项目综述 | PROJECT SUMMARY
为了支持 2018 年 11 月 19 日的世界厕所日，SPARK 思邦启动了“大屁股厕所”方案。SPARK 思邦已经开发了一种易于运输的3D打印厕所模块，以支持联合国对于改善印度露天排便现象及卫生问题的倡议。在欠发达国家，露天排便是导致疾病的主要原因。SPARK 思邦的大胆创新理念是将人类排泄物转化为沼气，并通过微型热电联产机组将沼气转化为电能。该提案针对消除露天排便现象的紧迫性，并利用自然排泄物为偏远地区创造“免费”能源的积极效益。
SPARK launches its The Big Arse Toilet in support of World Toilet day 19th November 2018. SPARK has developed an easily transportable 3d printed toilet module in support of the UN initiative to combat open defecation and the associated issues of hygiene and sanitation in India. Open defecation is major contributing cause of disease in under developed countries. SPARK’s bold concept converts human waste into biogas and via a micro CHP unit (combined heat and power) converts the biogas into electricity. The proposal aims to highlight the urgency of eliminating open defecation as well as the positive benefit of using a natural waste product to create “free” energy for remote communities.
▼“大屁股厕所”设计示意图，“The Big Arse Toilet” design diagram
设计说明 | DESCRIPTION
在 2013 年，联合国副秘书长发起了一项关于卫生问题的行动号召，其中包括到2025 年为止消除露天排便现象的倡议。在低收入和中等收入国家，每年约有 84.2 万人死于水、卫生设施和条件不足。据信，恶劣的卫生条件是其中 28 万人死亡的主要原因。全世界现约有 8.92 亿人公开排便，使得疾病和贫穷问题持续的恶性循环。在露天排便现象最严重的国家，因为营养不良和贫穷而死亡的5岁以下儿童人数最多。“社会需要厕所，但数十亿人没有它。这意味着大量人类的粪便没有被处理，且污染了维持人类生命的水和土壤。我们正在把我们的环境变成一个开放的下水道。我们必须建立与生态系统协调工作的厕所和卫生系统。世界厕所日关注的是以自然为基础的解决我们卫生需求的方案。当大自然召唤我们时我们必须倾听和行动。”（http://www.worldtoiletday.info/wtd2018/）
In 2013, the UN Deputy Secretary General issued a call to action on sanitation that included the elimination of open defecation by 2025. Some 842 000 people in low- and middle-income countries die as a result of inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene each year. Poor sanitation is believed to be the main cause in 280,000 of these deaths. 892 million people worldwide practice open defecation that perpetuates the vicious cycle of disease and poverty. The countries where open defecation is most widespread have the highest number of deaths of children aged under 5 years as well as the highest levels of malnutrition and poverty. “Society needs toilets but billions of people don’t have one. This means human faeces, on a massive scale, are not being captured or treated contaminating the water and soil that sustain human life. We are turning our environment into an open sewer. We must build toilets and sanitation systems that work in harmony with ecosystems. World Toilet Day is about nature- based solutions to our sanitation needs. When nature calls we have to listen and act” (http://www.worldtoiletday.info/wtd2018/)
▼该项目旨在建立与生态系统协调工作的厕所和卫生系统，the aim of the project is to build toilets and sanitation systems that work in harmony with ecosystems
SPARK’s proposal provides cost effective toilet modules printed from a mixture of processed bamboo fibre and gum resin. The toilet modules sit on and a secured to a buried 3d printed reinterpretation of a traditional biogas dome that uses human, animal and vegetable waste to generate and store gas. The biogas fuels a micro CHP unit (combined heat and power) to create electricity.
▼厕所模块被固定在3d打印的沼气穹顶上，the toilet modules sit on and a secured to a buried 3d printed reinterpretation of a traditional biogas dome
The printed monocoque shell of the toilet comes complete with toilet bowl and basin printed as part of the homogenous surface of the toilet cubicle. The exterior of the shell can be rendered or finished with a variety of materials appropriate to local context and environment. The toilet and its associated biogas dome can be flown by drone into remote locations as complete and easily docked together locally.
▼装配顺序，sequence of assembling
沼气穹顶的功能已经持续 10 年之久，产生的电力足以为一个只有8个住所的小社区供电。能源问题是当今世界所面临的几乎所有重大挑战和机遇的核心。联合国设定了一个全球目标，以确保到 2030 年也能获得负担得起的、可靠的和可持续发展的能源。目前，全球13%的人口仍缺乏电力供应。约有30亿人暴露在有污染的空气中烹饪，而没有解决方案。尽管联合国和地方政府采取了行动，但农村贫困人口的状况仍变成了一个越来越大的挑战，即厕所设施没有适当的污水处理和能源服务。
The biogas dome has been sized to function for 10 years, generating enough electricity to power a small community of 8 dwellings. Energy is central to nearly every major challenge and opportunity the world faces today. The UN set a Global Goal to ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and sustainable energy by 2030. Currently 13% of the global population still lacks access to electricity. Some 3 billion people lack access to clean cooking solutions and are exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution. The situation of the rural poor despite the efforts of the UN’s objectives and local government initiatives poses a growing challenge where toilet facilities with toilet facilities with proper sewage treatment and energy services are non-existent.
SPARK 思邦的“大屁股厕所”因其形式而得名，可以为缺乏污水处理和能源服务设施的地区提供卫生和电力。SPARK 思邦合伙人斯蒂芬·平博理说：SPARK 思邦自行研发的“大屁股厕所”就是为了强调这一事实:目前我们在为弱势群体提供解决卫生设施的方面做得还不够，而这些群体遇到最严重的问题是无法获得大多数人认为理所当然的卫生设施。我们的提案可以帮助预防疾病及社区发展，从而消除社会障碍，尤其是农村社区妇女所面临的与贫穷和露天排便相关的严重的健康问题。
SPARK’s “The Big Arse Toilet” so called given its form can provide sanitation and power to communities that lack both these basic utilities. SPARK partner Stephen Pimbley said: “SPARK’s self-funded The Big Arse Toilet has been developed to highlight the fact that not enough is being done to provide solutions for vulnerable individuals that are worst affected by lack of access to the level sanitation most take for granted. Our proposal could help prevent disease and assist in community development by lifting social barriers faced particularly women in rural communities, often meaning serious consequences for their health, perpetuating the disproportionate levels of disease associated with poverty and open defecation”
Total GFA: 13 (sqm)
Project Partners: Stephen Pimbley, Lim Wenhui
Team: Andriani Wira, Liliani Saputri, Luca Maccarinelli, Wai Wing Yun