Waterfowl Pavilion of Beijing Zoo, China by SUP Atelier

A net-zero carbon pavilion vanishing in the nature.

Project Specs

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项目概况
Project Statement

北京动物园水禽馆是一座与环境融为一体的微能耗建筑,消隐在生态景观多样化的水禽岛之中,也是供热带和亚热带水禽栖息和科普展陈的复合型展馆。建筑面积约335㎡,其中鸟舍约235㎡,展厅、会议及后勤用房约100㎡。水禽馆不仅是一个公益建筑的建筑设计研究和建造过程实现的案例,也是一个立足于中国北方寒冷地区的从建筑学出发的基于可持续设计策略研究的实验平台。

Waterfowl Pavilion of Beijing Zoo is a net-zero energy building locating on the Waterfowl Island which owns extremely high ecosystem and landscape biodiversity and serves as a multi-functional building for bird breeding, exhibition and science advocacy. It’s both a practical case of public architectural design and construction, and an experimental platform for sustainable design strategies based on the Cold Zone in north China.

▼建筑外观,external view of the building

1-external1-Waterfowl Pavilion-Sup

因项目场地和建筑功能的特殊性,在项目筹划阶段就明确了可持续设计的目标:即在有限的建造经费内,借助建筑师的设计和赞助商捐助的部品,实现一座以“零能零碳”为目标的微能耗示范建筑。水禽馆的设计过程遵循了从规划布局,到建筑设计,再到细部设计层面的逐层深化细化的顺序,并在不断强调建筑在环境中的“消隐”。这种“消隐”不仅体现在建筑视觉的层面,更体现在对场地环境与生态系统干扰破坏的最小化。

Facing the particularities both on site and function, a sustainable design target was set up at the initial stage of project: to create a demonstration net-zero energy building under the limit construction budget. The design process of Waterfowl Pavilion involves three phases: planning layout, architectural design and detail design, emphasizing being ‘invisible’ in the natural environment. Invisibility is not solely reflected in visual level, but also the minimization of interferences toward ecological system and wild environment of Waterfowl Island.

▼建筑消隐于环境之中,the building is “invisible” in the natural environment

1-external-Waterfowl Pavilion-Sup

 

视觉形象消隐
Vanishing in the nature

动物园水禽岛上植被丰饶,覆盖率超过90%,生物多样性极高。岛上的乔木、灌木与草本植物繁茂生长,造就了独特而可贵的生态景观特征。在这样的场地中所“植入”的建筑,必须在形式与外观上与环境呼应,与自然交融,形成视觉效果上的“消隐”。

The Waterfowl Island owns superior natural environment which vegetation coverage reaches more than 90% with luxuriant arbors and shrubs. In order to ‘plant’ a building inside the site, its form should adjust to communicate with the natural environment leading to the visual invisibility.

▼建筑周边植被茂盛,lush environment around the building

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基于功能的需求,水禽馆主要分为南侧鸟舍区与北侧人的活动区,两者通过围护结构形成双层嵌套的空间关系。其中,建筑的外墙根据周边环境形成高低变化的折板形式,配合鸟舍区为促进热压通风而设计的两组覆斗状的拔高风塔,形成高低错落的形式,契合水禽岛上乔灌相间的景观特征。

According to the functional demands, the pavilion is separated into two parts, the bird house in the south and the surrounding human zone. The two higher inverted funnel-shaped wind towers of bird house and the lower zigzag exterior walls of human zone imply the forest and grass mixture, arbors and shrubs alternate on the island.

▼高风塔,wind towers

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在材料方面,折形外墙采用人造再生的粗纹木板,廊桥围挡则就地取材,利用风干芦苇编织而成,从而在质感与色彩上使建筑进一步地融入环境。同时,在施工前对建筑周边的乔木进行精确的定位,确保其完整保留,从而起到荫蔽建筑的作用,形成视觉的“消隐”。

The zigzag walls use renewable coarse-grained wooden panels while the exterior gallery wall is knitted by dry vulgar reeds, which make the pavilion more corresponded to the environment in color and texture. The arbors surrounding the building are accurately positioned before construction and protected carefully, which can shade the pavilion and make it invisible.

▼粗纹木板制折形外墙,zigzag walls composed by coarse-grained wooden panels

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▼参观入口,visitor entrance / 贵宾入口,VIP entrance

2-entrance-Waterfowl Pavilion-Sup     2-vip entrance-Waterfowl Pavilion-Sup

▼会议室外部,outside the meeting room

2-exit-Waterfowl Pavilion-Sup

 

环境影响消隐
Minimizing of environmental interference

水禽岛实际上是一个相对独立且完整的小生态系统,使本为异质的建筑融入循环,并达到环境干扰的最小化,是“消隐”的深层含义。在选址方面,选取避开现状树木的空地,从而保护具有近百年树龄的黑杨和油松;同时也放弃岛南更为诗意的滨水湿地,用地尽量靠岛屿北侧,从而缩短交通路径,缩小施工前场。一方面减少建筑的碳足迹,另一方面也避免对岛上其余地块形成日照遮挡,从而最小化对岛内生态微气候的干扰。

Waterfowl Island is an independent and intact micro-ecosystem which requires the idiosyncratic architecture to minimize the interferences toward environment. That is the deeper meaning of ‘Invisibility’. When choosing the site, architect leaves the large area poetic wetland on the south side alone, but chooses a small void place in the north avoiding the old black poplars and pines. This decision can not only shorten the path and shrink the work-yard which help to reduce the carbon footprint, but also avoid creating too much artificial shadow area on the island.

▼水禽岛剖面,section of Waterfowl Island

6-island section-Waterfowl Pavilion-Sup

▼形体生成图解,diagram of the form generating

7-generating diagram-Waterfowl Pavilion-Sup

在景观方面,考虑采用本土化植物并保护生态群落种类的多样性,在不破坏植被的前提下对场地进行局部改造,形成整合水收集、导流、净化与排放功能于一体的水湿地景观。既为岛上的水禽与植被提供绝佳的生境,也实现了建筑与环境的可持续结合。场地南侧形成跌水湿地系统,通过芦苇等水生植物对氮磷的吸收,地表水的逐层下渗对水体进行净化。并利用植物的光合作用固碳释氧,利用蒸腾作用调节温湿平衡。

An integrated wetland system including collecting, guiding, cleaning and draining is employed through a minimally invasive reform of the site section, which creates an excellent habitat for the waterfowl and the vegetation. The absorption of aquatic plants such as reed and the fixation and infiltration processed in the soil help to remove the N and P. The green can also absorb the carbon dioxide and release the oxygen while their evaporation can help to balance the temperature and humidity.

▼湿地和室内通过玻璃门隔开,the wetland and interior is separated by glass doors

3-interior2-Waterfowl Pavilion-Sup

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“消隐”还体现全生命周期的碳平衡上,水禽馆采用低蕴能的钢结构体系,结合其他环保材料,在建材制造和建造阶段减少碳的排放。同时,通过太阳能等可再生清洁能源的利用,以及建筑层面的自然通风、采光遮阳、保温隔热等被动式策略的应用,结合冷热辐射空调、地源热泵、新风热回收等主动式技术的利用,有效减少建筑运行阶段的碳消耗与碳排放。

Invisibility also requires carbon balance. The pavilion employs steel structure and renewable materials to reduce the carbon emission during manufacture and construction. By combining passive design methods (natural ventilation, lighting, sun-shading and high-performance building envelop) and active technologies (ground source heat pump, radiation air-conditioning, heat recovery system) together, the carbon emission during operation is remarkably cut.

▼室内自然采光和通风,natural light and ventilation interior

3-interior3-Waterfowl Pavilion-Sup

经碳排放综合计算,水禽馆在其50年寿命周期内,在建筑建材、建造、运行和拆除阶段共产生二氧化碳745吨(建材制造及建造阶段排碳占18%;运行阶段排碳占72%)。而该建筑利用可再生能源及整个岛区景观的碳回收,在全寿命周期可减少CO2的释放量2756吨(可再生能源占11%,景观碳补偿占89%),碳回收远大于碳排放。水禽馆也真正达到了建筑在环境中的“消隐”,也实现能源利用层面“零能零碳”的初始目标。

After carbon calculation, Waterfowl Pavilion will release 745 ton carbon dioxide in material manufacturing, construction, operation and disassembly during its 50-years lifecycle, while reduce 2756 ton carbon dioxide through using renewable energy and landscape compensatory. The latter is much more than the former which mean Waterfowl Pavilion reaches the goal of real invisibility, net-zero energy and net-zero carbon.

▼材料示意图,materials

6-perspective section-Waterfowl Pavilion-Sup

▼总平面图,site plan

4-site plan-Waterfowl Pavilion-Sup

▼一层平面图,first floor plan

4-first floor plan-Waterfowl Pavilion-Sup

▼北立面图,north elevation

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▼南立面图,south elevation

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▼东立面图,east elevation / 西立面图,west elevation

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▼剖透视图,perspective section

纵剖透视图

▼剖面图,sections

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项目名称:北京动物园水禽馆
建筑设计:清华大学建筑学院素朴建筑工作室
项目建筑师:宋晔皓、王丽娜、孙菁芬、解丹、陈晓娟、白一凡、林正豪、李珺杰
项目地点:北京市西城区
建成时间:2013.11(土建完成), 2014.05(内装完成)
建筑面积:335平方米
主持建筑师:宋晔皓
摄影:夏至,孙菁芬

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