The Quarries of Arzo by Enrico Sassi Architetto

Regeneration of the area and reuse of the existing buildings

Project Specs

Location:

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Appreciation towards Enrico Sassi Architetto for providing the following description:

这个Arzo采石场地区的重建和现有建筑的再利用项目经过了一个漫长而复杂的酝酿过程,其委托人是Patriziato di Arzo;经过设计团队与客户的多次讨论以及对最初概念的不断调整和改进,本项目得以完成。通常情况下,在该地区内发现的沉寂角砾岩都被称为Arzo大理石。这种风靡整个欧洲的石材的开采工程始于1300年。2009年,已经运营了六代的负责矿石开采工程的Rossi & Ci.公司倒闭,2011年,本项目的客户Patriziato di Arzo收购了这些废弃的建筑,希望能够重建整个采石场区域,同时,重新将采石工程提上日程。

The project for the redevelopment of the area and the reuse of the buildings within the Arzo quarries promoted by the Patriziato di Arzo underwent a long and complex process of gestation; what has been achieved is the result of much discussion and of the constant questioning and adjusting of the initial ideas. The sedimentary breccia found in Arzo is generally known as Arzo marble. The quarrying of this stone, which was used throughout Europe, started in 1300. In 2009, having been in operation for six generations, the Rossi & Ci. company folded, and in 2011 the Patriziato di Arzo acquired the buildings, with the intention of redeveloping the entire area and re-starting quarrying.

▼天然圆形剧场和木制走道,the Natural Amphitheatre and the timber walkway © Filippo simonetti

本项目的基地包括了沿着州际道路排列的Macchiavecchia 大理石采石场,这座采石场连接了Arzo和Meride,最大的特点之一便是一个大型的起重机和采石场边上不计其数的大理石石块;在这里,建筑师找到了一系列旧棚屋和上方有遮挡构件的空间结构,在这些结构中,开采出来的大理石料会经过初次切割处理,随后,再被送到特定的地点进行进一步的加工。而在树林的深处,建筑师们还发现了一个被用作仓库的区域,这个区域位于“Broccatello”大理石采石场和曾用于提取惰性材料如Ex-Cava Caldelari等的空间之前,总而言之,这是一个拥有着绝佳的自然多样性的场所。从地质学和古生物学的角度来看,整个项目基地都有着非同一般的地理意义,值得一提的是,基地上甚至还有一些让全世界科学家为之疯狂的、可以追溯到三叠纪和侏罗纪时期的岩石。

The project site includes the marble quarry known as Macchiavecchia along the cantonal road that connects Arzo and Meride, identifiable by a large crane and a number of marble blocks at the foot of the quarry face; here we find the old sheds and the covered structure where blocks were first cut before being further processed. Deeper in the wood, we find an area that was used as a depot, before coming to the “Broccatello” marble quarry and to a large area formerly used for the extraction of inert materials known as Ex-Cava Caldelari, a site of great natural diversity. From the geological and paleontological point of view, the entire area is part of a geotope that includes rocks of worldwide scientific interest dating back to the Triassic and Jurassic periods.

▼项目总平面图,site plan of the project © enrico sassi architetto

自2003年以来,这个地区一直是联合国教科文组织所划定的圣乔治山(Monte San Giorgio)缓冲带的一部分。世界上另一个因其地质意义而闻名的地区是前Cava Caldelari地区,它曾多次登上各种关于地质构造过程和阿尔卑斯山古地理学的研究的出版物上。Tremona构造(Tremona formation)的岩石(也被称为Retico涌现,Retico emerge)与本项目中Broccatello采石场内的岩石,以及这二者在河岸和气井处的化石沉积物(主要是腕足类动物化石、海百合类动物化石和无脊椎海绵类动物化石等)的历史都可以追溯到1.45到1.99亿年前的侏罗纪时期。该地区的植被以渗流类植物、潮湿或干燥的杂草和粗野的草原为主。而至于动物群,这里则是直翅目类动物、鳞翅目类动物、爬行类动物和鸟类等物种的重要栖息地。

本项目由Patriziato di Arzo发起,2012年,他曾通过委托,对该地区的潜力进行过初步的研究和评估。因此,该项目从一开始就得到了Mendrisiotto和Basso Ceresio地区区域发展研究所(ERS-MB,全称为Ente Regionale Sviluppo Mendrisiotto e Basso Ceresio)的支持,同时获得了Mendrisiotto旅游局(Mendrisiotto Turismo)和Monte San Giorgio 基金会(Fondazione Monte San Gorgio)的赞助。这个地区重建和建筑物再利用项目的重点主要集中在三个方面:一是教育步道,即通向基地上部树林中的古采石场的步道;二是天然圆形剧场,即对现有的废弃Cava Caldelari区域的开发和再利用,该区域面积高达4,500平方米,有着丰富的自然多样性;三是采石场加工工厂,即在空间功能上对现存古老棚屋进行改造,这些曾经用于切割大理石的空间被改造成为了一系列加工和展览空间。

Since 2003 the area has been part of the buffer zone of the Monte San Giorgio UNESCO site. Another area known the world over for its geological significance is the former Cava Caldelari, as witness numerous publications on the tectonic phases and the palaeogeography of the Alps. Here the rocks of the Tremona formation, also known as Retico emerge, together with the rocks of the Broccatello and their fossil concentrations in banks or pockets (mainly brachiopods, crinoids and sponges) dating back to the Jurassic period (199-145 million years ago). The vegetation of the area is characterised by seepage, wet and dry ruderal habitats, rough grassland. As for the fauna, the quarries are important habitats for species such as orthoptera, lepidoptera, reptiles and birds.

The project was started by the Patriziato di Arzo who commissioned an initial study on the potential of the area in 2012. From the very start the project
was supported by ERS-MB (Ente Regionale Sviluppo Mendrisiotto e Basso Ceresio, the Regional Development Institute for the Mendrisiotto and Basso Ceresio districts), and was able to count on the patronage of the Mendrisiotto Turismo (Mendrisiotto Tourism Board) and Fondazione Monte San Gorgio (Monte San Giorgio Foundation). The project for the redevelopment of the area and for the re-use of the buildings focused on three areas: the educational trail (a path that leads to the ancient quarries in the wood above), the natural amphitheatre (a project for the reuse and promotion of the great disused Cava Caldelari approximately 4,500 square metres of rich natural diversity; the quarry workshop (the conversion of the ancient sheds where marble was processed into workshops and exhibition spaces).

▼改造点示意图,项目的三个重点:教育步道、天然圆形剧场和石场加工工厂,the diagram showing the three focuses of this project: the educational trail, the natural amphitheatre and the quarry workshop © enrico sassi architetto

 

天然圆形剧场 | The Natural Amphitheatre

前Cava Caldelari地区是一个在地质和古生物学、以及动植物学方面有着重要意义的区域。这个被称为“天然圆形剧场(The Natural Amphitheatre)”的项目是与环境工程公司Oikos 2000合作开发的,通过创建一系列利用场地自然特征的特定生物群落,在保护重要自然环境的同时组织空间,使人们可以进入。为了方便剧场项目的实施,设计团队清理了一个遍布着碎石碎屑的区域,在其上以半圆形的形式,设置了四排由大理石块制成的座椅。这些退台式的座椅既可以作为休息的座位,也可以作为公共活动的舞台空间。

▼天然圆形剧场鸟瞰图,以半圆形的形式,设置四排由大理石块制成的座椅,the bird-eye’s view of the Natural Amphitheatre, arranging four rows of seats made from marble blocks in a semi-circle © Filippo simonetti

▼天然圆形剧场俯视图局部,partial of the top view of the Natural Amphitheatre © alberto canepa

▼天然圆形剧场,退台式的座椅既可以作为休息的座位,也可以作为公共活动的舞台空间,the Natural Amphitheatre, the steps can be used as seating and allow the staging of public events © Filippo simonetti (up); © Gian Paolo Minelli (down)

The former Cava Caldelari is an area of great significance in terms of geology and paleontology, as well as for its flora and fauna. The project known as “Natural Amphitheatre” has been developed in collaboration with the environmental engineering firm Oikos 2000 and involves the organisation of spaces to make them accessible while preserving particularly significant natural environments, by creating specific biotopes that capitalise on the natural features of the site. The project has cleared an area that was cluttered with quarrying detritus, now replace by four rows of seats made from marble blocks, arranged in a semi-circle. The steps can be used as seating and allow the staging of public events.

▼天然圆形剧场的座椅细节,details of the seating of the Natural Amphitheatre © Filippo simonetti

木制走道则采用当地的刺槐木建造,沿着采石场的表面布置,从而延伸了横穿沼泽的人行道。这条路线以钢筋混凝土墙(即废弃的破碎车间的基础)为特征,增加一系列由钢筋支撑的栏杆,从而提高自身的安全性能。这个被作为景观眺望台的区域俯瞰着采石场,并设有三个由大理石板制成的桌子。由木材和大理石支撑的楼梯将小径与其上方另一条小径联系了起来,同时还创造了两个新的生物栖息地:一个可以收集该地区雨水的小池塘,以及一个小型动物的群落生境,该群落生境由一大堆堆积的大理石块构成,从而重新创造了一个栖息环境,弥补了由于要设置休息空间而要移除栖息地的遗憾。

A timber walkway was built in locally sourced black locust wood to extend the footpath across the marshland area along the quarry face. The trail leads to an area characterised by some imposing reinforced concrete walls (the base of the old crushing plant) which have been made safe by the addition of a railing made from rebars. This area – known as the baluardo panoramico (the belvedere) overlooks the quarry and has been fitted with three tables made from marble slabs. A stair made from timber and marble connects the trail to another footpath above it. Two new biotopes were also created: a small pond where rainwater from the area is collected, and a biotope for small animals – a mound of piled marble blocks that recreates the habitat removed to make way for seating.

▼木制步道,采用当地的刺槐木建造,the timber walkway built in locally sourced black locust wood © Filippo simonetti

 

教育步道 | The Educational Trail

在现有大理石采石场的上方,存在着无数的老旧的、如今已经废弃的采石场。因此,本项目旨在规划组织和标记出一条人行步道,即上文所提到的教育步道,这条步道可以引导游客们一路走向废弃的洞穴,从而向他们展示一系列各不相同的采石技术(如用凿子凿、用螺旋电线采石等)和各种类型的被开采出来的石料(如红色的Macchiavecchia大理石、Rosso Arzo大理石和Broccatello大理石等)。步道的混凝土板由特意从被捣碎的大理石中提取出来的惰性材料打造而成,经过表面抛光处理,这些材料得以被暴露在大众的视野中。

Above the current marble quarry there are a number of old, now disused quarries. The project entails organising and marking a pedestrian route (an educational trail) to the disused caves revealing the different quarrying techniques (chisel, helical wire) and the various types of stone that were extracted (red Macchiavecchia, Rosso Arzo, Broccatello). The concrete slab is made from inert materials specially obtained by crushing marble, and the surface has been polished to reveal them.

▼木制步道,增加一系列由钢筋支撑的栏杆,从而提高自身的安全性能,the timber walkway, the addition of a railing made from rebars increases the safety of the trail © Filippo simonetti

此外,建筑师还在教育步道的起点处设计了一座带有公共便利设施的新建筑。而这座拥有着公共便利设施的建筑则完全由大理石砌块建造而成,其半透明的顶篷由HEB钢梁支撑。门体由氧化金属格栅制成。该建筑采用顶部照明,并通过屋顶和墙体之间的开放带实现自然通风。建筑内的洗手盆采用一种古老的、纯手工开采的大理石打造。墙体则由具有不同表面纹理和颜色的大理石块建造而成。

▼带有公共便利设施的新建筑的设计概念分析图,concept diagram about the new building housing the public conveniences © enrico sassi architetto

▼带有公共便利设施的新建筑手绘透视图,the sketch of the new building housing the public conveniences © enrico sassi architetto

At the start of the trail a new building houses the public conveniences. The building that houses the public conveniences is entirely built from marble blocks and its translucent canopy is supported by HEB steel beams. The doors are made from oxidised metal grills. The structure is
 lit from above and naturally ventilated from the open band between the roof and walls. The washbasin was made from an ancient hand-quarried block of marble. The walls were built from blocks of marble with different surfaces and finishes.

▼教育步道起点处的带有公共便利设施的新建筑,完全由大理石砌块建造而成,the new building housing the public conveniences at the start of the trail that is entirely built from marble blocks © Filippo simonetti

▼教育步道起点处的带有公共便利设施的新建筑,半透明的顶篷由HEB钢梁支撑,the new building housing the public conveniences at the start of the trail, its translucent canopy is supported by HEB steel beams © Filippo simonetti

▼带有公共便利设施的新建筑的室内空间,半透明的顶篷满足采光要求,interior view of the new building housing the public conveniences, the translucent canopy introduces the sunlight © Filippo simonetti

▼带有公共便利设施的新建筑的室内空间,墙体由具有不同表面纹理和颜色的大理石块建造而成,interior view of the new building housing the public conveniences, the walls are built from blocks of marble with different surfaces and finishes © Filippo simonetti

▼带有公共便利设施的新建筑图纸,drawings about the new building housing the public conveniences © enrico sassi architetto

 

采石场加工工厂 | The Quarry Workshop

建筑师通过重新利用和升级设有原始生产设施的老旧建筑,完成这个工厂空间的建设,这个工程包括了两个分散的建筑体量:一个可以看作是大理石棚屋的主建筑体量和一个用于组织入口和交通流线的辅助体量。

The quarry workshop project reuses and upgrades the ancient buildings of the original production facility, which consists of two discrete volumes: the main building (known as the marble shed) and a secondary building that organises access and circulation.

▼加工工厂俯视图,包括了两个分散的建筑体量:大理石棚屋主体量和组织入口交通流线的辅助体量,top view of the quarry workshop project consisting of two discrete volumes: a marble shed and a secondary building organizing access and circulation © alberto canepa

主建筑体量的立面面向洲际公路,完全由大理石砌筑而成。而全新的屋顶不仅突出了这一特征,更强调了材料和施工技术。新的屋顶并不设排水沟,而是从外立面的垂直面上向内退,从而使得降雨可以直接落在大理石块上,从而加深了建筑的颜色。原建筑立面上的洞口(一扇门和三扇窗户)用大理石板密封,从而统一了立面的材料:立面看起来就像是一大块大理石,而原始立面与现有立面的接缝处就像是被蚀刻出来的岁月的痕迹。虽然老旧的屋顶已经被替换,但建筑师仍然保留了大理石棚屋所特有的原始木桁架。为了确保屋顶的静态安全性,建筑师在原始木桁架的两侧增加了两个新的钢桁架。而用于组织交通流线的体量的主要空间则拥有着一个独属的新屋顶,新屋顶采用大理石板作为覆层。

▼加工工厂爆炸轴测图,the exploded axon of the quarry workshop © enrico sassi architetto

The elevation of the main building faces on to the cantonal road and is entirely built from marble blocks. This unique feature is highlighted by a new roof cover that emphasises the material and construction technique. The new roof has no drainage gutter and is set back from the plane of the facade, so that rainfall drips onto the marble blocks, enhancing their colour. The openings in the original facade (a door and three windows) were sealed with marble slabs to give the elevation material uniformity: the facade appears as a single large block of marble in which the traces of the original facade are etched. The old roof cover has been replaced. However, the unique, original timber truss of the marble shed has been retained. To ensure the static safety of the roof, the ancient truss is now flanked by two new steel trusses. The main volume of the building that organises circulation has been covered with a new roof, clad in marble slabs.

▼加工工厂主体量外观局部,partial exterior view of the main volume of the quarry workshop © luca Ferrario

▼加工工厂的主建筑体量,用大理石板密封原建筑立面上的洞口(一扇门和三扇窗户),从而统一了立面的材料,the main volume of the quarry workshop, the openings in the original facade (a door and three windows) are sealed with marble slabs to give the elevation material uniformity © luca Ferrario (up);  © Filippo simonetti (down)

其余的所有建筑体量都采用带波纹的透明聚碳酸酯板,从而使得整个空间都充满光线。新的公共便利设施通过Arzo大理石、灰色的Macchiavecchia大理石和绿色的高山大理石交替出现组成;洗脸盆则由古老的、由采石工人用凿子纯手工开采而来的Arzo红色大理石块雕刻而成。

All other volumes are covered with corrugated transparent polycarbonate panels which allow spaces to be lit zenithally. New public conveniences were built with floors made by alternating strips
of Arzo marble, grey Macchiavecchia and Alp green marble; the washbasin was carved from an ancient block of Arzo red marble extracted manually, with a chisel.

▼加工工厂外观局部,partial exterior view of the quarry workshop © Filippo simonetti

建筑师修复并重新利用了两扇原有的钢门,以及建筑内部的两扇古老的木门。工厂空间得以保留,原有的处理石材的机器也已经被修复。在“大理石营房(marble barracks)”的内部,一台1925年的古老的Hatz柴油发动机驱动着一个飞轮,该飞轮又反过来激活了螺旋电线。电线通过一个垂直的底座支架和飞轮系统与外部空间联系起来,从而可以用于向人们演示用螺旋电线切割大理石的技术。

The two original steel doors were restored and reused, as were two ancient wooden doors inside the building. The workshop spaces have been retained, and the original machinery for handling stone has been restored. Inside the ‘marble barracks’ an ancient Hatz diesel engine from 1925 operates a flywheel which in turn activates a helical wire. The wire is connected to the outside by a system of upright base supports and flywheels, and is used to demonstrate the technique for cutting marble with a helical wire.

▼加工工厂入口,修复并重新利用了两扇原有的钢门,the entrance of the quarry workshop, the two original steel doors are restored and reused © Filippo simonetti

▼加工工厂内部空间,屋顶采用带波纹的透明聚碳酸酯板,保留原始木桁架,并在其两侧增加两个新的钢桁架,interior view of the quarry workshop covered with corrugated transparent polycarbonate panels, retaining the original timber truss that is flanked by two new steel trusses © Filippo simonetti

▼材料细节,material details © Filippo simonetti

▼加工工厂夜景,night view of the quarry workshop © Filippo simonetti

▼加工工厂平面图,floor plan of the quarry workshop © enrico sassi architetto

▼加工工厂立面图,elevation of the quarry workshop © enrico sassi architetto

▼加工工厂剖面图,section of the quarry workshop © enrico sassi architetto

Location: Svizzera – Arzo
Project year: 2017
Client: Patriziato di Arzo
Architect: Enrico Sassi
Collaborators: Roberta Blasi, Irene Lucca
Civil engineer: Pietro Brenni, Brenni Engineering SA
Environmental engineer and landscape consultant: Oikos 2000 Sagl
Electrotechnical engineer: Dante Solcà, Elettro Dinamic Sagl
Graphic and web design: Valentina Rossi
Photographers: Filippo Simonetti, Gian Paolo Minelli, Marcelo Villada Ortiz, Alberto Canepa
Contractor: Riva Costruzioni SA
Excavation, transport and placement of stones: Contrabi SA
Stone cutting: Nuova Fresabeton SA
Stonemasons: Valentina Rossi, Oreste Rossi
Forestry company: Eco 2000 SA
Electrician: Arrigo G&A SA
Plumber: Fieni Danilo e glio SA
Roofer: Fratelli Colombo Sagl
Metalworker: Roberto Stefanetti SA
Flooring: Manutecnica SA
Carpenter: Antonio Cattaneo
Painter: Marco Rossi
Seals: Isoresine SA
Dry-ice blasting: Moor Sabbiatura Criogenica
Mechanics: Giovanni Ballerini, Orio Bianchi, Giovanni Pagani, Brunello Pontiggia, Gianpiero Rossi

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