Shonan Christ Church by Takeshi Hosaka Architects

Praying under six curved surfaced roofs at different heights

Project Specs

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本教堂坐落在一个绿意盎然的住宅区内,距离湘南海滩仅有10分钟的步行路程。虽然附近已有一座拥有着50年历史的老教堂,但随着时代的发展,老教堂中的礼拜堂在空间面积上已经不再能满足人们的需求了,因此人们决定在另一个地方建造一座新教堂。教会的官方人员指出,教堂是一个能够唱诗、祷告和聆听上帝教诲的场所,因此“我们希望通过这个礼拜堂,尽情地赞美我们的主”。

A protestant church stands at a rich green residential area which is 10-minutes away from Shonan beach on foot. The chapel of the 50-year old church became too small and it was therefore decided that a new church would be constructed on a different site. Church authorities said that the passages of the Bible are read and heard in service. Therefore, “We wish to have a chapel appropriate to give praise to the Lord.

▼教堂外观,exterior view of the church

 

六个屋顶 | Six roofs

为了让教堂更好地融入周围低层住宅的建筑环境,建筑师将其设计为了一个单层的建筑体量。六个不同高度的曲面屋顶不仅创造出一个祷告和礼拜的空间,更将光线引入了室内。而除了塑造空间,这六个屋顶还有更深层次的象征意义:在圣经中,万能的主用了六天来创造万物,并在第七天通过弥撒来庆祝这个世界的诞生。

室内自然光环境的类型取决于一天当中的时间。除了在礼拜的时间段内采用间接光照之外,整个教堂的室内空间都沐浴在直射的阳光之下。为了在进光量充足的前提下实现室内直接光照和间接光照的转换,在长达12个月的项目设计期内,建筑师通过电脑软件以30分钟为间隔,准确地模拟了一天当中的太阳光,并以这个模拟的太阳光为依据对屋顶的位置和形态进行了调整,从而确保了教堂室内空间永远处于一种柔和的光环境之中。当礼拜活动接近尾声的时候,直射的阳光便开始在室内的墙壁上投射出光带。正午的时候,室内只会有一束直射的阳光,而随着时间的推移和太阳位置的变化,到了下午三点左右,一系列光带便会充满整个教堂空间,营造出一个极具动感的光环境。

▼设计概念草图,concept of the church

The architectural design was a one-storied building with a restrained height so that it could harmonize in a low-rise residential area. It was aimed at creating a space appropriate to prayer and worship with the six curved surfaced roofs at different heights. This allows natural light to pour down from the ceiling. It conveys the message that six roofs represent the six days of Creation in the Bible genesis and Mass celebrates the seventh day.

Direct sunlight and indirect light are regulated depending on the time of the day. At the time of service there was no direct exposure to sunlight, whereas the rest of the time there was. Therefore, this construction was designed to receive an appropriate amount of indirect light during service time. So, light was simulated using computer software at intervals of 30 minutes on the designed days during 12 months and manipulated depending on the time of the day. There would be a space under a soft light at the time of service throughout the year. Towards the end of the service, direct sunlight begins to draw a ray of light on the wall surface. In the afternoon there is only one line of direct sunlight, and around 3 o’clock light comes in like a shower, creating a dynamic environment.

▼教堂外观,是一个具有六个不同高度的曲面屋顶的单层建筑体量,exterior view of the church that is a one-storied building with six curved surfaced roofs at different heights

▼教堂外观,曲面屋顶创造出的高侧窗可以将光线引入室内,exterior view of the church, the high side lights allow natural light to pour down from the ceiling

 

开放式的雨水槽 | Open rainwater gutter

建筑师以教堂外墙与弧形屋顶最低点相交的位置为起点,在外墙上开槽形成开放式的竖向雨水沟,不仅丰富了外立面的视觉效果,更避免了下落的松叶阻塞雨水通道。下雨的时候,雨水顺着墙面从屋顶潺潺地流下来,营造出一种宁静而舒心的氛围。

▼教堂外观,以教堂外墙与弧形屋顶最低点相交的位置为起点,在外墙上开槽形成开放式的竖向雨水沟,exterior view of the church, slits were made on the outside wall at the lowest point of circular arcs to create open rain gutter

Slits were made on the outside wall at the lowest point of circular arcs to create open rain gutter. As a result, it could be enjoyable to see rain flow through the gutters, and despite the abundance of pine leaves, these do not block the gutters.
Christian church of Shonan and desires of the congregation.

▼屋面细节,在最低处设有雨水沟,roof details with a rain gutter on the surface

 

室外的棕橙色十字架 | Outdoor terra-cotta cross

为了强调湘南基督教会的50年悠久历史和教众们的美好愿望,Furuya牧师从原教堂的场地上收集了5公斤的沙土,并亲手将其做成了一个十字架。

Reverend Furuya picked up 5KG of sand with his own hands in the premises of the previous church and used it to make a terra-cotta cross. This is because he wanted to emphasize the 50 years of the Christian church of Shonan and desires of the congregation.

▼教堂外观,混凝土外立面上悬挂着一个棕橙色的十字架,exterior view of the concrete church with an outdoor terra-cotta cross

▼室外的十字架细节,details of the outdoor cross

 

加强的声光肋结构 | (Stiffening) Ribs of sound and light

建筑师以不规则的间距对教堂裸露的钢筋混凝土墙壁进行蚀刻处理,从而创造出一系列宽度不等的纵向肋结构,再在肋结构之间的间隙中放置深灰色的吸音板,从而不仅使整面墙壁呈现出一种凹凸的视觉效果,更优化了教堂室内的声环境。具体来讲,凹面的吸音板消除了不必要的杂音,使牧师布道和读经的声音更加清晰可闻;不同间距的肋结构也有利于减少颤振回声。在颜色上,浅灰色的肋结构与深灰色的肋间距空间形成了鲜明的对比。此外,考虑到现代的教堂空间必须为人们提供一个便于读经的场所,建筑师决定将直射的自然光纳入设计的考量范围之中。

Uneven longitudinal ribs were carved at a random rhythm on the exposed RC concrete wall of the chapel, and dark gray acoustic boards were placed between the ribs. A solution to the requirement was reached by achieving balance. This was possible using concave acoustic boards to make it easier to hear the priest’s sermon and Bible Readings, and improved the sound of ecclesiastical music such as hymns with RC convex surfaces. Flutter echo was reduced by rib pitches placed at random. A light grey light shines directly on the convex surface stands out due to its contrast with the dark grey concave surface. Based on the idea that modern church construction has to provide a space that facilitates the Bible Readings, it came to our minds we should achieve direct sunlight shining through a dark space.

▼教堂礼拜堂室内,以不规则的间距对教堂裸露的混凝土墙壁进行蚀刻处理,从而创造出一系列宽度不等的纵向肋结构,interior view of the church, uneven longitudinal ribs were carved at a random rhythm on the exposed RC concrete wall of the chapel

▼教堂礼拜堂室内,在浅灰色的肋结构之间的间隙中放置深灰色的吸音板,使整面墙壁呈现出一种凹凸的视觉效果,interior view of the church, dark gray acoustic boards are placed between the light gray ribs, presenting a concave and convex visual effect

▼带有宽度不等的纵向肋结构的墙面细节,details of the walls with uneven longitudinal ribs

 

间接光环境和礼拜仪式 | Indirect light and service

直射光环境并不适合礼拜仪式,因此在上午10:30到12:00之间,教堂室内都采用间接的自然光。

The passages of the Bible are read, and heard in Mass. It is inappropriate for the Bible and people to be exposed to direct sunlight during service. Indirect light is appropriate for service. The space was designed to receive indirect light during services from 10:30 a.m. to 12:00 a.m.

▼间接光环境下的礼拜堂,the chapel in the indirect light environment

 

午后的礼拜堂 | Chapel afternoon

唱诗的歌声响起意味着礼拜仪式到达了尾声,这时人们会看到有一道直射的阳光穿过屋顶之间的缝隙,投射在礼拜堂室内的墙壁上。

Only one thin ray of direct sunlight shines through the chapel when the hymn is sung towards the end of service.

▼礼拜仪式结束时的礼拜堂,有一道直射的阳光穿过屋顶之间的缝隙,投射在礼拜堂室内的墙壁上,the chapel at the end of service with one thin ray of direct sunlight shining through the chapel

 

直射的自然光环境和祷告活动 | Direct sunlight and prayer

直射光以不同的方式改变了教堂的内部空间氛围,为祷告者们提供了一个完美的室内环境。礼拜结束后的整个下午,教堂都充满着直射的自然光线,为一小部分人创造了一个舒适的祷告空间。

▼直射光环境下的礼拜堂,阳光在墙壁上投射下光带,the chapel in the direct sunlight environment, the sunlight projects light bands on the wall

▼墙壁上的光带和屋顶细节,the light bands on the wall and roof details

Direct sunlight alters the space in the church in different ways creating the perfect environment for player. After the service, it becomes a space for a prayer for a small number of people and one to two or three rays of sunlight shine throughout afternoon.

▼礼拜堂空间细节,space details of the church

 

创世主题的浮雕砖 | The Creation relief tiles

建筑师在支撑着教堂六个屋顶的南北墙体中加入了创世主题的浮雕砖。受到清晨中的雾霭的启发,浮雕砖呈现出半透明的浅蓝色。制造这种浮雕砖的匠人们先在瓷砖的表面覆上有关造物主六天创世的原始图片,再将这些瓷砖一块块地烧制。根据安装位置的不同,浮雕砖上的图片也略有不同。值得一提的是,这些有关创世的图片不仅存在于礼拜堂中,还四散在休息室、儿童房和牧师室等空间中,只要仔细去找就一定能看到。

Relief tiles about the creation showing motifs of the hand of God during the six-day Genesis were introduced in the north-south walls under the six roofs. Unbaked tiles were engraved with original pictures from the Genesis and baked one by one. The color of the tiles is a semi-transparent light blue inspired by the morning haze. The pictures of the six days were slightly different in design depending on orientation. Finding pictures not only in the chapel but also in various rooms including the rest room, kid’s room, and pastor’s room added to the enjoyment.

▼教堂入口空间,the entrance space of the church

 

直射月光 | Direct moonlight

置身于这座教堂之中,基督教徒们不仅可以在礼拜时间内读经和听经,还可以在午后充满动感的直射光环境中虔诚地祷告。在满月的夜晚里,直射的月光也能透过屋顶的间隙洒进空间内部。在这个教堂中,时间和空间与当地的自然环境无声地融合在了一起,打造出一个引人入胜的礼拜、祷告和聚会空间。

▼直射月光下的教堂空间,interior view of the church in the direct moonlight environment

▼清晨中的教堂,the church in the early morning

Under the sky of Shonan, we can participate in a service, read and hear the words of the Bible and have the opportunity to pray in a space under dynamic direct sun light in the afternoon. Direct moonlight shines through the pitch-black chapel at night during full moon. We hope the conception of time and space will harmonize with the local nature and scenery and people will gradually come to love the construction.

▼黄昏时分的教堂,the church at dusk

▼教堂夜景,night view of the church

▼总平面图,site plan

▼平面图,plan

▼剖面图,section

▼高侧窗详图,details of the high-side light

ARCHITECT: TAKESHI HOSAKA 
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS: HITOSHI YONAMINE / OVE ARUP & PARTNERS JAPAN Ltd
ACOUCTICS: AYAKO HAKOZAKI / NAGATA ACOUCTICS
PHOTOGRAPHER: KOJI FUJII / Nacasa&Pertners Inc.
CLIENT: SHONAN CHRIST CHURCH
Name of the project: SHONAN CHRIST CHURCH
Exact definition of the building: church
Location of the project: Kanagawa , JAPAN
Construction nature: Reinforced Concrete (RC)
Site: 416.50 m2
Building area: 175.96 m2
Floor area ratio: 175.96 m2
Building height: 6656 mm
No. of floors: 1F
Building function: Christ Church
Design: February 2013 – October 2013
Planning start (M/Y): February 2013
Beginning of construction: November 2013
Completion: June / 2014

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