Tian Han is the pioneer and principal founder of the development of Chinese modern drama art. On Mr.Tian’s 120th birthday, the local government built a cultural park of integrating display, drama performance and local drama training in his hometown of orchard town, Changsha, in order to commemorate Mr.Tian’s great artistic achievements and unyielding spirit.
规划布局 | Master plan
The cultural park is located in the suburbs of the city, surrounded by paddy fields and field lane that is a typical landscape garden in the north of Hunan. With the expansion of the city, the construction site is greatly affected by the municipal infrastructure. Three high-voltage electric wires and oil pipelines pass through and divide the site. The composition in the center of the field also needs to ensure that the construction of the project cannot destroy the original irrigation system in the area.
The master planning is rooted in the spatial relationship between the field and the native character of the village. The tectonic method of scatter perspective is used to actively respond to the unfavorable factors of the site, and the meaningful functional blocks are adaptively embedded according to the location elements of the scattered site. The overall layout is based on the former residence of Tianhan, and the art gallery, art college, visitor service center & hotel, ancient opera stage, the square of the national anthem, Tianhan bronze statue and opera street are related to each other, and organically linked by the slightly circular path of the garden. the single building is self-contained, or responds to the field texture, or echoes with the village settlement, and maintains a certain continuous relationship with the surrounding environment, resulting in an interesting and multi – directional tour experience; At the same time, in order to reflect the “Tian Han’s personal character” of resistance and unyielding, the architectural form emphasizes two spatial characteristics of “horizontality” and “anchoring”. The building is anchored to the earth and constructed with traditional materials such as brick, concrete, cement tile and wood. The long and gray blocks is in the wilderness. The ceremonial continuous curved wall carries the rhythm of light, the suspended fold and the thick inverted arched roof show the original and vigorous feeling. It seems that the building is placed on the long axis of time, showing the lingering traces and historical accumulation of the monumental architecture.
▼规划设计根植于田野与村落原生自然的空间关系，the master planning is rooted in the spatial relationship between the field and the native character of the village
艺术学院 | Art College
▼建筑延承“斋”的空间格局，the design of Art College is inspired by the space of “Zhai”
The prototype sought by the design is the college building in Hunan, especially the space of “Zhai” of Yuelu Academy. Its most notable feature is that “Zhai” is homogeneous, and there is a parallel linear relationship between “Zhai” and “Zhai”, which are connected by a public corridor, the courtyard patio formed by the division meets the functions of lighting, ventilation and drainage. The art college includes art classrooms, art salons and small experimental theaters. The design extends the spatial pattern of “Zhai”,that the three homogeneous masses are parallel and juxtaposed to form a spatial sequence, and are arranged according to the function of space demanded; the block of the art salon is separated from one end of the main building and is opened in two directions to form a giant porch space, the white inner courtyard naturally becomes the core of the place. The large column umbrella alike space in the entrance direction and the visual focus of the horizontal gallery converge here, interacting and creating a deep space with transparency; at the same time, this inner patio and corridor space with local traditional architectural genes filled with sunlight and wind and rain is also an extension of the open experimental theater.
▼巨型檐下空间，the giant porch space
The inverted arc vault is converted from the drainage uplift of the traditional building sloping roof and is combined with the curved cycloid correction. Each span of the vault rises through the two columns receding on both sides, forming a similar domino-like structural system between span and span; the inverted arched roof is combined with the space requirement, which supported by giant column independently at the entrance end. The inverted arch is separated from the functional body, and the curved bottom surface presents a graceful light and shadow gradient in the sunlight; the cross section of the building is clearly demonstrate the continuous umbrella-shaped basic space, the structural system and the maintenance system are clearly stripped here, the top of the wall and the flank of the vault are intentionally disconnected, the structural logic of the space is strengthened by hollowing out or weakly connected horizontal long windows.
▼反弧形拱顶，the inverted arc vault
▼艺术学院平面图，Art College site plan
▼艺术学院立面图，Art College elevations
▼艺术学院剖面图，Art College sections
艺术陈列馆 | Art Gallery
The art gallery is the core building of the cultural park, the building is linearly arranged, and the long-length block is lying on the ground. It is a monumental space to show Mr. Tian Han’s life and main deeds.
▼超长的体量横卧场地，the building is linearly arranged on the ground
The front continuous curved wall is separated from the roof and exists independently. The staggered transparent wall forms a narrow leading space with the external wall of the main building. Light is poured from the end of the wall to the ground to create a slightly unpredictable deep perspective relationship; the separation of the gable and the roof eliminates the simple bearing and adhesion relationship of the traditional construction. On the basis of the traditional double-slope roof, the roof topology is continuously converted to the wall, and the other part is upward to introduce high side natural light.
▼呈交错状通透的围合墙体与建筑主体外墙形成狭长的前导空间，the staggered transparent wall forms a narrow leading space with the external wall of the main building
▼以玻璃围合的首层立面，the space of ground floor is enclosed by glass
The northwest end of the art gallery opens in the direction of the field and the distant mountains. In order to ensure the transparency of the space, the indoor cavity is embedded in a double-deck concrete column to support the cantilevered roof of nearly 20 meters, thus replacing the uniformity of column system in the common design, that forms a smooth and deep door-shaped frame, which makes the platform view of the upper layer more far-reaching and strengthens the extension of the landscape. At the same time, the thick and powerful giant structural column is anchored to the earth, suggesting the meaning of the mainstay and the spiritual backbone. The inverted cone-shaped space in the cylinder facing the sky produces a more powerful visual impact and an enlarged sound field, giving the building a certain metaphor with the image of a “giant tower” that screams to the sky.
▼粗壮有力的巨型结构竖筒锚固于大地，the thick and powerful giant structural column is anchored to the earth
▼艺术陈列馆平面图，Art Gallery plan
▼艺术陈列馆剖透视图，Art Gallery sectional perspective
戏曲艺术街和游客服务中心 | Opera Street and Visitor Service Center & Hotel
The design idea runs through the transformation and balance of the “dailiness” and “ritualism” binary relationship: the daily transformation is ritual, and the ritualism returns to the daily life and into the earth.
The design of opera street is a gift to the local settlements. It is based on the local residential small courtyard. Each unit maintains relative independence and constitutes the intention of the street and the lane, presenting a scene of free scatter perspective; The corners of the street deliberately present a dramatic set effect, presupposing the performance of the real-life drama in the future, and this daily creation satisfying modern educational functions. The visitor service center & hotel is a combination of contemporary “Yin Zi” houses with an inner courtyard that is connected to the half-empty “Yin Zi” house cut by the service center through the stilted ground floor, facing the main entrance to the west. A thick semi-cylinder drainage gutter undertake the rain on three large overhead roofs to create a spatial order with a ceremonial axis alignment.
▼戏曲艺术街的设计以当地民居小合院为原型，各个单元既保持相对独立性，the design of Opera Street is based on the local residential small courtyard, where each unit maintains relative independence and constitutes the intention of the street and the lane
▼戏曲艺术街平面图，Opera Street plan
▼戏曲艺术街立面图，Opera Street elevations
▼戏曲艺术街剖面图，Opera Street sections
▼游客服务接待中心， visitor service center & hotel
▼浑厚的半圆筒排水天沟承接三面架空大屋顶的雨水，a thick semi-cylinder drainage gutter undertake the rain on three large overhead roofs to create a spatial order with a ceremonial axis alignment
▼游客服务接待中心平面图， visitor service center & hotel plan
▼游客服务接待中心剖面图， visitor service center & hotel section
结语 | Conclusion
The cultural park is surrounded by rice fields and water system, the design aimed to preserve and restore the original water system around the park and within the site, that visitors and surrounding villagers are free to walk through it. Under the twilight of sunset, people lingered in the park, and passed through the undulating stone roads in the fields, and elongated light and shadow cast on the long wall. The frog humming, accompanied by the gentle rise of the mist, seems to be able to perceive: between the sky and the earth, when the artifact becomes a ritualized spiritual medium, it takes the dust and light from the earth and the sky, and the building experiences baptism through the wind and frost on the top of the field, as if the spirit of Mr. Tian Han has been slowly blended into it.
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主创建筑师: 魏春雨 黄斌
设计团队：吕昌 欧阳胜 王宇星 尤志川 顾紫薇 范鹏 李矗 郭文浩 李沁 王佳楠 董新蕊 刘桐 杨忞 尹帅 黄立君
摄影师: 姚力 胡骉（数智营造工作室） 齐靖
Project name: Tian Han Cultural Park
Architect’ Firm: WCY Regional Studio
Contact e-mail: 48109308@QQ.com
Lead Architects: Chunyu Wei, Bin Huang
Design Team: Chang Lyu, Sheng Ouyang, Yuxing Wang, Zhichuan You, Ziwei Gu, Peng Fan, Chu Li, Wenhao Guo, Qin Li, Jianan Wang, Xinrui Dong, Tong Liu, Min Yang, Shuai Yin, Lijun Huang
Project location: Changsha County, China
Completion Year: 2018
Gross Built Area (square meters):12432㎡
Photo credits:Li Yao, Biao Hu（Digital Photography Studio）, Jing Qi
Other participants (eg. collaborators, clients, consultants, etc):
Client: People’s Government of Guoyuan Town, Changsha County
MEP: Institute of MEP of Hunan University Design intitute Co ., LTD
Landscape Architecture: SLF Landscape Architecture Co ., LTD
Ancient Building: Hubei Hongfengye Landscape Architecture Co ., LTD
Interior Design: Changsha Shima Space Co ., LTD