城市研究:公共空间的间隙 / 方石建筑

用设计来反思城市公共空间的变化

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来自 方石建筑设计有限公司 对gooood的分享。更多关于他们:Monolith Architects on gooood
Appreciation towards Monolith Architects for providing the following description:

 

公共空间的间隙
The Gaps of Public Space

当前社会,公共空间已经成了一个重要的主题,而建筑师们,也都试图在不同层级、不同类型的城市大型建筑中,去引入城市公共空间,并将之作为该建筑的核心使用场景进行打造,试图以此在某种程度上对城市公共活动进行刺激和引导。同时,我们所遇到的空间也变得越来越公共和开放,开放的办公室,开放的展览空间,开放的广场空间,开放的商业空间,公共空间在各个城市场景中被放大。然而事实上人们在公共空间却越来越少的进行公共活动,不同的亚文化群体之间的交流也越来越少,人们分化成了完全不同的社群,对公共空间的需求和使用方式也完全不同。手机和互联网更多的让人脱离了周遭的空间,商业对公共空间的侵蚀,更多的监控形成了更加严苛的公共空间管理方式等等,都被许多学者诟病为公共空间消亡的证据。

Current society, public space has been an important theme, although, many architects are trying to design urban public space within different architectures. Furthermore, to stimulate and guide urban public activities, they always design the public space of building as the core scene of it. Meanwhile, we are facing more and more open and public urban environment. For example, open offices, open exhibitions, open public squares, open merchandize spaces, these public open spaces are stressed within different urban scenes. On the other hand, there are less and less public activities happens in public space, the interactivities between different subculture groups is getting less too. People divided into different communities, they expected different kinds of public spaces in different usage. Smartphone and internet make people more and more isolated from surrounding space, commercial expansion is also eroding public space, more monitoring lead to a more harsh public space management mode. All these are considered as proof of the die out of public space by the academic.

▼大明宫广场调研轴测图,Axonometric drawing of Daminggong Square

另一方面,人们的生活方式已经发生着巨变,互联网占据了人们的一切生活细节,事实上,人们与网络的进一步亲近对应着与周边公共空间的进一步疏远。人们依赖网络来获取新闻信息,依赖网络来进行工作交流,依赖网络来发表对公共议题的看法,依赖网络来娱乐与消费,人们在获得独立私密空间的同时,可能反而更加进入到了网络层面的公共空间。

我们希望开启这样一个研究,来反思城市人群在公共空间中的行为,并用设计来反思城市公共空间的变化。

In the other hand, current form of life has changed dramatically, internet is overwhelming every detail of human life. Actually, when people getting closer to the internet virtual space, in the same time, they will get more alienation to the surrounding real public space. People are counting on internet to get news, to communicate about work, to talk about public issues, to entertaining and consuming. The contradiction is when people are in the isolated space in real world, they might meanwhile in public space in a virtual world.

We hope to start a research to rethink crowd people’s activity within public spaces, then, use design to rethink the evolution of urban public space.

▼长安大街三号住宅小区调研轴测图,Axonometric drawing of Chang’andajie 3rd Street plot

整个研究分为两个阶段进行,第一个阶段是调研阶段,在此阶段,所有的参与者被分为四组,分别对西安这个城市进行调研。我们将公共范畴分为本地领域和公共领域,分别代表了不同层面的公共空间,并在研究中基于西安这样一个极具历史意义的城市划分出新兴的公共领域与传统的公共领域、新兴的本地领域与传统的公共领域进行分组研究。

The whole research is divided into two phases, first is investigation and survey, in this phase, all the participants are organized in 4 groups to investigate the city Xi’an. We considered public sphere in two types, one is parochial domain, another is public domain. They each represented different layer of public space. Especially when we investigate a very traditional city like Xi’an, we further more differentiate the public space into 4 types, they are new public domain, traditional public domain, new parochial domain, traditional parochial domain. 4 groups of participants are arranged to investigate these 4 topics.

▼西安创业咖啡街区调研轴测图,Axonometric drawing of Xi’an Startups Coffee Square

第二个阶段是设计阶段,在此阶段,每个参与者被要求进行独立的观察和设计,基于自己之前所在小组所调研的场地去选择自己最感兴趣的公共空间及活动场景用自己的设计进行回应。而这些回应方式大体上可以分为三类,第一类是批判反思,第二类是促进公众交流,第三类是解决观察中所发现的问题。

In the second phase, every participant is demanded to do his own investigation and design. They have to choose their most interested public space and activity to do the design to response to the existing urban scene based on their former research within the group. Their ways of design can be conclude in three types, the first is critic and reflection, the second is stimulate public communication, the third is solving problems.

▼西安老城区调研轴测图,Axonometric drawing of Xi’an old city area

通过这一系列的研究,我们通过设计反思了这些问题:
Through this series of research, we reflected these questions:

 

01.
城市公共空间的公共属性和私密空间是否是矛盾的?
Is the public property of public space contradicting private space? 

在公共空间中,网络和各种新媒介的出现使得人们在公共空间中越来越多的进行着各自无交流的私密行为,比如玩手机游戏,上网浏览信息,或是更多的参与网络上的交流,并在网络上发表意见和评论。而即使是相互熟识的人坐在同一张桌子上,也完全有可能处在各自的私密状态中,他们各自在物理层面都在与手机互动,而从意识层面则是在与网络上难以判断身份与位置的其他人互动,甚至在云端形成一批新的公众。问题是这样一种行为对正在桌边的两个人以及他们所处的桌边的空间来说到底有没有意义。

In the public space, more and more people are doing isolated private activities without communication, they are incline to playing games on smartphone, surfing webs online or participant in online discussion even arguing their point of view online. Even two familiar person seat around one table, they might totally immerse in their own private condition. In the real world, they are very likely just communicate only with their smartphone, but in the virtual world, they might communicating with anonymous person without knowing his any location or identity, even more, they might have formed a new crowd of public online already. The question is, when this kind of activity happened in a public space, is it meaningful for the space surrounding or the people surrounding.

▼解决问题II,SOLVING PROBLEM II

似乎,这个问题的答案并不像表面上看上去那么简单——任何行为,都有可能会和周围的空间发生关系。在我们的研究中,就以手机充电所呈现的人拿起手机和放下手机的行为为思考点,提供了一种可能性,如解决问题II。在这个提案中,公共空间和私密行为之间并非完全的背离,而是一种互动关系,公共空间本身也会随着私密行为的需求而发生改变,从而改变周围人对这个空间的认知。当人们拿起手机使用时,桌板会和帘子一起升起,座位顶部的灯会亮起。当人们放下手机充电时,桌板则会和帘子一起下降,灯会灭掉,桌边的人可以相互交流。而这种互动本身,我们似乎可以称之为一种公共性的引发。

The answer may not so simple as it seems——every activity may have chance to interact with surrounding space. In our project, we offered a kind of possible interactivity based on a simple gesture——when people use wireless charging to charge the smartphone they have to lay the phone on the charge and stop using it. In the project SOLVING PROBLEM II we argue public space and private activity may not totally contradicted, they are in an interactive relationship, public space may also change according to the demand of private activity, therefore, people around will change their opinion about the space. When people hold the phone to use it, the table and curtain will move up and the light on the top of seat will on, when you put the phone down on charging panel, the curtain and table will get down, the light will off, so you can communicate with others. This kind of interaction itself, could trigger publicity.

▼解决问题II,SOLVING PROBLEM II

而在公众交流II的设计中,公共性则被隐蔽的安置在了一个个独立的私密空间之间,纵横交错的交流通道成为了一个个私密空间能够形成公共空间的可能性,人们可以通过不同的通道观察对方或相互喊话。然而,这种私密性之内的公共端口似乎也是人们在使用网络时的一种状态,相互独立的几方互不认识,却在一个有交集的平台上形成了交流和共识。

In the project PUBLIC COMMUNICATION II, publicity is existing in-between different isolated private spaces very subtly. Crisscrossed interactive tunnels are the possibilities to turn these private spaces into public spaces, people can use these tunnels to observe each other or talk to each other. However, this public ports between private spaces seems very similar with the condition when people using internet, different individuals started a communication and comes to some common sense through a platform without knowing each other.

▼公众交流II,PUBLIC COMMUNICATION II

▼公众交流II,PUBLIC COMMUNICATION II

 

 

02.
网络空间的在地化是否会成为公共空间发展的新可能?
Will localization of cyberspace turn to be a new possibility for public space?

在调研过程种,我们还发现了一种新兴的公共活动,那就是网络直播。网络直播在公共空间的发生,形成了一种网络对公共空间影响互动的新模式——网络直播者在公共广场等地方进行演唱,而表演同时被手机直播到了网络平台上,网络平台的观看者对表演产生了兴趣,来到现场支持表演者表演,并再用自己的手机录制成直播视频传播到网络上,形成新的粉丝和关注,并吸引更多的人来到现场观看。在反思装置I的设计中,我们试图在公共空间中构建一种新的网络直播现场的互动关系,观者和被观者可能存在一定程度的不平等,而网络平台的“窥视”属性也被实体化到了公共空间中。观众可以在各种装置中躲藏起来观看直播,单一的看与被看的关系被延展成了复杂的互动关系。

In the research process, we find a new public activity, which is live video streaming. Live video streaming happened in public space, which becomes a new model of how internet effluence public space interactivity——streamer plays in the public square meanwhile, they are using smartphone to streaming online, then online audience get interested by the performance will come to the live public space to support the streamer, again, they will use their smartphone to record the live performance and stream it online, in this way, the audience turns to be a streamer also, new fans and attention might follow this new streamer and new audience may come to this streaming spot in public space. In the project CRITIC INSTALLATION I, we are trying to build up a new live video streaming interactive relationship, audience and player can be in an unequal relationship, and the “peeper” essence of live video streaming platform is physicalized in the public space. Audience can hide in varies installations to peep performance without been watched. The simple watch and been watched relationship is extended to a complicated interactive relationship.

▼反思装置I,CRITIC INSTALLATION I

▼反思装置I,CRITIC INSTALLATION I

 

 

03.
老城中的混杂空间是否是值得鼓励和倡导的?
Is mixed use of public space in old city district worthy to promote and encourage?

老城中的公共空间其实表现出了很强的两面性,一方面,作为本地领域的公共空间来说,不同的活动人群表现出了极强的活力,使得公共空间非常生机勃勃,并且在不同的人群使用公共空间时也表现出了一定程度的交叠和交流, 但另一方面,也带来了公共空间杂乱无章的空间状态。比如公众交流IV与解决问题IV的项目中我们都可以看到这样一种公共空间在很大程度上并不属于大城市的陌生人社交属性,而更多的属于传统社群的范畴,具有相对固定的相似的身份和阶层的人群的聚集,彼此有着较强的身份认同,接近于一种社群主义理念的社区。这样一种对于社群的建立可以说是解决大城市疏离感的一剂良药,在这两个项目中,我们试图梳理空间让这种交流更加顺畅,并能够提供更多互动的可能。

Public spaces in old city district strongly presented two sides. In one hand, as parochial domain public space, different groups of people show strong vitality in this space, they make public space vibrant, meanwhile, different groups also have interactive and overlapped activity. In the other hand, the public space is getting chaos and order less. In the project PUBLIC COMMUNICATION IV and SOLVING PROBLEM IV, this kind of public space basically doesn’t have any urban stranger social quality, it’s more like a traditional community sphere, there are more people with similar identity and class gathering together. These people have strong identity recognition, the whole community is more based on a communitarian ideal. The establishment of this kind of community could be a salvation of sense of alienation in big cities. In these two projects, we are trying to tease the space and make the existing communication more fluent, meanwhile offer more chance to create interactivity.

▼公众交流IV,PUBLIC COMMUNICATION IV

▼公众交流IV,PUBLIC COMMUNICATION IV

▼解决问题IV,SOLVING PROBLEM IV

▼解决问题IV,SOLVING PROBLEM IV

相对应的,在我们对另外一个新兴社区的观察中,似乎“疏离”成了一个普遍存在的问题,比如反思装置VI以及反思装置VII中,社区的整体状况更接近于一种自由主义理念的公共空间,商业化和当代的资本运转主导了公共空间的基本逻辑,消费主义将小区内的空间根据经济价值进行了简单的划分,而公众则大部分缩入了自己的“茧”中。在这两个项目里我们试图去揭示这种疏离感,并用空间的语言去表达这种人和人之间的相互关系,各种人群之间不同的流线被物化成了管道状的建筑,人和人之间那种虽然完全暴露,却又实则完全隐藏的相互关系也被物化成为了“人树”装置,人们躺在这个公共的装置上暴露在周围人的视线中,却无法彼此交流。

Correspondently, in our investigation of another new urban plot’s community, “alienation” seems have been an common problem, in the project CRITIC INSTALLATION VI and CRITIC INSTALLATION VII, the whole community is more like libertarian ideal, commercialization and the work of modern capitalism has dominated the working process of public space. The whole district is separated into different zones according to economic value in consumerism ideal, and citizens are withdraw into there own “cocoons”. In these two projects, we are trying to reveal this alienation and use architecture to express this sense within the community. Different paths belong to different group of people are physicalized to be an architecture with tubes. The relationship between people which they exposing to each other meanwhile hidden from each other is physicalized to be a “people tree” installation. On this installation, people lie on it exposed in front of public around, but they can’t communicate with each other.

▼反思装置VI,CRITIC INSTALLATION VI

▼反思装置VI,CRITIC INSTALLATION VI

▼反思装置VII,CRITIC INSTALLATION VII

▼反思装置VII,CRITIC INSTALLATION VII

 

 

04.
虽然城市的尺度越来越大,但是我们是否需要巨大尺度的城市公共空间?
Although cities are getting bigger and bigger, do we need so big scale urban public space?

大明宫广场的超巨大尺度使得它在日常使用时非常的不便,也使得不同使用者之间的关联被大大减弱了。城市密度的增加和城市人口的增加使得大广场的存在有着切实的需求,对于西安来说,“大广场”则更是处于对于城市气质的考虑,作为一个古都,始终无法忘怀汉唐城市形制中的气势恢宏。因此,在西安我们可以看到一系列的与古代遗迹相关联的巨大广场。然而,这种大广场作为公共空间,对于公众的生活来说,似乎是另外的一副场景。极差的可达性,完全不宜人的尺度,绿地的匮乏等等,使得这些广场很难成为能够聚集公众的广场,但是我们仍然发现了在这种大尺度的空间下,以点的方式聚集的活动,而在夜晚这种聚集则会与“灯光”密切的关联在一起。我们的解决问题I项目就是基于这一属性对大明宫广场做的一次设计上的尝试,我们试图用岛屿状分布的一些装置来聚集公众和活动,在局部增加人群的密度和交流的可能性。我们为广场的地面设计了一些不同亮度的光板,以适应不同的活动,这些光板在夜间可以立起来组成为不同活动提供座位的椅子,而在白天则平躺在地面上与普通地板无异。似乎,我们可以将这个项目所点亮的区域看作这片枯燥的大海中人群聚集的活动的群岛。

The huge scale of Daminggong Square make the daily use of it very inconvenient, the connection between different users is also getting very weak. The accumulation of urban density and population make it very pragmatic to have huge square for the city, especially for Xi’an, “huge square” is more about the sense of city ethos, as a traditional capital, people here always remember the magnificent history of Han dynasty and Tang dynasty. So, we can always see some magnificent square connected with historical architecture. But these squares are totally disconnected with public daily life as public space. Very bad accessibility, unhuman scale, lack of green, all these situations make this square hard to be a public gathering square. But we still find some activities happened in the form of spots, especially during night, these gathering activities will closely connect to “light”. Our project SOLVING PROBLEM I is a trial based on this special property of Daminggong Square. We try to use some installations arranged like islands spread on the square to gathering public and activity, it will intense people density and create possibilities for communication. We designed light panels in different light levels on the pavement of square to support different activities in the night meanwhile these light panels can constitute different tables and chairs when we need. But during day time, they can be lie on the ground as same as other pavement. We can see these lighting areas lighten by these installations as archipelagos in this boring square during the night.

▼解决问题I,SOLVING PROBLEM I

 

 

05.
公共空间中的集体记忆如何延续?
How collective memory be continued in public space?

公共空间的集体记忆是长久以来被讨论的话题,也有着不同层次的解读,这些所谓的集体记忆,有的跟潜意识有关,有的跟建筑的原型有关,有的则与公众与公共性有关。在我们的研究中,几乎每个区域都有涉及到这方面的反思,而每个场地所涉及到的状况也是完全不同的。在反思装置II中我们认为大明宫遗址所涉及的集体记忆是关于废墟的,这片区域在近代以来曾经是一片贫民窟一般的城市废弃之地,大量的外地移民以非常低廉的价格租住在这片区域中,而后却又因为其地下的古代废墟被发掘摇身一变成为了重要的文化中心,并在之上建立起了参照古代废墟的形制的仿古建筑。然而南侧一路之隔的对面却是一片狼藉,原有的迁离的和未迁离的贫民区形成了一片新的废墟。“废墟”成为了一个贯穿场地始终的内核,人们因废墟而出现,因废墟而消失,因废墟而聚集,也因废墟而离开。所以我们用废墟设计了一个游乐场,任何的公共行为都可以发生在这个废墟之中。

Collective memory in public space is a topic we talked a lot for a long time, it also have interpretations in different levels. Some concept of “collective memory” is related with subconscious, some relate with architecture prototype, some relate with public and publicity. In our research, almost every project has reflection of this topic, although, every site have different conditions. In project CRITIC INSTALLATION II, we argue the collective memory about Daminggong Square is about ruin. Since the establishment of PRC, this area has been an abandoned area like slum, many poor immigrants from other provinces lived here with very cheap renting price. Recently, because of the reveal of ancient historical ruin of Daminggong Palace, this place suddenly turns to be an important culture, they even built a huge scale of pseudo-classic architecture on it based on the historical shape of these palaces. But on the opposite of street at south, a slum still there with residence or without residence, ruins under demolishing. “Ruin” has become an essence of this area, people are gathering because of ruin, and move away because of ruin, public emerge because of ruin, and vanish because of ruin. So we use “ruin” designed a playground, different public activities can be stimulated in ruins.

▼反思装置II,CRITIC INSTALLATION II

▼反思装置II,CRITIC INSTALLATION II

在反思装置V的研究中,社区的集体记忆被我们挖掘讨论,是一次集体的行为,还是集体的某些习惯,是否一定是某种建筑的原型。在一个传统的老街区中,我们认为集体的记忆可能是某处晾晒被子的绳子,可能是某处停放的自行车,也可能是儿童常常玩耍的一小片墙角,这些本地领域相关联着的不同活动和不同群体在公共空间的展现,留存在所有公众脑海中的记忆可能也就是我们所谈到的集体记忆。一种公共空间的行为习惯对公众对空间的认知产生了影响,就是一种集体记忆。因此,在这个设计中,我们提供了一个开满孔洞的容器,每个孔洞都朝向一个特定的街区生活场景,通过在容器中的人对这些场景的观察来强调这种集体记忆。

In the project CRITIC INSTALLATION V, we are discussing is collective memory a collective activity or just a collective habit, should it be prototype of architecture? We argue collective memory could be a wire someone always use to hang quilt to dry, could be a site always parked a bicycle, could be a corner with kids always playing there, these different activities with the presents of different groups in the public place related to parochial domain could stay in the mind of people and turn out to be so called collective memory. A behavior custom in public space have some effluence on the public’s recognition of space, this is one kind of collective memory. With this understanding, we designed a vessel with many holes, every hole is facing a specific scene of street life, the collective memory would be emphasis through the observation of these scene.

▼反思装置V,CRITIC INSTALLATION V

▼反思装置V,CRITIC INSTALLATION V

在反思装置III和反思装置IV的研究中,镜面被作为了一个核心元素来设计,我们认为反观自己,或者用另一种视角来看待公共空间,才有可能发掘其中的集体记忆,因为当代社会的集体记忆本身已经模糊而费解,公共空间充斥着虚幻和现实的叠加以及两者相互交叠所产生的冗余,被结构的空间和碎片化的视角,可能真正让公众在产生震惊感的同时,从原有的连续空间体验中跳脱出来,而意识到自我所处的环境并产生真正的自主性。

In project CRITIC INSTALLATION III and CRITIC INSTALLATION IV, mirror is used as a important element to design, we argue the self-reflection or use another view to observe public space could be important to understand collective memory. In modern society, collective memory itself is getting more and more vague and confusing. In public space, it is full of overlap of virtual and reality and  redundancy from these overlaps, a deconstructed space with fragmented views would really make public to feel shocking meanwhile jump out from the continuous space experience and start to realize social condition and autonomy.

▼反思装置III,CRITIC INSTALLATION III

▼反思装置III,CRITIC INSTALLATION III

▼反思装置IV,CRITIC INSTALLATION IV

▼反思装置IV,CRITIC INSTALLATION IV

 

 

06.
公共空间中被分裂出来的亚文化群体之间是否有交流的必要?
Is it necessary for different sub-cultural groups to communicate in public space?

公共空间在当代社会的实践中,实际上常常被分化为若干个不同的本地领域来被不同的亚文化群体使用,比如说公众交流I项目中所涉及到的在大明宫广场上放风筝的群体,这个群体有着自己固定的来去时间,有着自己固定的活动流程,以及自己固定的道具和相互关系,大部分其他的活动群体可能对他们一无所知,他们也同样对其他的群体一无所知,大明宫广场对于他们来说,只是一个在固定的时段可以与其他放风筝的友人一起放风筝的场地,他们之间有特殊的交流方式,特殊的术语,以及共同的喜好,这些对于在广场上跳广场舞的大妈,在广场上玩轮滑的青年,在广场上直播唱歌的歌手以及在广场上日复一日慢跑的城市白领来说都一无所知,同样,反之亦然。不同的群体在各自的领域里各干其事,具有公共性的公众不会出现,只有互不关心的小团体,而公共空间则变得枯燥而且界限分明。在这个项目中,我们试图设计一种装置,能够将放风筝者的所有工具变得公开化,并将这些工具设计成为与广场的其他使用者的行为都关联在一起的装置,这是一个由充气灯笼风筝组成的亭子,下方是一个小舞台,通过轮轴能调节风筝的高低,人们可以在其下避暑,而到了夜晚,这里也会亮起灯成为一个休息场所。

In contemporary society, public space is always divided into different parochial domain for different sub-cultural group to use. In project PUBLIC COMMUNICATION I, the group who fly kites on Daminggong square have their own schedule of flying time and fixed procedure, they even have their specific tools and relationship. Most other groups on the square knows nothing about them, likewise, they know nothing about others. Daminggong square is just a place they can fly kites with same group of people, this group have their own way of communication and terminology. For the ladies who dancing on this square, or youths who plays roller skating there, or singers doing live streaming, or urban white-collar workers who jogging on the square every day, they know nothing about that flying kite group, vice-versa. When different groups just doing there own things in their own parochial domain, there will be no public and public activities, there will be groups only care their own and boring public space with clear boundaries. In this project, we try to design an installation which can make all the tools for skiting public, meanwhile, make these tools can relate to other groups’ activity. This installation is a pavilion made of air inflated lantern skites, under skites is a small stage, people can use wheels to justify the height of pavilion. During the day time, people can stay their to avoid sun light, and during the night, it will turn on the light, and be an rest point.

▼公众交流I,PUBLIC COMMUNICATION I

▼公众交流I,PUBLIC COMMUNICATION I

在解决问题V项目中,我们观察到了在新建小区的公共空间中,年轻人几乎从来不使用公共的运动设施,而是都在小区内的健身房里锻炼,而小区内的公共运动设施则常年由老年人或小孩所占据,不同的群体之间形成了完全不同的两种本地领域空间,小区中年轻人和老年人、小孩之间也不再有交集,共同的身份属性缺失与相互认同感的缺失,是否会给新建小区这样一种社区带来负面的影响?在该项目的设计中,我们试图颠覆传统的公共运动设施而引入受年轻人欢迎和需要的功能,新的设施跟旧的设施在形态上是完全一样的,但我们通过对设施的新的摆放方式让这些设施可以成为年轻人的自拍工具,休息工具,甚至情侣座位。并且两者并置在一起让不同的使用者通过误用来发生关联,并进一步认知对方的使用方式与生活习惯。

In project SOLVING PROBLEM V, we realize that young people rarely use public exercise facilities, they always doing their exercises in gym. All the public exercise facilities are occupied by elders and children. Different age groups created different parochial domain, young people in the community is getting hard to have chance to communicate with elders and children. Is the loss of common identity and mutual identity having a negative effluence on the community? In this project, we are trying to overturn the traditional public exercise facilities to contain some youth-popular function. We didn’t change the shape of them, but use a new way of assembling to make them can be young people’s selfie tool, rest bed, even couple seat. We put these with the original facilities together, hope to create some misuse situation between different groups, and help different groups to have chance to understand each other’s life style.

▼解决问题,SOLVING PROBLEM V

▼解决问题V,SOLVING PROBLEM V

 

 

07.
街道是不是公共空间的一部分?
Is street a part of public space?

公共空间的公共性边界在哪里,城市街道既是周边社区居民的本地领域空间,也是其他市民的通行空间。公共空间使用的边界在老城区变得非常模糊,而本地领域也常常在一定程度上被强化成了家庭领域或私密领域。在解决问题III和公众交流III的项目中,我们试图去探讨公共空间被临时占有的可能性。一方面,公共领域在长期被不同的本地使用者使用后,有可能出现转化为本地领域,同时,进一步被私有化而成为某些人的专属区域,这似乎并不是好的现象,公共资源被私有化了。然而,另一方面,在这个过程中,实际上公共空间的活力也被一步步的挖掘了,从对公共空间的使用方式到公共空间被保护的状况——无人使用的公共空间会很快荒废掉。这个矛盾所涉及的问题,我们试图在设计中用临时性、轻量化的公共元素来去化解,试图让空间保持在纯粹的公共空间与私密空间之间的一种状态里,使得周边特定居民在一定程度上占有空间,同时又在一定程度上无法完全占有空间,希望这样一种动态的空间状态能够给公共空间带来活力,又保证其公共属性。因此,在这两个项目中,其中一个我们利用占用街道的废弃塑料箱来组装成可以移动变化的桌椅休息空间,另一个我们则使用彩色线条和灯光来强调出街道上的公共活动,并让城墙上的旅人注意到这里的公共活动,而并不只是注意到景点。

▼解决问题III,SOLVING PROBLEM III

▼解决问题III,SOLVING PROBLEM III

Where is the border of publicity of public space? Urban street is not only the parochial domain of local residence, but also the passing space for all citizens. The border of public space is very vague in old town area, although even parochial domain can be changed to family area or private area. In project SOLVING PROBLEM III and PUBLIC COMMUNICATION III, we are trying to discuss about the possibility of temporary occupying of public space. In one hand, after long time when public domain is occupied by local users, it might turns to be parochial domain, even be a private space, this seems not a good situation for the city, because public resources are privatized. In the other hand, in that process of privatization, the vitality of public space is revealed, not only the way of using public spaces is revealed but also the maintenance of public space——public space without users will be wasted soon. We try to use temporary light installations to solve this contradiction. To use the design maintain public space within an in-between situation——in-between pure public and pure private. We hope the residence around can occupy the public space temporarily, meanwhile they can not totally have the space. In this condition, we hope to maintain the vitality of public space meanwhile not lose its public essence. So, in these two projects, one of them we use abandoned plastic boxes on the street to assemble as movable table and seat, the other project, we use colorful light and wires to symbolize public activities on the street, and to make tourists on traditional city walls can notice not only the sight spot but also the public activity under the wall.

▼公众交流III,PUBLIC COMMUNICATION III

项目名称:公共空间的间隙
项目类型:城市研究
建筑师或者建筑公司:北京方石建筑设计有限公司
公司网站:http://www.monoarch.cn/
联系邮箱:18601224124@163.com
设计年份:2018年7月~8月
主创:毛磊、任娟、彭喆
设计团队:伍正文、张文超、何梦欣、张月荣、王浩男、王坤奇、殷甜甜、田园、李臻、李佩瑶、史振东、方云裳、于洋、黄笑语、罗琦文波、周子琰
项目地址:西安
合作方:长安大学建筑学院
撰文:毛磊

More: 方石建筑设计有限公司。更多关于他们:Monolith Architects on gooood

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