Tropi-Co-Re Housing by SUMA arquitectos

An architectural prototype for low-income urban expansion in tropical climates

Project Specs

Location:

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Appreciation towards SUMA arquitectos for providing the following description:

预计到2050年,地球的城市人口将增加24.6亿。而这一人口增长预计大部分会发生在全球南部国家的城市。这样的结果使得很大一部分城市家庭将不得不通过非常规的方式建设自己的住宅。于是各国政府采用了一系列的干预方式帮助贫困家庭自建房屋,同时以最低的成本预算对这些新城市社区进行规划。其中一个最重要的干预模型就是“核心住宅”,该类型住房在居民收入允许的情况下进行扩建。然而,大多数的核心住房项目包括一层独立单元或两层联排别墅,由于其结构限制,这些建筑无法发展成密集型住宅,形成真正的综合社区,也无法实现就业机会的增加,以及吸引其他地区的居民访问,简单的建筑外形也让居民们感到无趣。最终,这些区域变成了大型的被隔离的社区,除了内部的居民以外没有人会主动进入。最近,设计师们已经将这些自建型建筑发展成了密集型住宅,同时他们设想,如果将这些建筑变得有趣,那么是否即使它们位于城市郊区,也有可能带动周围社区逐步发展成为受欢迎的城区?

▼整体社区外览,external view of the community

The planet’s urban population is projected to increase by an additional 2.46 billion urban dwellers by 2050. Most of this growth will take place in cities of the global south, where a high percentage of urban households will have to build their residences on their own through informal means. Governments in the past have used a series of models of intervention in order to assist poor households in these self-building processes, and help generate new urban neighborhoods that have some minimum degree of planning. One of the most important models is “core housing”, where government agencies provide the nucleus or core of a house that can be later expanded by residents as incomes allow.Unfortunately, most core housing projects consist of one-story detached units or two-story townhouses that cannot, due to their modest framework, develop into dense, true mixed-use districts that generate jobs and attract residents from other parts of the city. In addition, the simplicity of their architecture makes them uninteresting to citizens from other neighborhoods. The result is that these areas turn into large, stigmatized, and segregated bedroom communities that are only accessed by people who live there. More recently, dense complexes of “self-built housing” have been developed as a result of the squatting of half-finished, high-rise buildings located in central urban areas, which offers an interesting possibility. What if we build these large skeletons on purpose and make them architecturally interesting, so they can develop progressively as vital and popular urban districts, even if they are located on the urban outskirts?

▼整体社区的建成过程图,the overall process of building the community

该项目试图在潮湿的热带环境中实现一个概念性的建筑和城市。Tropi/Co/Re楼群宽阔的首层空间可用于规划商业设施,而上层则可以容纳不同风格和大小的住宅。建筑整体由垂直竹桁架构成,同时采用轻质楼板作为延伸的屋檐和阳台。巨大的双层金属折叠板作为屋顶层,其中上层可吸收太阳能,而下层的设施则用于雨水收集,两者之间的通风空间则拥有内部隔热的作用。建筑原型的尺度可在水平和垂直的方向上进行调整,以满足不同的居住模式。建筑物本身的结构也令人印象深刻,以此吸引人们的兴趣。

▼建筑整体由垂直竹桁架构成,同时采用轻质楼板作为延伸的屋檐和阳台,the structures are made of vertical bamboo trusses, with light-weight floor slabs that extend as eaves and balconies

▼正在修建的社区场地,the community is being built

This project develops conceptual urban and architectural prototypes for such a possibility in a humid tropical context.Tropi/Co/Re buildings are large enough to allow the ground floors to be liberated for commercial establishments, while the top floors allow for residential occupancies of different styles and sizes. The structures are made of vertical bamboo trusses, with light-weight floor slabs that extend as eaves and balconies. Two-layered metallic roofs in the form of gigantic folded plates handle solar radiation at the top layer, while the bottom layer captures rainwater. The ventilated space in between insulates thermally the interior. The prototype can be scaled in different ways, both horizontally and vertically, to allow for variety in housing typologies. The architecture of the buildings themselves is also striking enough to guarantee sustained interest.

▼Tropi/Co/Re楼群宽阔的首层空间可用于规划商业设施,Tropi/Co/Re buildings are large enough to allow the ground floors to be liberated for commercial establishments

▼可用于休闲、种植的顶层空间,top space for leisure and planting

▼上层则可以容纳不同风格和大小的住宅,the top floors allow for residential occupancies of different styles and sizes

设计师采用100m×100m的规格组织城市街区,这样的设计更符合步行网格的特点。而每个街区的建筑物的布置也可以有多种变化,并在街区中间或边缘规划开放空间。这样的规划可以更加有效的明确住宅区和商业区。该地区的全年温度介于27°和32°之间,相对湿度超过60%,设计师采用曾经Gottfried Semper对他那个时代的建筑作品进行重新审视的方式,从传统建筑中吸取经验设计了这些热带地区的建筑,并选择可替代的材料实施修建。

At the urban scale, the buildings are organized in urban blocks of 100m x 100m, which would conform a reasonably walkable grid. The disposition of the buildings in each block can also vary, sometimes providing open space in the middle, sometimes in the borders. This could differentiate more residential blocks from those more decidedly commercial.With temperatures ranging between 27 ° and 32° and a relative humidity above 60% all year round, the architecture of the tropics should question conventional construction practices and investigate alternative material systems. And perhaps, look back more carefully at the core elements of an architecture of the tropics. It is no accident that Gottfried Semper was attracted to a Caribbean Hut as a model to critically revise the values of architectural production of his time.

▼ 100m x 100m网格街区平面图,the plan of the 100m x 100m block

▼建筑原型的尺度可在水平和垂直的方向上进行调整,以满足不同的居住模式,the prototype can be scaled in different ways, both horizontally and vertically, to allow for variety in housing typologies

而街区之间的街道设计应符合区域连接模式,将区域与城市的其他部分进行结合。整体设计都以一个步行的城市网格展开,并选用符合热带环境的屋顶和围栏作为相关建筑设施,以维持全年的植被旺盛地生长,以及适应暴雨、暴晒等日常气候。借用Gabriel GarcíaMárquez的话来说,这是一个“漂浮在高温中”的城市。

The streets between the blocks should conform regional connections that integrate the zone to the rest of the city. These elements -a walkable urban grid, structure (core), roof and enclosure- should express the nature of the tropics and engage with its condition in a way that is appropriate across the tropical belt, where vegetation grows vigorously throughout the year, torrential rains are a regular occurrence, heat and humidity are constant, and a pungent sun constantly hits buildings and people. In sum, it suggests a town that can, to borrow a phrase from Gabriel García Márquez, “float in the heat.”

▼分块平面图,the part of the plan

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