本文是LocHal图书馆建筑设计项目，此前，gooood已发表过LocHal图书馆的室内设计项目，点此链接查看：Click here to see the interior design of LocHal in Tilburg by Mecanoo
位于蒂尔堡车站旁边的LocHal图书馆已于2019年1月正式向公众开放。该建筑由一座30年代的铁路机车库改造而来，如今成为了一个具有铁路主题特色的公共聚会场所。稳固的钢结构为各类展览和活动提供了理想的背景，超大面积的纺织幕帘则延续了Bibliotheek Midden-Brabant图书馆旧馆设计理念。这里不仅是一个“消费”信息的场所，更是生产信息的园地：除了公共图书馆之外，LocHal还容纳了Brabant文化艺术中心、Brabant C文化创意产业投资基金会和Seats2Meet公共工作空间。
Visitors to Tilburg’s newly modernized station district will notice an exciting addition to the city: the new public library which was officially opened in January 2019. A former locomotive shed – the ‘LocHal’ – has undergone an intensive redesign to become the beating heart of the district. It has been transformed into a public meeting place with a distinct railway theme. Its rugged steel structure provides the perfect backdrop for all manner of events and exhibitions. Much of the elegant industrial building has been conserved. With the addition of robust new architecture and huge textile screens, it has been transformed to showcase the new concept of Midden Brabant Libraries. It is a place in which knowledge is not only ‘consumed’ but produced by partners such as the arts organization Kunstloc, Brabant C and the co-working facilities of Seats2Meet.
LocHal图书馆的建筑设计是Civic Architects与Braaksma & Roos Architectenbureau和Inside Outside/Petra Blaisse紧密合作的成果。Arup担任了项目的可持续性设计和声学顾问。图书馆及其内部的一系列“实验室”和办公场所的室内设计由Mecanoo事务所完成。
The building’s design is the result of close collaboration between Civic Architects, Braaksma & Roos Architectenbureau and Inside Outside/Petra Blaisse, while the engineering consultancy Arup advised on aspects such as sustainability, re-use and acoustic design. The furnishing of the library, of the various ‘laboratories’, the café and offices are by Mecanoo.
▼新的图书馆成为了具有铁路主题特色的公共聚会场所，the ‘LocHal’ has been transformed into a public meeting place with a distinct railway theme
公共集会空间 | A public meeting place
Perhaps the most conspicuous feature of the new LocHal is its sheer size. With a footprint of 90 x 60 metres and a height of 15 metres, it is both imposing and inviting. The new library was deliberately designed to be an extremely accessible building. The entrance hall takes the form of a covered city square with large public reading tables (doubling as podia), an exhibition area and a coffee kiosk. This square folds up into broad steps which can be used as event seating for over one thousand spectators. These steps lead up into the main building, notable for its huge glass facades which allow for plentiful daylight. On the second floor, the gallery and stairways allow closer inspection of the historic glass walls as visitors browse the bookcases or make use of the quiet reading areas. One floor higher is a large balcony offering panoramic views of the city.
▼宽阔的室内空间兼备了宏伟和亲切的特点，the sheer size makes the library both imposing and inviting
▼入口大厅犹如一个带有屋顶的城市广场，the entrance hall takes the form of a covered city square
▼广场上的大台阶可以为活动和表演提供超过1000个座位，the square folds up into broad steps which can be used as event seating for over one thousand spectators
▼在明亮而安静的环境中享受阅读， a quiet and bright place for visitors to read
粗野的装饰风格 | A robust décor
▼黑色钢材、混凝土、玻璃和木材被大面积地应用到空间当中，the new additions make use of ‘honest’ materials such as black steel, concrete, glass and wood, applied over large surfaces
▼旧工业建筑的主体结构和各种原始特征得到了精心的维护和保留，various original features which have been carefully preserved
The atmosphere of the building is that of a productive knowledge institute. The main structure, various original features which have been carefully preserved and the new additions make use of ‘honest’ materials such as black steel, concrete, glass and wood, applied over large surfaces. Textile screens add accents of scale and colour. It is the main structure which determines the architectural language, while the details adapt themselves to the scale of the building. Floors, columns and stairways reveal their characteristic textures when viewed at close hand, especially in daylight when the refined shadows created by the intricate window frames and translucent textile panels play upon them. After dark, the building is turned ‘inside out’, as it were, with the interior becoming the main source of light: an inviting beacon in the city centre. The interior then takes on the character of a theatre, with all surfaces bathed in a warm light. The imperfections of the existing materials contribute much to the authentic atmosphere of the LocHal. The architecture creates a colossal, industrial setting for all types of activity. The interior design, with its unique fixtures and fittings, creates an extra layer that adds playful variation to the overall visual experience.
▼阳光从半透明的幕帘中透过，创造出柔和的光影，the intricate window frames and translucent textile panels create refined shadows
▼室内细部，既有材料的不完美特质恰恰塑造了LocHal的独特美学，interior detailed view, the imperfections of the existing materials contribute much to the authentic atmosphere of the LocHal
纺织幕帘 | Textile screens
根据不同的事件和活动需要，图书馆的各个空间对隐私性也有不同程度的需求。为此， Inside Outside设计了6块尺寸巨大的纺织幕帘，其高度从地面延伸至天花板顶部，一方面突出了建筑的壮观尺度，另一方面也定义出独立的区域，改善了室内空间的声学效果。这些幕帘的总面积达到4125平方米，可以通过计算机系统进行定位。例如，它们可以移动以划分Seats2Meet工作空间和上方的图书馆楼层，或者在大台阶处划分出一个小型的半私人礼堂。最大的一块幕帘高15米，宽50米，可以用来容纳咖啡亭或为其提供完美的背景。当幕帘被放置在南侧的窗户前，大厅的光线将会变得更加柔和。当阳光投射在这些透明的表面上时，它们看上去就像是从高处倾泻下来的瀑布，在建筑内部形成一道华丽而优美的景观。
Amid all this openness, certain events and activities may call for a smaller scale or a degree of privacy. Inside Outside has therefore designed six huge textile screens which extend to ceiling height, thus accentuating the scale of the building while also defining separate areas and improving the acoustic properties of the interior. These screens have a total surface area of 4125 m2 and can be repositioned using a computerized system. They can, for example, be moved to separate the Seats2Meet area from the higher library floors, or across one of the staircases to create a small, semi-private auditorium. The largest screens, 50 metres across and 15 metres high, can be used to conceal the coffee kiosk or create the perfect backdrop for it. When positioned in front of the windows on the south side of the building, the screens soften the light that floods through the tall glass facades into the inner square. As the sun hits their transparent surfaces, the curtains turn into tall cascades, becoming integral part of the spacious interior landscape.
▼室内的幕帘可以通过计算机系统进行定位，the textile screens can be repositioned using a computerized system
▼巨大的纺织幕帘突出了建筑的壮观尺度，同时起到分隔空间和改善声学效果的作用，the huge textile screens accentuate the scale of the building while also defining separate areas and improving the acoustic properties of the interior
A library for the 21st century
The LocHal has redefined the function of a library in today’s digital era. While there are the usual facilities for the traditional ‘book consumer’, the new library also provides ample opportunity for the creation of new knowledge. ‘Curatorship’ has become just as important as the books themselves: interaction with human experts offers a deeper, richer way to acquire knowledge and information. This new role is facilitated by the architecture. In addition to various areas for lectures and public events, the library has a number of ‘labs’ (laboratories) where visitors can learn new skills. These labs, with their remarkable design, can be found throughout the building. One is in the form of a glass cube, formerly part of the concert hall in Amsterdam’s Beurs van Berlage building. There is also the Food Lab, the Word Lab, the DigiLab and the Heritage Lab. The clustering of library, various arts institutes, Seats2Meet and faculties of journalism in the nearby Mindlabs (currently under construction) creates a diverse group of experts who will cement the success of the new library concept. Moreover, the form of the building ensures that the collection, the facilities and the manner in which they are used can be adapted to meet changing requirements.
The new architectural design is a contemporary reinterpretation of that of the original late-industrial building, dating from 1932, and builds upon the logic of that design. The impression of spaciousness is strengthened by new sightlines across the diagonally stepped interior landscape. Columns, floors, balustrades and the textile screens form the ‘grand gestures’ of the various axes within the spatial system: directly up, behind and to the sides, a reference to the industrial processes of the past. The original riveted columns have been preserved and are joined by large supporting structures in a more abstract form which delineate the side aisles they create.
Variation in interior style
The interior design employs a number of distinct concepts to create different settings for various activities such as meeting, collaboration or quiet reading. Characteristic original features have been combined with oak, steel and a palette of red and orange hues. The coffee kiosk is finished in red, brown and gold ceramic tiles. Three huge tables, designed in the form of a train’s ‘bogie’ (undercarriage), stand on the original tracks. They form an extension to the bar area but can also be pushed together to create a stage or catwalk, with the surrounding steps providing seating for the audience. The immense industrial columns have been repurposed as reading and study areas by the addition of wooden tables and lighting. The library’s collection is arranged on large, movable bookcases to create the inviting atmosphere of a modern bookstore. There is also a children’s library, the design of which draws inspiration from De Efteling, the fairy-tale theme park near Tilburg. Young visitors can wander through giant storybooks and browse bookcases in the form of coloured pencils and rulers.
The technical aspects of the LocHal design are based on a phased approach whereby the possibilities offered by the existing building are used to the greatest extent possible with additions only where absolutely necessary. The result is a structure which uses the full load-bearing strength of the original floors and beams, which were after all designed to support heavy locomotives. Certain restraints underpinned the structural engineering concept and installation technology. The degree to which an area has artificial climate control depends entirely on its function, whereby the principle of ‘heat the people, not the space’ has been applied. An ingenious system of five separate climate zones ensured that physical adaptations could be kept to a minimum. It was this mentality that made it possible to transform the LocHal building into one large usable volume, rather then building volumes into it or replacing it altogether.
A design team of experts
The various design aspects are very much interdependent. A large number of companies and individuals were involved, each contributing their specific area of expertise to create a single, outstanding design. The architects for the project were selected by means of a design competition and the winning entry was submitted by a partnership of three firms. Civic Architects, a leading expert in public architecture joined forces with Braaksma & Roos (known for its expertise in the transformation of industrial heritage) and Inside-Outside/Petra Blaisse, experts in interior and landscape design with extensive experience in textile-based interventions. The design team enjoyed the support of the engineering consultancy Arup. Interior fixtures and fittings in the library, the café, the laboratories and the offices were designed by Mecanoo. Inside Outside designed the six textile screens which were woven by the Tilburg Textile Lab and produced by the firms Theatex and Seilemaeker. The interiors of the Seats2Meet areas were designed with the input of architecture students at Fontys University of Applied Sciences. Lead contractor for the implementation phase was Binx, working under the guidance of VDNDP Architects.
▼从城市街道望向建筑，view to the library from the neighborhood
▼场地原貌鸟瞰，aerial view of the original site
▼首层平面图，ground floor plan
▼二层平面图，first floor plan
▼三层平面图，second floor plan
▼项目团队分工示意图，team and collaboration
FACTS & FIGURES
Commissioning client : City of Tilburg
Total project area:11200 m2
Programme: Bibliotheek Midden-Brabant (public library), Seats2Meet, BKKC, Kunstbalie, catering facilities, events areas
Lead architect: Civic Architects
Transformation and restoration: Braaksma & Roos Architectenbureau
Interior and landscape design, textiles: Inside Outside / Petra BlaisseLandscaping : Donkergroen
Interior design library & offices: Mecanoo
Advisors to City of Tilburg
Construction management: Stevens van Dijck Bouwmanagers & Adviseurs
Technical consultancy: Arup (structural design and engineering, installation technology, sustainability, lighting, fire safety, acoustic design)
Lead contractor: Binx Smartility
VDNDP Structural Engineers (site architect)
F. Wiggers Ingenieursbureau (structural engineering)
ABT Wassenaar (building physics, acoustics, fire safety)
SOM= (commercial management)
Linneman (BREEAM certification)
Glass hall: Zaanen Spanjers Architecten
Design drawings and installation: Inside Outside/Petra Blaisse (NL)
Woven sections: Tilburg Textile Museum (NL)
Canvas sections and installation: Seilemaaker (NL)
Assistant canvas sections : Gerriets France (FR)
Monofilament sections: Theatex BV (NL)
Rails and motorized system: Gerriets Gmbh (DE)
Installation and software: Levtec (NL)
Photos (copyright) Stijn BollaertOther illustrations (copyright) Civic Architects
Further information: Gert Kwekkeboom (firstname.lastname@example.org )
A short film about the project can be found at: https://vimeo.com/313656595