Towards a healthy city by foot / Felixx

The Dutch Board of Government Advisors and Felixx Landscape Architects & Planners investigated the potential role of walking in contemporary urban environments

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步行的潜力是巨大的,它可能不是最快的,也可能不是最舒适的,但它是唯一一种不需要借助任何交通工具的移动方式。多走路能够减少我们在通勤时对环境产生的影响。因此,创造更多步行的空间有助于释放更多城市场地,以应对社会和环境方面的诸多挑战。然而奇怪的是,当下的公共空间设计往往忽略了行人的存在。针对这一问题,Felixx景观规划公司与STIPO顾问公司的城市心理学家Sander van der Ham进行了一次以设计为主导的研究,深入地观察了步行的潜在益处,并为如何在建筑环境中实现这些益处制定出具体的设计任务。

Walking has great potential. It may not be the fastest, and as some may say not the most comfortable way to get around, but it is the only type of movement which doesn’t require a vehicle. By walking more, we limit the influence of our movements on the environment. As a result, creating room for walking frees up space in the city, which can be used to tackle diverse social and environmental challenges. Oddly enough, the pedestrian is often forgotten in the design of our public spaces. This research by design is developed in close collaboration with urban psychologist Sander van der Ham – STIPO. It provides insight into the potential benefits of walking, and identifies the design tasks within our built environment to realize these benefits.

▼步行的潜力,The potential of walking ©Felixx

 

步行是一种选择
Walking as a choice

步行是一种选择,尽管我们并非总是自觉地做出这种选择。为了创造一个能够鼓励人们多走路的环境,我们需要知道如何去影响人们的选择。做出步行的选择实际上受到诸多因素的影响。我们在生活中经历的一切都会作为信息储存在大脑中,这些信息大致会通过两种方式或“系统”得到解释,随后成为我们做出选择的依据。第一个系统倾向于做出无意识、情绪化、快速、自动且毫不费力的决定,它所依赖的是一种经验法则,源于我们过去获得的知识、经验或情感。做出这样的决定几乎不需要经过任何批判性的思考。第二个系统是理性的,需要进行有意识的反思并花费大量的精力。它有助于我们做出更加明智的选择,并对第一种系统的经验法则提出质疑。为了鼓励步行,我们需要将以上这两种系统充分地结合到城市设计的方法之中。

▼内心选择 & 宜人的城市环境 ©Felixx
Mental decision making & walkable urban environment

Walking is a choice, although we often do not make that choice very consciously. In order to create environments that encourage people to walk more, we need to understand how we can influence people’s choice to do so. The choice of walking is influenced by many factors. Everything we experience in the course of our lives is stored in our brain as information. We roughly have two methods or “systems” to interpret this information, and make choices based on it. System 1 makes unconscious, emotional, fast, automatic, and effortless decisions. Choices are based on rules of thumb that originate from previously acquired knowledge, experiences or emotions. They undergo little to no critical reflection. System 2 is rational and requires conscious reflection and costs a lot of energy. It allows informed choices to be made, and questions the rules of thumb of system 1. To boost walking, we need to address both systems in our way of designing cities.

▼以点和线表示的神经网络 ©Felixx
Computer illustration of the brains neural network represented by lines and dots

 

改善路途体验
The Journey approach

步行空间的设计往往采取与道路设计类似的“机械”逻辑。相比于能够尽快地到达目的地,路途的体验被放在了次要的位置。这不断地证实了我们大脑中对第一种系统的偏好:乘车或骑车的速度更快。在人们已经适应了这种以汽车环境为主导的规则后,我们首先要在街道和公共空间中采用足够人性化的措施,才能够重新将社会与步行连接起来。提高步行空间的舒适性、可达性和回馈性,有助于设计出吸引人们做出步行选择的人性化街道。

Space for walking is often designed according to the same “mechanical” logic as that of roadways. The experience en route is secondary to reaching the destination as quickly as possible. This constantly confirms the prejudices of system 1 in our brain: you are faster by car or by bicycle. Reconnecting society with walking, after years of applying generic rules of car environments, starts by applying human-oriented measures to our streets and public space. Walkable spaces based on enhancement of comfort, proximity, and rewarding can bring humanized street designs that subconsciously tempt us to choose to walk.

▼人性化的街道吸引人们做出步行选择, humanized street designs subconsciously tempt us to choose to walk ©Felixx

 

让步行成为实现议程目标的动因
Walking as a catalyst for different agendas

将步行置于一个更宽泛的背景下,有利于我们做出更加主动和明智的决定。通过批判性地思考我们目前的经验法则与习惯,步行必将成为更优的选择。我们可以将步行这种行为与它对社会及环境的贡献联系起来,使其不再仅仅作为一种交通上的选择,而是为减少空气污染、建立更清洁更健康的世界而做出的有意识的选择。将步行与不同的挑战和目标联系起来,我们便创造了做出步行选择的有力依据,超越了“到达另一个地方”的目的本身。这种“连接”关系越是多样化,就会有越多的人将步行视为一种必要的选择。

By placing walking in a broader context, we can make better informed conscious decisions. By critically reflecting on our current rules of thumb and habits, walking can become a more obvious choice over time. We can achieve this by linking the act of walking to the contribution it makes to social and environmental agendas. This makes the choice for walking more than a mere choice of mobility. It becomes a conscious choice for less air pollution and a cleaner and healthier world. By associating walking with different challenges and objectives, we create arguments that can encourage us to walk and transcend the practical consideration of going somewhere by foot. The more diverse the links, the wider the audience that will feel compelled to walk.

▼步行的动因,Walking as agenda catalyst ©Felixx

 

适合步行的城市
The walkable city

20世纪无疑是汽车的时代。汽车的大量生产彻底改变了人们的交通方式,成为了交通民主化的里程碑。对速度和人身自由的追求导致我们更加遵循以汽车为主导的空间布局逻辑,这在今天的城市环境中仍然表现得非常明显:“尽可能快地从A地到达B地”依然是城市规划和布局的主要依据。

该项研究提出了一种将基础设施网络转化为体验性的功能景观的设计方法。在一个适合步行的城市,路途中的体验与目的地本身同样重要。当地街道、自然景观网络、街区服务设施、学校、城市广场和公共交通站点均应当成为步行旅程的构成要素,而非局限于与车道相平行的人行道路。

The 20th century was without a doubt the century of the automobile. Mass production of cars had revolutionized mobility and represented a milestone in the democratization of transport. The pursuit of speed and individual freedom has led to a spatial layout which follows the logic of the car. This legacy is still visible in our urban environment today. Cities are still largely organized to get from A to B as quickly and efficiently as possible.

The research proposes a method to transform an infrastructure network into a functional experiential landscape. A walkable city where the journey is as important as the destination, recognizes local streets, green-blue networks, neighborhood services and amenities, schools, urban plazas, and public transport stations as the structural elements for a walking operational journey, rather than limiting the walking realm to sidewalks parallel to car infrastructure.

▼让步行成为实现议程目标的动因,Walking as a catalyst for different agendas ©Felixx

在流动性不断变化的时间框架内,步行可以成为政府实现各类议程的催化剂,例如为气候适应性、节能减排、安全、密集化和人口增长等问题制定的各项策略,都可以通过增加步行所释放出的空间而联系起来。不过,这种联系需要相应的回报。城市的体验要能够吸引居民和游客选择步行,这要求城市必须拥有规范的人体尺度,以及足够多的能够激励体育活动和社会互动的空间。一个适合步行的城市,与可持续的、健康的城市有着相同的设计目标。

In a timeframe of changing mobility, walking can act as a catalyst to realize various governmental agendas. Strategies for, for example, climate adaptation, emission reduction, safety, densification and population growth can be linked in the space that is freed up by the increase of walking. But this link also comes with a requirement in return. The experience of the city must entice residents and visitors to walk. In this city human scale is normative, physical activity is stimulated and space for social interaction is created. A walkable city shares a design brief with that of a sustainable and healthy city.

▼各项城市策略通过增加步行所释放出的空间而联系起来,governmental agendas can be linked in the space that is freed up by the increase of walking ©Felixx

 

以鹿特丹为案例
Rotterdam as a test case

为了研究打造步行友好城市的可行性,本次研究将鹿特丹作为试点城市。鹿特丹的城市设计以汽车为主导,在市中心发生爆炸后,政府出台了“鹿特丹重建基础计划”,遭到破坏的区域被清扫干净,为建立以现代主义原则为基准的全新街道模式提供了契机。住宅和办公区域被相互分开,为“未来的交通系统”创造了空间。本次研究选择了4个测试地点,测试内容聚焦于将汽车导向的布局转变为步行友好的城市系统。

▼鹿特丹城市地图,Rotterdam as a showcase ©Felixx

To investigate the feasibility of the walkable city, the research takes Rotterdam as a testcase. The city is an interesting study area because of the dominant role the car has played in the design of the city. After the bombing of the city center, the “Basic Plan for the Reconstruction of Rotterdam” was developed. The devastated area was swept clean, creating the opportunity to build a completely new street pattern according to modernist principles. Living and working areas were separated, and space was created for the “traffic of the future”. Four test locations were selected, to test the transformation from a car-oriented layout, to a walkable city.

▼测试地点1:鹿特丹Nieuwe Westen城区,Case 1 Urban renewal districts – Nieuwe Westen ©Felixx

▼测试地点2:战后城区Ommoord,Case 2 Post-war neighborhoods – Ommoord ©Felixx

▼测试地点3:Hoogvliet住宅区,Case 3 Residential district – Hoogvliet ©Felixx

▼测试地点4:Spaanse polder商业区,Case 4 Business park – Spaanse polder ©Felixx

PROJECT CREDITS
Location: The Netherlands
Client: College van Rijksadviseurs – Mike Emmerik, Daan Zandbelt
Year: 2019 – 2020
Type: Research by design
Team and Partners:
Michiel van Driessche
Marnix Vink
Deborah Lambert
Eduardo Marin Salinas,
Elan Redekop van der Meulen
Cherk Ga Leung

Sander van der Ham: Stipo

Copyrights: ©Felixx

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