运用了石材、木材、花岗岩、鹅卵石以及硬土等不同材料。右图中的木栈道通往沙丘上的浮木长椅。砂岩石块被开凿为阶梯。Pathways are limited and composed of unassuming natural materials including pebbles, wood, compacted earth and stone. Here a wood boardwalk leads to a driftwood bench cast adrift in the dune. Also above are steps carved into a sandstone boulder.

 

▲形态各异的设计元素:1.休闲和用餐平台,2.错落的墙壁分隔出入口车道和高尔夫球场用地,3.台阶将住宅与自然地貌融为一体,通过桥板与平台相连,4.有孔水墙,5.手工制作的木门。Distinctive design elements: 1. El quincho – living and dining terrace, 2. Staggered walls separting entry drive and golfer ́s easement, 3. Steps fusing the house to the natural sandstone formation. A bridge adjoins the terrace, 4. Porous water wall, 5. A craftsman ́s gate.

 

▲微微抬升的木栈道连接了沙丘和草本植物园。背景处的断崖在日落时带来天然且具有戏剧感的光影秀。A lightly elevated boardwalk provides a transition from the reconstructed dune to a protected herb garden. The cliff in the background produces a natural and dramatic light show for every sunset.

 

▲从雨水排放场地望向湿地牧场、沙丘和住宅。湿地植物包括苔属植物、莎草、灯心草、鸢尾、雨百合和君子兰等。View across the storm water course to the wetland meadow, restored dune and residence. Wetland planting includes a blend of carex, sedges, juncus, irises, rain lilies and kaffir lilies.

 

▲水池被用于存蓄从悬崖上流下的雨水,并将其引入沿海湿地。桥梁连接了农场和高尔夫球场。This pond basin was formed to contain turbulent storm water released from the cliff. From here, it is released to a coastal wetland. The bridge provides a connection to the farm as well a link between golf holes.

 

▲智利大黄被种植在住宅角落的屋檐下。前景处是一个用于存蓄泉水的小池塘,可用于湿地中各类植物的灌溉。Nalca, or Chilean rhubarb is protected under the cantilevered corner of the house. In the foreground, a small pond featured as a collection point for spring water and overflows to irrigate a fusion of wetland vegetation.

 

PROJECT NARRATIVE

History and Objectives

In the mid 90’s, a 300-hectare residential resort community was built along a coastal bluff 8 kilometers south of Santo Domingo, Chile. The majority of the storm water collected from the new roads and roofs was diverted to the southeastern corner of the property and subsequently discharged from the top of a 40-meter cliff. Following a few major storms, a new defile was formed and many cubic meters of sand were washed out to the sea. Blackberries quickly populated the scarred environment. We were challenged to control the storm water discharge and recreate a favorable ecological environment. Although challenging, the aforementioned cliff seeps offered opportunities to harness and govern the water. The home’s location is very important to the homeowner because the site essentially links the existing development to a future planned community and working farm. We addressed and planned access to the residence with arrivals from both the farm and existing development.  

Project Vision

A prominent and central sandstone formation extending towards the ocean was quickly identified as a center piece for the home’s foundation. Its unique formation adequately elevates the main floor or second level, with views above the garden and to the ocean. Considering the rich context of the environment and geology, we sought to create numerous settings within the site’s framework to add interest and attraction. Architecturally, the idea was to keep the lines and forms simple and elegant. Similarly, the surrounding landscape would be a rich composition of colors and textures with very subtle geometry for circulation and visual cues. Control of the storm water included a new pond to eliminate turbulent forces, water velocities and erosion.  Rainwaters and residual waters were directed from the pond through a series of drops and into a newly formed coastal wetland. Spring waters emanating from the sea cliff were captured and diverted through the garden to reduce hydrostatic pressures and secure the home’s foundation. Finally, significant grading and earthwork helped divert coastal breezes and create microclimates.

Connection – Home and Landscape

During the clearing a 2-ton granite boulder was discovered on top of the sandstone formation. Unlike any other stone, it is clear it was an ocean deposit from another era.  It is featured in an entry courtyard with another relic, an old driftwood. Carefully selected beach stones and were used to form a mosaic between ancient plant types. A circular roof void couples the courtyard to the heavens above. The upper floor includes the kitchen, dining and living rooms, and a master suite, all of which have unique views to the surrounding landscape. The dining room overlooks a wetland, where the controlled seepage is released, and a reconstructed sand dune positioned to conceal immediate views to an adjacent golf hole. The sedimentary sandstone and its eroded voids were filled with succulents with bright colors in juxtaposition with cooler ocean hues. The master suite looks over a lawn linked directly to the golf course, a simple sweeping stone wall and a collection of individually placed sandstone boulders. A sharply inclined hill was formed to separate the site from the adjacent lot serves as a colorful backdrop to the garden. The lower building level was carved into the side of the sandstone formation and contains three guest rooms and a small common living, all of which are graced with a simple walkout to a grassed terrace. Green roofs cover both the lower and upper levels.

Movement and Circulation

Modest materials including stone, wood, decomposed granite, pebbles and hardened soil were featured for walkways, driveways and terraces. Impermeable paving was limited to the parking and a “quincho” or exterior patio. The vehicular driveway passes under an open carport and is connected to both the residential development and private farm. Simple wood gates mark the lot limits. A pedestrian pathway circles the site joining the collective elements and gardens. The quincho includes a living and dining space covered by cantilevered beams and canvas. We graded the site so views would extend across the lawn and over the golf to the ocean so to eliminate sights of passing golfers. An isolated fire pit was included as a visual punctuation from the master bedroom and provide a magical retreat. The path was interrupted where it intersects with the lawn. Steps were carved into several of the large boulders and placed in transition zones. A boardwalk that spans the wetland extends onto the dune destined to a driftwood bench. In general, driftwood was used as accents, bird perches, plant dividers and containers. Lastly, an easement was included for the golfer’s circulation. Borrowing finish treatments of the home, we created a series of staggered stone walls to separate and conceal views to the cart path from the entry courtyard.

Spring Waters

Spring water coming from the cliff was guided to a weeping stone wall set directly behind the exterior dining terrace.The water is then directed to a low point and used for irrigation. Additionally, water is guided to a small pond in the middle of the wetland where it overflows to nurture the vegitation. Eventually it joins the runoff from the storm water system leading to the coastal wetland. Irrigation relies solely on the spring water, and the natural discharge remains unchanged. After establishment, much of the landscape requires little or no water, including the dunes, roof and rock gardens.

Opportunities

A strong earthquake buckled a weary section of the sea cliff several hundred meters south of the home site. Its collapse covered a portion of a small wetland at the bottom of the cliff face and consequently required removal of the rubble. Large blocks, often more than 3 tons, were moved to the home site and used to create natural walls. These boulders define the limits of many of the planting zones and create vertical variations similar to the architecture.

Coastal Wetland and Dune Restoration

Scars from the impacted storm water discharge zone were transformed into a pond, stream, and wetlands. Eroded dunes were constructed from spoils of the excavation of the ponds and wetland and they were eventually capped with sand. Revegetation simply mimicked vegetation types and densities from similar environments. Plants were harvested and replanted within hours and during the normal wet winter season. The dune only required supplemental irrigation through the first summer while the wetland emerged free of need.

Technical Challenges

It is often difficult to create an organic, natural appearing solution when collaborating with engineers. Initial details included rigid borders and concrete lined channels, all of which would have been a huge challenge to conceal. Following several workshops and meetings, we were able to increase the width of the flow zones to reduce discharge velocities. These changes permitted covering of the concrete forms to allow vegetation to take hold. The channel sides were almost entirely eliminated and the flat base was changed to form a basin to allow for natural sedimentation and plant recurrence.

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