ZhengZhou Office by Christian Kerez

an endless variation in the composition of structural elements

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非常感谢Christian Kerez将以下内容授权gooood发行。更多请至:Christian Kerez on gooood 
Appreciation towards Christian Kerez for providing the following description:

Christian Kerez事务所的郑州龙湖CBD区C3-10地块办公楼设计将分为两个阶段进行介绍,将项目的现实演进与深化展示。

 

 

ZhengZhou stage 1 郑州第一阶段

建筑因为创新的结构概念而显得与众不同。本建筑的结构整合了中国传统建筑中的杆柱元素外加钢索,这些元素通常用于稳定纤细的结构。轻薄的楼板是结构中的第三个元素。这三个元素共同为所有的荷载提供了水平和竖向的力流通道,并传递到桩基。

结构的“轻”让在此建筑中工作的人产生了新的空间体验。每一层的楼板让人有漂浮的印象。灵活的结构也为使用者提供通透性 。钢索和混凝土柱子改变了建筑结构每层单调重复的印象。新结构通过构件组合产生了无限变化。

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Zhengdong New District Long Hu Area Sub Central Buisness District C3-10 Plot Office Building Design (ZhengZhou stage 1) – Concept Design -Architectural Design Narrative

The building is characterized by its innovative concept that combines some elements from Chinese traditional architecture (stick-columns) and elements (cables) that are usually employed to stabilize slender structures. A thin ribbed slab constitutes a third structural element, characterized by its lightness. Together they provide an unique structural composition that allows continuous flow of all vertical and horizontal loads up to foundations.

The lightness of this structure will allow a new spatial experience for the people working and staying here. The slabs of each level will leave a floating impression. Transparency becomes an overall option for the user of this building.

The view of the steel cables and concrete columns give an ever changing impression from one level to the other instead of a monotonous structural repetition An endless of the structural composition is the highlight of the building. This new structure will offer an endless variation in the composition of structural elements.

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拉索结构

水平荷载由建筑外侧的拉索承担,这样的方法今天经常被用于固定纤细的柱子。对于那些只有柱子和楼板组成的平面,这种方法可以实现平面的完全自由。为了增加拉索的效率并减少建筑的形变,钢索是预应力的。这样就保证了所有钢索同时工作,不管荷载的方向如何。钢索中的预拉力在水平荷载的影响下,有些增加,有些减少。但钢索一直保证收拉。

钢索数量的增加伴随着柱子数量的增加。以这种方式,建筑在低区的转动被很好的控制。在高区,当较大作用力出现的时候,剖面上钢索的数量也是增加的。钢索用钢构件连接在楼板梁柱上。在连接节点处,一直有梁穿过,这样让拉锁之上的拉力分解成水平和竖直两个方向。在下方的钢索连接点则固定在地下停车场的柱子和梁上。

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Cables

The horizontal loads are undertaken with the cables, positioned outside the building. This system, used to nowadays for the stabilization of the slender antenna pylons, permits complete flexibility of the towers floors, constituted only by the columns and the ribbed slabs.

In order to increase their efficiency and to decrease the shift of the building, the cables are pre-stressed. This permits that all cables are effective in takingthe loads. Their force due to horizontal loads will in some cases increase and in some cases decrease, but the cables would remain in tension

The increase of the number of columns is followed by the increase of the number of cables. In that way the rotation and the shift of the building in the lower floors is well controlled. In upper floors, where the bigger wind forces appear, the cross section of the cables is increased.

The cables are connected with the floor beams using steel connectors. The presence of the beams in the anchor points is favorable in order to introduce horizontal and vertical forces coming from the cable. In the lower anchor point the cables are connected with the beams and columns in the parking level.

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柱子结构

经典的结构系统以竖向元素为特征,其尺寸随着建筑重量而变化。而在此建筑中,竖向荷载通过底部楼板的新柱子来解决。通过这种方式,低层的荷载传递到新柱子和高层柱子上,由于结构的变形能力,力流被重新分配。竖向荷载主要通过梁和楼板重新分配。在塔楼的低区和高区,楼板被去掉,以便创造开放的公共空间。结构去除后,中间柱子的荷载降低,水平稳定性通过固定的梁完成。柱子采用预制混凝土建造,也可以根据当地经验用钢材建造。预制可以提高柱子的性能。通过这样的方式,建筑方面对纤细构件 _的要求得到满足。混凝土柱子之间的荷载通过固定柱子的钢筋水平传递。在瑞士,同样也在欧洲,预制的柱子有着很好的使用历史,这可以很大程度上缩短工期。楼板楼板采用肋楼板,其目的是将建筑自重降到最低。梁(肋)的布置让楼板的厚度降到12厘米,这让建筑重量显著降低,也让柱子的尺寸僵硬减少,同时也降低了地震作用力。梁的位置经过精心布置,它们在不同层不断重复,这样的布置允许柱子的竖向荷载重新分布。为了最大化梁的效率,并将尺寸降到最低,这里采用里预应力技术。

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Columns

As opposed to “classical” structural systems characterized by vertical repetition of the structural elements and their gradual scaling with the increase of the building weight, the proposed building solves this problem basically by the introduction of new vertical columns in the lower floors. In that way lower floor’s load is introduced in new columns but also the forces of upper columns, thanks to compatibility of deformations, are redistributed. The redistribution of the vertical loads is mainly achieved by the beams under the slabs. In the lower and upper zone of the tower, the slabs are omitted in order to make open public space. This omission helps to reduce the load on the central columns, horizontally stabilized with the retained beams.

The columns are prefabricated. They are made out of reinforced concrete or if local experience requires in embedded steel sections. The prefabrication helps to increase the capacity of the columns. In this way the architecture requirements that demand slender elements are met. The load between reinforced concrete columns is transmitted across the steel bars or across steel profiles if they are embedded. In Switzerland but also across Europe very good experiences are made with prefabricated columns. The decrease of the construction time with this system is considerable.

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大多数传统办公楼的中心是封闭,因为中心式的核心筒会占据高层平面中心很大的位置的在这个建筑中。由于有柱子和拉索同时作用抵抗垂直重力和水平拉力,厚重的核心筒得以解放,建筑的中心可以成为开敞空间。建筑的中心没有被厚重建筑核心筒分隔,让人们在同一楼层的不同的区域工作。在首层和顶层,建筑的中心变成了中庭空间,人们视线可以随意穿越.

建筑的结构设计为办公楼的使用提供丰富的使用可能性。如果核心桶以常规方式被布置在中间的话,那在这座建筑中,中间可以掏空成为被玻璃覆盖的中庭。建筑的中心将变得透明和明亮。

建筑提供了在中间区域望出去的可能,穿过这些开放空间,人们可以从建筑的一端看到另一端。

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Space constitution, Building function

The center of most office tower is closed and massive. In this structural proposal the center, the very heart of the building, can be an open, usable space.

The center of the building is not separating each side of the building from another but brings people working in different areas of the same level together. On the ground floor and at the top of the building this area becomes a void over several levels, where people can meet.

The concept of the structural design gives plenty of new possibilities to the use of an office tower. Even if the core would be placed at its most usual location in the middle in the floor plan, this concept could also offer, as an alternative, an atrium with vertical glazed shafts. The heart of the building will become transparent and light. For total flexibility the shafts could also be located at the outside of the building. The interior space would become totally open without any interruption by any structural wall.

The center of each floor plan could provide a view to the outside. Through this open space people could look from one side to the other side of the building.

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ZhengZhou stage 2 郑州第一阶段

通常来说,建筑每一层的承重是不一样的。我们设计的郑州120米塔楼中,一共有30层,也就是说,底层的受 重是第三十层的三十倍。为了避免增加结构(柱子或核心筒)的尺寸,我们改变结构柱的数量——柱子数量由上至下递增。在郑州第一阶 段(概念阶段中),为了创造一个轻盈的结构体系但同时保证结构的稳固性,我们在高层的外部设计了拉索结构以承受拉力(高层内部直 柱承受压力)。由于外部的拉索结构会带来消防扑救的问题,在郑州第二阶段(方案阶段)设计中,我们把上一个阶段中的直柱与拉索系 统整合为斜柱系统。这个斜柱结构系统同时抗压与抗拉。斜柱的数量也随着层数的增加而递减。在里面人们可以在每一层都体会到不同, 而不象传统的高层,每一层的体验几乎是相似的。

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Zhengdong New District Long Hu Area Sub Central Buisness District C3-10 Plot Office Building Design (ZhengZhou stage 2) – Concept Design -Architectural Design Narrative

The building weight changes from one level to another with the height.  In our tower of 30 levels the load is 30 times greater on the ground level than on the top floor. Instead of increasing the size of the columns or the cores, we increased the number of columns.  To maintain the minimal dimension of construction elements and lightness of the building, we reinforced in the previous design stage, the building with stiffening tension wires on the outside.

Our new design reduces the amount of structural elements to one single element, a pair of inclined columns.  These inclined columns support and stiffen the building simultaneously.  The amount of these triangles decreases with the height of the building. Therefore, density of structural elements will change over the entire height of the CBD Bank Tower.  The structural height condition will be experienced in every part of the building and create an endless variety of spatial impressions for people working or just having meeting there.

Previous issues concerning fire access in the previous scheme allowed us as a chance to enhance the architectural rigor of the basic idea in the previous design stage.

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建筑的结构概念受到了埃菲尔铁塔的启发。工程师莫雷斯克什兰时,他把铁塔想成一个缆索结构,一个在最大风载作用下产生的最佳结构。这个结构可以被简化为一组三角形支撑结构来应对不同高度的水平荷载。虽然这些三角结构只在一个平面上是稳定的,但他可以在别的平面上反复重复来增加整个建筑的稳定性。当他们相互受力时,一个面的不稳定可以被别的面支撑,于是构成了整体的稳定。这便是此建筑最基本的结构概念。

The structural concept of the Zhengzhou tower is best understood by analyzing the structural concepts of the Eiffel Tower. When the engineer Maurice Koechlin designed the Eiffel tower, he conceived it as a funicular structure, optimized to undertake the wind load with its optimal form.  This structure can be reduced to group of triangular elements that take the horizontal load on different heights of the building. Although these triangular are stable only in one plane, they can be repeated and placed in other planes in order to stabilize the building in all directions.  Inclining the plane is possible as other inclined planes help to stabilize it. The Zhengzhou tower is designed from these basic principles.

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要达到同样的劲性并且支撑相同大小的可租用空间,新的结构系统让我们的设计比传统意义上用结构核心和粗大柱体支撑的大楼要轻很多。换言之,只有当钢材的价格是混凝土的 七倍的时候,建筑的造价才会与传统办公楼相当。虽然此设计可能需要更多的人工,但是由于建筑使用更少的材料,所以并不会因此付出更高的造价。这个新的结构系统在建筑各处都清晰可见,倾斜的结构柱也使建筑有非常丰富的空间变化。

This structural system creates a building that is structurally lighter than a conventional structure with heavy cores and thick columns. The comparison shows that our proposal will be far lighter, even with the same structural stiffness and floor areas.  Only if the price of steel is may be seven times more than the cost of concrete, the costs for building material are still comparable.  This building might require more labor to build, but the building’s use of material resources justifies the effort.  This light structural system will be exposed and present in every part of the building, and the thin inclined columns create a nuanced variety throughout the entire building.

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建筑概念

设计中的120米银行办公楼坐落在郑东新区龙湖商业区的副中心地块,它由二十九块悬挑的楼板相互叠加而成,从远处便就可清晰辨认外部的结构梁柱,并且让人联想到中国传统的斗拱结构。建筑由一系列细 长而且暴露在外的支撑结构组成,就像传统木塔中层层叠加的结构,突然放大到当代中国的城市尺度。

此设计尝试挑战与突破传统的高层办公楼设计,也是郑东新区一系列世界建筑大师设计中的第一幢。这并非是在传统上锦上添花,而是重新质问传统高层建筑的最根本的空间与结构问题,并由此探讨新的手段方法。建筑的结构将完全暴露在建筑的个个空间甚至是室外,使建筑具有其独特的标志性。直径为4ocm的钢制结构柱穿插在楼板之间,既联系了也分割了建筑的各个空间。这些结构柱也打破了传统办公空间均质乏味的内部空间,而营造了不断变化的空间形态。随着建筑重量的变化,结构柱的密度由底层向上逐步递减,梁本身的高度也随之变化,由下到上递增,这也使得越往高层可以有越大悬挑的楼板。如此一来建筑的高度也可以从结构的变化中体现。其中一些结构柱穿过建筑表皮直接落入周围的空地上,人们可以看到这些高达一百米直径却只有四十厘米的斜柱如何穿梭在建筑的不同空间之中。这是一种前所未有的视觉和空间的体验,会让所有人过目不忘。这些暴露在外结构柱其实只是整体结构冰山一角,它们也挑逗着人们的好奇心,让来往行人愿意走近或者进入建筑一探究竟,从而增加了建筑的神秘感与气量。

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The 120m tall office tower in ZhengZhou Sub Central Business district represents a bank company. It consists of 30 cantilevering platforms stacked on top of each other. The supporting beams are exposed and visible from far away.  Visitors might be reminded visitors of wooded structures from China’s ancient empire. because this building is composed of an endless series of small and fully exposed structural elements as you find them for example in pagoda towers, which then fully increased into the large scale of contemporary Chinese urban development. This new office tower is the first in a row of buildings to be designed by world famous international architects and attempts to challenge and provoke conventional high-rise designs in many ways. It is not new by its shape nor by adding any new details to old designs. It is rather questioning as basic as possible the spatial and structural arrangement of an office tower. While most big high rise building are achieving stiffness through massive cores or facades with braced elements, this high-rise in contrast consists only of one singular structural element; a series of inclined columns combined to make structural triangles, that carry the load of the building and stiffen the volume. It will offer an open platform without closing facades or occupying the center of the floor. The structure in this building is not hidden, it is exposed, and experienced in every part of the building. The strength of the steel tubes running through the entire volume will connect and differentiate each space in this building. These structural tubes in effect create an endless variety of office rooms, which break the monotony often found in generic work spaces. With its increase in density at to the ground level and its increase of beam dimension to the top the structural system allows for increasing cantilevering slabs as you ascend. Through these structural conditions the building height can be indicated at each level. In this sense, stability becomes literally an experience in every single space of this bank building. Some of these inclined columns go through the façade and spread out on the ground floor. These columns, visible over many levels up to 100m, with a diameter of only 40 cm will give the building in a discrete and elegant way, a monumental impression. Since these columns exposed on the front of the glass façade are only making up a very small part of the visible building structure; they will remain mysterious and attract people walking by to come closer to reveal the meaning of these oblique columns.

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空间与建筑功能

大多数传统办公楼的中部空间都是封闭并且庞大的,而这个设计的中部空间却是完全开放的,可使用的。封闭的中部 空间使得办公空间被分割开来,而开放的中部设计却让办公的人都可以集中到中心来,从而增加公司凝聚力,让员工之间有更多交流的机会。中部空间在一层与顶层变成了通透的中庭,人们可以在此相聚,此结构设计 可以让塔楼的内部空间灵活多变。明亮开放的中庭空间使分布在四周的电梯可以有敞亮的视野。人们可以徜徉在底层的中庭与26层的VIP开放空间中,享受花园,无遮拦的视野与高广的空间,这些空间被环绕在内,免受高层的强风侵袭,非常怡人。每层楼的中心都可以通过VIP休息区和宴会厅看到外部。

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Narrative of building function

The centers of most office towers are closed and massive.  In this structural proposal, the center, the very heart of the building, can be an open and usable space. The center of the building is not separating each side of the building from another but brings people working in different areas on the same level of the building together.  On the ground floor and at the top of the building this area becomes a void over several levels, where people can meet. The concept of the structural design gives plenty of new possibilities to the use of an office tower. Instead of a closed heavy shaft in the middle of the building, this structure offers an alternative, an atrium with vertical glazed elevators. The heart of the building will become transparent and light. The center of each floor plan could provide a view to the outside. Through this open space, working people could look on one side of the building to the other side of the building.

A large atrium opens the structure on the entrance level of this building while two open court yards in the VIP area on top of the building offer people a place to meet on the 26th floor in a garden well protected from winds, enjoying a view through the lounge area and banquet hall.

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