2016 ASLA GENERAL DESIGN HONOR AWARDS:The Metro-Forest Project, Bangkok by Landscape Architects of Bangkok

Visitors will see Bangkok like never before.

Project Specs

Location:

“优雅而精致的设计。曼谷本地设计语言的巧妙运用让项目在融入环境的同时,与众不同。”
——2016年评审委员会
“It has a gracefulness and elegance about it. This project is distinguished by strong design gestures that are well integrated into the landscape by using Bangkok’s design language in a very subtle way.”
– 2016 Awards Jury

来自ASLA对gooood的分享。
The Metro-Forest Project by Landscape Architects of Bangkok (LAB),更多请至:Landscape Architects of Bangkok (LAB) on gooood 
Appreciation towards ASLA for providing the following description:

 

项目陈述 PROJECT STATEMENT

都市森林公园坐落于曼谷东部边缘的郊区Prawet,距离素万那普国际机场约6公里。设计团队在这个生态修复项目中加入了户外展览空间元素,希望借此机会教育民众本地森林生态的相关知识,唤醒他们的环保意识。面积约两公顷荒废土地被回收利用,通过大量种植本土低地热带植被,将其重塑为足以应对城郊扩张趋势、城市热岛效应与洪水淹没区发展的综合性绿地。

Located at the Eastern fringes of Bangkok in the suburban district of Prawet, approximately 6 kilometers from the Suvarnabhumi International Airport, lies The Metro-Forest Project. An ecological regeneration project designed as an outdoor exhibition space to cultivate environmental awareness and educate visitors about local forest ecology. The project, on an abandoned site, aimed to reclaim 2-hectares (4.75 acre) of valuable land and reverse the trends of suburban sprawl, urban heat island, and flood-prone developments through the incorporation of historically local (native and introduced) lowland tropical tree species.

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△ 占地2公顷的项目场地位于曼谷东缘的郊区,毗邻Sukaphiiban路。
The 2-heclare project site is situated on an abandoned site along Sukaphiiban Road in the Eastern suburban fringes of Bangkok. Photo Credit: Landscape Architects of Bangkok

 

项目说明 PROJECT NARRATIVE

历史与文脉 

对场地的初步分析显示,过去清淤留下的浅坑已成为了非法垃圾堆填区。2012年年初,来自 Landscape Architects of Bangkok的团队受PTT造林部门的邀请,为此地重建林区。在泰国石油管理局CEO的倡议下,同时也为了纪念在皇室以及公主Maha Chakri Sirindhorn对森林保护的重视,景观团队创造了一个重现泰国旧日森林系统的景观空间,供人们游玩和学习。设计大量使用了19世纪中期曾在此地繁衍生息的各种植被,其时,曼谷附近的许多地名都是沿用了其盛行植被的名称。

2013年5月,公园的建造正式拉开了帷幕。将近37000方土壤和6000方的种植土被引入,塑造出起伏的台地,并为未来植物的生长奠定相应的种植介质。而同时,高低不一的台地也在小尺度上创造出一个个各不相同的微小生态环境。

植被演替:方法与技术

为了创造多样化的森林生态系统,设计团队沿用了Akira Miyawaki博士的幼苗种植技术以创造低地龙脑香科树木生长的最佳环境。由景观建筑师、森林生态学家与施工团队合作设计、建造的台地具有多孔性,能够保持土壤内的空气含量。由三份表层土、一份稻壳、一份椰糠粉末和一份鸡粪肥混合而成的肥沃有机土壤则为低地植被幼苗提供了相适宜的生长环境。设计团队根据植被的演替速率和灌溉水源条件,做出了相应的植被群落的分布和搭配。诸如滨玉蕊一类适应半咸水生长环境的植被被种植在运河的堤岸之上。而耐水湿性能较强,能够经受洪水短时间浸泡的植被则点缀在河滩的两侧。而在台地之上,则混植着落叶树种与低地龙脑香科树。

超过279种,共6万余株树木覆盖着占总面积约75%的土地。而树木种植的位置则是根据不同植被群落所创造的空间覆盖类型所确定的。设计团队按照每平米4株树木,即50厘米的间距栽植幼苗,以鼓励台地区域的植被在第一阶段和演替过程中经历自然选择,优胜略汰。而在剩余的地区,树木稀疏地点缀在草地之上,引导视线,带来更开阔的视野,形成了环绕展览中心的开放空间。

此外,种植设计师还希望通过控制植被覆盖率、湿度和营养水平,创造出层次丰富的林冠层。设计团队希望能够打造一片可以自我管理、演替繁殖而无需人为介入的次生自然。而随着森林的愈发成熟,一代代人们将持续地参与到这个项目之中,让森林群落演替的预测性模型得以逐渐确定并反馈、实施到项目中去。

城市中的森林:林冠之上

交错的树枝、繁茂的树叶与季节性出现的花朵和果实形成了自然林地郁郁葱葱的林冠。而森林环境则与林冠密度息息相关。不同的光线、湿度和郁闭度将营造出不同的微气候环境,促进区域内其他物种的生长与繁衍。在参考了King Bhumipol在其森林项目中的土方工程分级原则后,设计团队将水景元素与起伏的地相相结合,以降低环境温度,提高湿度,并借此控制林冠的高度。

土方设计不仅成为了场地全新生态系统的基础,同时,沿着高低错落台地所种植的种类繁多的植被也进一步提升了森林以及其林冠的观赏性。通过控制林冠的形态以及种植密度,景观设计师得以创造出一片避世之地,让人们能够短暂地逃离喧嚣的曼谷都市,沉浸在自然丛林之中。当植物群落达到稳定的成熟状态后,景观设计师将会在地面层开凿一条小径。人们将穿行在林荫之下,体验丰富的林下空间层次。但在此前,人们暂时还只能沿着空中步道在瞭望塔间穿梭,在避免过多打扰正在萌芽发展中森林的同时,与郁郁葱葱的绿意近距离接触。

在林冠层,景观团队通过前期种植以及后期维护,让林冠保持在最佳的密度上。树木幼苗在拥有足够空间茁壮生长的同时,充足的林冠厚度也能截留雨水、减少地表径流总量,让雨水得以下渗,在台地范围内就地补充地下水源。在未来,参天的绿意将在空中步道之上蔓延相接,投下阴凉,为在步道上来往,或是结束游览、从眺望塔返回展览中心的游人遮挡猛烈的阳光。

重现活力的空间与游人

凭借起伏台地塑造而成的瀑布溪流,以及空中步道、眺望塔、展览中心的碳中性设计,项目获得了LEED-NC铂金级认证。而来自景观团队的设计让外部空间变成了以夯实素土打造的展览空间的延伸,都市森林公园正如当初PTT造林部门所许下的承诺一般,成为了一个能够唤醒公众的森林管理意识,并认识到环保的重要性,真正意义上的公众空间。无数的野生动物在此落户安家,繁衍生息,也让人们能够近距离的接触、观察他们。

如同大地艺术般的室外展览区中,不断发展、变化的景观让游客的每一次到访都有着截然不同的空间体验。或在林下感受丰富的林冠空间层次,或沿着空中步道穿行林间,或在眺望塔中俯瞰丛林,游客们将看到一个颠覆过往认知的曼谷。而一个野趣盎然的自然空间在提供教育与休闲服务的同时,也许能够启发到访的城市居民,在自家后院尝试打造一个专属于自己的小森林。

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△ PTT城市造林展览中心被野趣盎然的演替林所环绕着。
The PTT Urban Reforestation Exhibition Center in the wilderness of the successional forest. Photo Credit: Rungkit Charoenwat

 

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△ 项目在三年的时间段中慢慢变化,终于初现雏形。
A timeframe of the project shows the gradual transformation over an approximate 3-year period. Photo Credit: Landscape Architects of Bangkok and PTT Reforestation Institute

 

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△ 大量的土方工程以及于展览中心相结合的景观设计让雨水收集与地下水补充成为了可能。
Rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge is a primary feature resulting from the extensive earthwork and integration of the landscape with the exhibition center. Photo Credit: Landscape Architects of Bangkok

 

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通过检测与预测模型,幼苗逐渐成长形成了层次丰富的低地龙脑香林。
Successional growth of the saplings developing into a multi-layered canopy of Lowland Dipterocarp Forest through monitoring and predictive-modeling. Photo Credit: Landscape Architects of Bangkok

 

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△ 人们步出瞭望塔,沿着用回收铁路枕木铺设而成的台阶、小道和桥梁前行。
Visitors exiting the observation tower trek across the steps, path, and bridge made of reused railroad ties. Photo Credit: Suphap Techawanitchai

 

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△ 以夯实素土建造的展览中心之上,是繁茂生长的草甸。
Natural Meadows atop the Rammed-Earth Exhibition Center. Photo Credit: Rungkit Charoenwat

 

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△ 展览中心的入口道路两侧种满了香坡垒和卤蕨。
Hopea pdprata Roxb. + Acrostichum aureum L. line the entryway into the Exhibition site + Center. Photo Credit: Rungkit Charoenwat

 

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△ 可以举办各类活动的多功能草地剧场坐落在洋溢着自然气息的池塘边。
An outdoor theater lawn for multi-purposes uses + events adjacent to the ‘natural’ pond. Photo Credit: Rungkit Charoenwat

 

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△ 游客高高在上,俯瞰着下方丛林的茂盛的绿意与变化的林冠肌理。
Visitors rising to observe tree foliage and its textures from above the canopy. Photo Credit: Rungkit Charoenwat

 

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△ 起伏的空中步道让游客能够多角度的观赏丛林,同时也让他们远离地面,最小化其对正在萌芽发展中森林的干扰。
The elevated skywalk offers different observation points and a path that separates visitors from the ground level in order to minimize disturbance of the newly grown forest. Photo Credit: Rungkit Charoenwat

 

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△ 茁壮生长的树木渐渐遮挡住了公园外侧的郊区建筑。
A growing canopy gradually beginning to screen out the surrounding suburban development. Photo Credit: Rungkit Charoenwat

 

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△ 带有强烈几何色彩的空中步道穿越丛林,与自然生长的树木,蜿蜒的河流以及起伏的地形形成了强烈的对比。
Strong geometry of the skywalk cutting across and contrasting amongst the forest canopy and ‘natural’ terrain + elements. Photo Credit: Rungkit Charoenwat

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△ 海桑和芋头在半盐水沼泽的滨河地带茁壮的生长着。
Sonneratia caseolaria (L.) + Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott thriving along the riparian edges inundated by the brackish waters resulting from the sites swamp/marsh hydrology. Photo Credit: Rungkit Charoenwat

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△ 在溪流叠落之处,视野稍稍开阔,而不远处的瞭望塔仿佛高耸入云。
The ripple zone of the stream opens up the view back towards the observation tower. Photo Credit: Rungkit Charoenwat

 

History & Context 

Initial analysis of the abandoned site showed signs of dredging for soil as the excavation created pits for illegal refuse dumping. In early 2012, the landscape architects were commissioned by the PTT Reforestation Institute to design a space for reforestation. Under initiatives set by the President/CEO of the Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT) and in commemoration to the forest stewardship efforts by the Royal Family and Her Royal Highness, Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn’s, an ecological forest that reflected Bangkok’s former landscape looked to be created for public education and enjoyment. Saplings of trees once prominent during the Rama III & IV era (mid-19th century) were selected for initial planting as they had once established territorial populations around Bangkok during which time many districts were named after the dominant species of the area.

Construction began in May 2013 where approximately 37,000 cu.m of earthwork was introduced and graded with 6,000 cu.m of planting soil to create the engineered berms that would provide a suitable planting medium and terrain for the new urban forest. In addition, the berms lead to the creation of diverse micro-ecologies in such a relatively small space.

Planting for Succession: Methodologies, Techniques 

To create a diverse forest ecology, the planting techniques of saplings by Dr. Akira Miyawaki were implemented to create optimal growing environments of lowland dipterocarp. Through collaboration with the landscape architects, forest ecologists, and contractors, raised berms were designed, engineered and constructed to provide porosity and prevent compaction. A pre-mixture of highly fertile, organic soil (3-parts Topsoil, 1-part Raw Rice Husk, 1-part Coconut Coir Dust, 1-part Chicken Manure) was used as a soil medium suitable for the lowland species saplings. The layout of the species was carefully grouped according to successional rate and appropriate water to ground surface level growing conditions. For example, species that thrive in brackish water, such as Barringtonia asiatica, were planted along the canal embankment. Species able to survive during intermittent flooding conditions were planted along the riparian edge. While atop the berms, a diverse mix of deciduous forest plants and lowland dipterocarp cover the area.

Approximately 60,000 trees of more than 279 unique species were planted on approximately 75% of the overall site. Planting locations for the trees were also carefully selected based on the type of coverage each successional group would provide. For the initial planting of saplings, a planting density of approximately 4 trees per square meter or a spacing of 50 centimeters was used to encourage natural selection of the first phase + successional period of the forest covering the constructed berms. In the remaining planted areas, the tree plantings were sparser to help control sightlines, open up views, and provide open space area around the exhibition center.

The planting design intent also looked to create a forest canopy of multiple layers that could be controlled through monitoring of plant coverage, moisture levels and nutrient levels. Maintenance of the site will look for the forest to manage itself, as no management is the best management. However, as the forest matures, a practice of rotational forestry through predictive-modeling or forecasting of its succession will be implemented as the continuously on-going project evolves over generations to come.

Forest in the City: At the Canopy Level 

Natural forests are known to have dense canopies, comprising of branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits. The control of the canopy is critical to controlling the environment of the forest. Whether it is light, moisture, or canopy protection, the designers looked at the importance of creating a micro-climate for plants to thrive off of one another and any surrounding elements. Through similar earthwork grading principles developed by King Bhumipol in his Royal Forestry projects, a combination of water feature and terrain design attempts to lower the ambient temperature, increase moisture, while also being a design strategy to control the height of the canopy.

The earthwork design, serves as the backbone of the site’s new ecology, but also aims to improve the aesthetics of the forest and its canopy by the plant variety changes along the cross-section of the elevated berms. Control of the canopy and density of planting is crucial to the ambience and design intent of the landscape architects to create a forest of seclusion for visitors to escape from the concrete jungles of Bangkok and spend a few hours in the tree wilderness. After the canopy has reached maturation, the landscape architects intend to carve out a trail at the ground level to provide an experience revealing the understory. However, in the early stages of succession, guests may spend a majority of their time atop the skywalk + observation tower, which were designed to minimize disturbance of the burgeoning forest and allow close-up views of the maturing canopy.

At the canopy level, planting at the optimal density and maintaining that density is essential to allow the saplings to flourish while also providing enough canopy interception to reduce runoff and allow for rainwater infiltration. The infiltration of water on-site results in the recharge of the groundwater within the constructed berms. The eventual spreading canopy of trees in the forest will serve to shade guests as they trek across the elevated skywalks and meander down from the viewing tower back to the exhibition center.

Rejuvenate Places & People 

From the waterfall & stream carved and formed by earth-berm mounding, to the skywalk, tower, and exhibitions carbon neutral design. The project, which received LEED Platinum NC, is truly a public outreach commitment by the PTT Reforestation Institute to inspire public awareness of forestry management and the importance of environmental stewardship in Thailand as the design by the Landscape Architects has become an extension of the rammed-earth exhibition center from indoors to outdoors. The site has also become a new habitat for fauna to establish their home and visitors to observe.

The Land Art inspired outdoor exhibition is intended to be a medium where the landscape will be constantly evolving so that visitors will always be welcomed by ‘new’ experiences during each visit. Able to experience the different levels of the canopy at the ground-level, along the skywalk, and within the observation tower, visitors will see Bangkok like never before. A natural wilderness that provides an educational and fun experience that could perhaps inspire urbanites to plant saplings and grow a forest in their own backyard.

 

Official Entrant:
Touchapon Suntrajarn, Int’l ASLA

Lead Designer:
Mr. Tawatchai Kobkaikit, ASLA : Principal/Managing Director
Miss Boontrika Wannapin : Principal

Design Team:
Miss Nantawan Sirisup : Landscape Architect
Mr. Akachai Werasakulchai : Landscape Architect
Miss Punyada Klinpaka : Landscape Architect
Miss Hatacha Sukprakob : Landscape Architect
Miss Tiprada Tingkluab : Horticulturist
Miss Thannaphat Tonnuea : Horticulturist

Additional Project Credits:
Ecological Forest Consultant : Dr.Sirin Kaewlaierd
Landscape Design Consultant : Assistant Professor Dr. Angsana Boonyobhas
Architectural Design & Interior Design : Spacetime Architects Co., Ltd.
Interior Design of Mini-Theatre area : designLAB NLSS Co., Ltd.
Energy & Green Building Consultant: Architects 49 Limited
Exhibition Design : Pico (Thailand) Public Company Limited
Lighting Consultant : 49 Lighting Design Consultants Limited
Structural Engineering : H. Engineer Co., Ltd
MEP Engineering : MITR Technical Consultant Co., Ltd.
Quantity Surveyor : Langdon & Seah (Thailand) Ltd.
Construction Management : EDA Consultant Co., Ltd.
Main Contractor : Ritta Co., Ltd.
Softscape Contractor : CORDIA Co., Ltd.
Waterfall Contractor : TROPICAL GARDEN Ltd., Part.
Rammed Earth Sub-contractor : la terre S.A.
Earthwork Contractor : Psatanachod Kanyotha Co., Ltd.

MORE: Landscape Architects of Bangkok (LAB),更多请至:Landscape Architects of Bangkok (LAB) on gooood 

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