The Shed by Diller Scofidio + Renfro & Rockwell Group

A movable Shell: devoted to programmable space for art (two videos included)

Project Specs

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项目概述
Project Description

The Shed是一个面向大众的非盈利文化组织,致力委托、开发和展示所有学科的原创艺术作品。The Shed所在的Bloomberg大楼是一座面积为18500平方米的创新型建筑,由Diller Scofidio + Renfro事务所和Rockwell Group共同设计。大楼的结构可以进行物理上的改造,以支持艺术家们天马行空的创意。在建筑的八个楼层中,有两层用作画廊空间;其余的楼层包括多功能的Griffin剧院;“The Tisch Skylights”(包含一个排练空间、一个为当地艺术家服务的创意实验室和一个带有天窗的活动空间);以及“The McCourt”,一个用于举办大型表演、活动和装置展览的标志性空间。其中,“The McCourt”是大楼的可伸缩外壳从主体建筑上方沿轨道向广场延伸时形成的空间。

▼从30大街望向The Shed,Evening View of The Shed from 30th Street ©Iwan Baan

The Shed is a nonprofit cultural organization that commissions, develops, and presents original works of art, across all disciplines, for all audiences. The Shed’s Bloomberg Building—an innovative 200,000-square-foot (18,500 m²) structure designed by Diller Scofidio + Renfro, Lead Architect, and Rockwell Group, Collaborating Architect—can physically transform to support artists’ most ambitious ideas. Its eight-level base building includes two levels of gallery space; the versatile Griffin Theater; and The Tisch Skylights, which comprise a rehearsal space, a creative lab for local artists, and a skylit event space. The McCourt, an iconic space for large-scale performances, installations, and events, is formed when The Shed’s telescoping outer shell is deployed from over the base building and glides along rails onto the adjoining plaza.

▼外壳缩进状态(左)和伸展状态(右),the shed nested (left) vs. deployed (right) ©Diller Scofidio + Renfro

▼从哈德逊广场望向建筑,View from Hudson Yards  ©Iwan Baan

 

主要特点
Major Features

The Shed开放的基础设施能够持续且灵活地应对未知的未来,并根据艺术活动的不同规模、媒体形式、使用的技术以及艺术家们变化的需求来进行调整。

The Shed’s open infrastructure can be permanently flexible for an unknowable future and responsive to variability in scale, media, technology, and the evolving needs of artists.

▼可移动的外壳,the movable shell  ©Diller Scofidio + Renfro

 

位于30号街的大厅
30th Street Lobby

The Shed的主入口位于西30号大街的北侧,743平方米的大厅空间就坐落在高线公园的下方。大厅中包含了酒吧(Cedric’s at The Shed)、商店(McNally Jackson at The Shed)和售票区域。装卸区位于30号街的东侧,可容纳两辆大型卡车和一部大型货物升降机。

▼空间分布轴测示意,programme diagram ©Diller Scofidio + Renfro

The main entrance to The Shed is on the north side of West 30th Street via an 8,000-square-foot (743 m²) lobby, nestled under the High Line. The Lobby features a bar (Cedric’s at The Shed), a shop (McNally Jackson at The Shed), and ticketing area. Loading docks with two full truck berths and a large freight elevator are located on street level, accessible from 30th Street to the east.

▼从高线公园望向The Shed,Evening View of The Shed from the High Line ©Iwan Baan

位于北侧的入口为通往34th Street–Hudson Yards地铁站提供了便捷的入口。该楼层还包含了衣物存放处,并且可以直接通向大厅。

The entrance on the north side of The Shed provides convenient access to the 34th Street-Hudson Yards subway station. It features a coat check and provides access to The Lobby.

▼从哈德逊广场望向建筑北立面,Evening View of the Shed from Hudson Yards / North Elevation ©Iwan Baan

 

McCourt和广场(2层)
The McCourt and Plaza (Level 2)

建筑的可伸缩外壳可以在需要时从主体建筑上方展开,并沿着轨道滑动至旁边的广场。

When needed, the telescoping shell can deploy from its nested position over the base building and glide along rails onto the adjoining plaza.

▼动画演示,Animation ©Diller Scofidio + Renfro

在外壳展开之后,“McCourt”也由此诞生。这是一个1600平方米的、可以控制灯光、声音和温度的大型表演和活动场地,可供1250位观众就座,同时提供2000个站立位置。主体建筑中两个画廊形成的错层空间还可将观众容量扩展至3000人。建筑外壳的天花板部分在承重的同时还提供了一个宽敞的平台空间。“The McCourt”的北侧和东侧设有大型活动门,为该空间赋予了类似于露天凉亭的氛围。此外,它还可以与旁边的2层画廊空间合并在一起,形成近2715平方米的连续空间。

▼McCourt表演和活动空间,The McCourt View of the Fixed Building ©Iwan Baan

▼功能空间动态演示,the flexible programm ©Diller Scofidio + Renfro

▼从六层的剧场望向McCourt,View from McCourt from Level 6 Griffin Theater ©Timothy Schenck

The McCourt: When the movable shell is deployed from the base building it creates The McCourt, a 17,000-square-foot (1,600 m²), light-, sound-, and temperature-controlled space for large-scale performances, installations, and events. The McCourt can accommodate an audience of approximately 1,250 seated and more than 2,000 standing; flexible overlap space in the two adjoining galleries of the base building allows for an expanded audience of up to 3,000. The shell’s entire ceiling operates as an occupiable theatrical deck with rigging and structural capacity throughout. Large operable doors on its north and east sides allow The McCourt to function as an open-air pavilion. The McCourt can be combined with the adjacent gallery on Level 2 to create a nearly 30,000-square-foot (2,715 m²) contiguous space.

▼McCourt的演出场景,Performance view in McCourt ©Iwan Baan

当可移动的外壳缩回主体建筑时,便为场地空出了1860平方米的开放公共空间(也可作为户外展览空间)。建筑的东立面还可以用作声光投影的背景。广场上嵌入了由艺术家Lawrence Weiner专为场地创作的大型艺术作品:在建筑外壳收缩时是一个适于步行的户外空间,在外壳伸展时则充当“The McCourt”的基座。这一占地1860平方米的作品名为“IN FRONT OF ITSELF”,以12英尺高的字母的形式展现出来。广场上配备了供户外活动使用的分布式电源。超大型货物可以用卡车从Hudson Yards大道运至场地,并直接在广场上卸载和分配。

▼广场效果图,the plaza rendering ©Diller Scofidio + Renfro

When the movable shell is nested over the base building, the 20,000-square-foot (1860 m²) Plaza will be open public space that also can be used for outdoor programming; the eastern façade can serve as a backdrop for projection with lighting and sound support. A large-scale, site-specific work by artist Lawrence Weiner (b. 1942) is embedded in The Plaza, serving as a walkable outdoor area when the shell is nested over the fixed part of the building, or as the base of The McCourt when the shell is extended to the east. The 20,000-square-foot (1860 m²) work is titled IN FRONT OF ITSELF and features the phrase in 12-foot-high letters. The Plaza is equipped with a distributed power supply for outdoor functions. Oversize deliveries can be brought by truck up Hudson Yards Boulevard and loaded directly onto The Plaza and into the base building or the shell when deployed.

▼The Shed艺术中心、哈德逊广场和高线公园,View of The Shed, 15 Hudson Yards and The High Line ©Iwan Baan

 

2层画廊和4层画廊
Level 2 Gallery and Level 4 Gallery

The Shed设有两个宽敞且灵活的无柱式画廊,分别位于主体建筑的2层和4层,拥有超过2340平方米的博物馆级别的展示空间,其天花板的高度达到6米。东侧的活动墙壁可以直接将画廊和“The McCourt”连接起来,以提供更多的空间和座位。

The Shed features two expansive and flexible, column-free galleries on Levels 2 and 4 of the base building, totaling more than 25,000 square feet (2,340 m²) of museum-quality space with 19-foot-high (6 m) ceilings. Operable east-side walls can conjoin the galleries with The McCourt to accommodate space or seating needs.

▼2层画廊,Level 2 Gallery ©Iwan Baan

▼4层画廊,Level 4 Gallery ©Iwan Baan

▼从四层画廊望向哈德逊广场,Level 4 Viewing Gallery, View towards Hudson Railyards ©Iwan Baan

 

Griffin剧场(6层)
The Kenneth C. Griffin Theater (Level 6)

Griffin剧场是一个隔音的“黑匣子”空间,面积为1080平方米,可容纳500个座位,需要时可被划分为两个小型剧场以同时举办活动。剧场与大型货梯直接相连,为装卸提供了极大的便利。

An 11,700-square-foot (1,080 m²), sound-isolated black box space can be used as a single large theater with 500 seats or subdivided into two smaller theaters that can host concurrent events. Direct access to the large freight elevators allows for easy production load-in/load-out.

▼Griffin剧场,The Griffin Theater ©Iwan Baan

8层包含了一个160平方米的创意实验室、一个305平方米的排练空间,以及880平方米的灵活多功能活动空间。后台区域(1层及地下层)包括办公室、设备间、更衣室和储存空间,分布在1层和西面15 Hudson Yards住宅楼的地下层。后台区域的布局使主体建筑的大部分空间得以尽善尽美地为艺术提供服务。

Level 8 features a 1,700-square-foot (160 m²) creative lab for local artists, a 3,300-square-foot (305 m²) rehearsal space, and a 9,500-square-foot (880 m²) flexible, multipurpose event space. The Shed’s back-of-house spaces (Level 1 and lower levels) , which include offices, mechanical spaces, dressing rooms, and storage, are located on Level 1 and the lower levels of the residential tower to the west, 15 Hudson Yards (designed by Diller Scofidio + Renfro, Lead Architect, and Rockwell Group, Lead Interior Architect). This allows the bulk of The Shed’s base building to be devoted to programmable space for art.

▼剖面图(大厅轴线),section through lobby ©Diller Scofidio + Renfro

 

可移动的外壳
Movable Shell

The Shed的高度为37米,其可移动的外壳由裸露的钢斜架构成,外部包覆以强韧而轻巧的透明ETFE垫层(四氟乙烯共聚物),这种材料拥有与隔热玻璃相同的热力性质,但质量要轻许多。The Shed的ETFE覆面是史上最大的覆面之一,某些部分的长度接近21米。The Shed采用了节能的设计,在广场结构内部使用了辐射制热系统和变力空调系统,能够让外壳的使用部分实现最大的效率。建筑设计以获得LEED银级认证为目标,将比纽约规定的节能量高出25%,这也是所有在城市土地或使用城市资金建造的新建筑需要遵循的标准。虽然The Shed的室内空间体积达到5.6万立方米,但只有位于底部的30%的空间需要进行温度控制。广场部分还装置了辐射热地板。

▼立面细部: ETFE覆面和滚轮装置,açade Detail: ETFE, Bogie Wheel Assembly ©Iwan Baan

The Shed’s 120-foot tall (37 m) movable shell is made of an exposed steel diagrid frame, clad in translucent cushions of a strong and lightweight Teflonbased polymer, called ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). This material has the thermal properties of insulating glass at a fraction of the weight. The Shed’s ETFE panels are some of the largest ever produced, measuring almost 70 feet (21 m) in length in some areas. The Shed has an energy-conscious design using a radiant heating system within the plaza construction and a variable forced air heating and cooling system serving the occupied portions of the shell for maximum efficiency.  The building is designed to achieve LEED Silver certification and to exceed New York’s energy codes by 25%, which is required of all new buildings on city-owned land or using city-provided funds. Despite the shell’s two-million-cubic-foot interior, only the lower 30% will need to be temperature controlled. The Plaza has a radiant-heat floor plate.

▼立面细部: ETFE覆面和滑动墙,Façade Detail: ETFE and Operable Walls ©Iwan Baan

 

动力构件
Kinetic Elements

The Shed的动力系统受到了高线公园和西铁路广场的工业历史的启发,以船运港口和铁路系统中常见的龙门起重机为依据,其动力系统包含了位于主体建筑顶部的滑轨驱动机和转向负重轮,后者由2层(广场层)的一对83m的轨道引导。

The Shed’s kinetic system is inspired by the industrial past of the High Line and the West Side Rail Yard. Based on gantry cranes commonly found in shipping ports and railway systems, the kinetic system comprises a sled drive on top of the base building and bogie wheels guided along a pair of 273-foot-long (83 m) rails on Level 2 (Plaza Level).

▼动力系统示意,the kinetic system ©Diller Scofidio + Renfro

转向负重轮:可移动的外壳依附在6个大型的转向负重轮组件上,其中四个是单轴,两个是双轴。转向负重轮的直径为6英尺(约1.83米),由硬化锻钢制成。外壳的重量分布在转向架上,每个转向架单位表面积(约两个手掌的大小)上的承重量超过100万磅(约453吨)。

驱动机:滑轨驱动机被安装在主体建筑的顶部,是一个装有12个15马力的驱动机的齿条齿轮系统,共计可达180马力(作为参考,一辆丰田普锐斯汽车是134马力)。外壳从收缩到伸展需要5分钟的时间,最高速度为0.25英里/小时(约402米/小时)。该系统基于无线远程控制和备份硬件控制运行。

▼转向负重轮,Bogie Wheels ©Iwan Baan

▼建造阶段,construction phase ©Iwan Baan

▼外壳首次展开,First Deployment ©Diller Scofidio + Renfro

Bogie Wheels: The movable shell rests on six large bogie wheel assemblies— four single-axle and two double-axle bogies. The bogie wheels measure six feet in diameter and are made of hardened forged steel. The weight of the shell is spread across the bogies, each of which carries more than one million pounds on a surface area approximately the size of a pair of human hands.

Motors: The sled drive, housed on the roof of the base building, is a rack-and-pinion system with twelve 15-horsepower motors, totaling 180 horsepower (for comparison, a Toyota Prius develops 134 horsepower). The deployment of the shell takes five minutes at a peak speed of a ¼ mile per hour. The system is run by a secure wireless remote and back-up hardware controls.

▼夜景,night view ©Iwan Baan

▼模型(动态),model (gif) ©Diller Scofidio + Renfro

▼场地平面图,site plan ©Diller Scofidio + Renfro

▼主体建筑结构,base building ©Diller Scofidio + Renfro

▼The Shed剖面图,The Shed section ©Diller Scofidio + Renfro

▼外壳结构示意,shell structure axon ©Diller Scofidio + Renfro

Location
545 West 30th Street, between 10th and 11th Avenues, on Manhattan’s west side
Owner
The Shed is an independent, nonprofit cultural organization
Architects
Diller Scofidio + Renfro, Lead Architect
Rockwell Group, Collaborating Architect
Project Cost
$404 Million (Construction Hard Costs)
Building Materials
The primary materials are structural steel, ETFE, insulated glass, and reinforced concrete.
Design and Construction Team
Diller Scofidio + Renfro: Lead Architect
Rockwell Group: Collaborating Architect
Levien & Company: Owner’s Representative
Sciame Construction, LLC: Construction Manager
Thornton Tomasetti: Structural Design, Façade Engineering and Kinetic
Engineering Services
Jaros, Baum & Bolles (JB&B): MEP and Fire Protection Consultant
Hardesty and Hanover: Kinetic Systems Consultant
Vidaris: Energy Modeling Consultant
Tillotson Design Associates: Lighting Consultant
Akustiks: Acoustics / Audio / Visual Consultant
Fisher Dachs: Theater Consultant
Cimolai: Structural Steel Fabricator
Vector Foiltec: ETFE Fabricator
Code Consultants, Inc.: Code Consultants
Van Deusen & Associates: Vertical Transport Consultants
Ducibella Venter & Santore: Security Consultants
Other Means: Graphic Design and Wayfinding
Entek Engineering: Façade Maintenance
James R. Gainfort AIA Consulting Architects PC: Waterproofing
Construction Specifications Inc.: Specifications

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