Qatar National Library, Doha by OMA

A folded, single room for thousands of people to read

Project Specs

Design:
Location:

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图书馆:雷姆·库哈斯自述 | The Library – from Rem Koolhaas

书本对于我整个人的塑造形成了重要的实际影响。令我沉浸其中的第一本书是由Gustave Doré配图的格林童话。我仍然记得那些书本的质感,它们是我一生中最为深刻的记忆之一。我在1950年代常常待在阿姆斯特市立博物馆的图书馆里——几乎像是待在家一样。《癫狂的纽约》则是我第一个将写作和建筑相结合的作品,我在纽约公共图书馆完成了这本书,期间查阅了大量微缩胶片、旧报纸和书籍。我几乎整日整夜地待在我的“专座”上。

The physical impact of books has been important in terms of my entire formation. The first books that fascinated me were the fairy tales of Grim illustrated by Gustave Doré. I still remember the physical nature of those books as one of the strongest memories of my entire life. In the 1950s I would spend time in the library of the Stedelijk Museum – almost like in a living room. My first intersection of writing and architecture was Delirious New York, which I wrote in the New York Public Library, going through microfilms, old newspapers, and books. I made one particular seat my own, almost day and night

© Iwan Baan – OMA

建筑与写作之间的一个共性是二者都具有令人难以置信的悠长历史,并且仍在持续不断地更新发展,以求适应现状。我们已经设计了不少图书馆,也建成了一些。图书馆是一种极其适合产生前卫设计的建筑类型。显然,传统的形式和创造性的解决方案之间存在着某种悖论,而卡塔尔国家图书馆正是这样一个例子。

这座建筑长138米,等同于两架波音747飞机的长度。这并非是在炫耀它的尺度,因为从设计之初,我们的目的便是让卡塔尔的全体公民都能轻易地享受到阅读的乐趣。我们希望通过塑造一个几乎是一体化的空间来实现这一目标,而非将其分割为不同的部分,尤其不能分为几个楼层。

我们首先设置了一个楼层,并将其角落进行折叠,创造出放书的空间,同时也为图书馆的中心区域提供了入口。进入建筑的瞬间,你将立刻置身于书海中央,每一本书都真切地存在着,清晰可见,而且触手可及。这是一个能够将所有人、所有书都容纳在其中的场所。

One similarity between architecture and bookmaking is that both have unbelievably long traditions but are also forced to be of the moment, constantly updating in order to survive. We have designed many libraries and built a few. Libraries, as a typology, are so exceptionally suitable to produce radical architecture. Apparently, there is a paradox that such a traditional form produces inventive solutions, and that is the case for the Qatar National Library.

The building is 138 meters long, equivalent to the length of two 747s. This is not to boast about scale but because from the beginning the idea was to make reading as accessible and as stimulating as possible to the population of Qatar as a whole. We thought we could achieve that by creating a building that was almost a single room, not divided in different sections, certainly not into separate floors.

We took a plate and folded its corners up to create terraces for the books, but also to enable access in the center of the room. You emerge immediately surrounded by literally every book – all physically present, visible, and accessible, without any particular effort. The library is a space that could contain an entire population, and also an entire population of books…

▼图书馆近景,exterior view by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti  © OMA

 

项目描述 | Project Description

卡塔尔国家图书馆包括多哈国家图书馆、公共图书馆和大学图书馆,并藏有关于阿拉伯-伊斯兰文化的珍贵文献和手稿遗产。公共图书馆将收录超过一百万册书籍,并为数千名读者提供超过42,000平方米的阅读区域。该图书馆属于教育园区的一部分,这里还分布着全世界众多顶尖院校的分校区。

Qatar National Library contains Doha’s National Library, Public Library and University Library, and preserves the Heritage Collection, which consists of valuable texts and manuscripts related to the Arab-Islamic civilization. The public library will house over a million books and space for thousands of readers over an area of 42,000 m2. The library is part of the Education City, a new academic campus which hosts satellite campuses from leading universities and institutions from around the world.

▼图书馆鸟瞰,aerial view  © Iwan Baan – OMA

自1989年的法国国家图书馆设计方案竞赛以来,OMA便长期保持着对图书馆设计的兴趣和关注,卡塔尔国家图书馆便是其最新的一项成果。早在那个年代,“电子革命”便已开始削弱实体知识媒介的必需性。图书馆的存在理由受到了质疑:我们还需要图书馆吗?在数字文化的时代里,图书馆还能够生存吗?我们希望通过卡塔尔国家图书馆来使书本的活力得到展现。我们希望借助设计来激发学习、研究、协作乃至人与书籍的互动。这一百多万册的藏书中包含着中东地区最为重要且极其罕见的手稿。

Qatar National library is the latest expression of OMA’s long-term interest in the library, which goes back to the competition for the National Library of France in 1989. At that moment, the “electronics revolution” seemed “to eliminate all necessity for concentration and physical embodiment” of knowledge (S,M,L,XL). The whole raison d’être of the library was being questioned: Would we still need libraries? Could libraries survive the digital culture? With Qatar National Library, we wanted to express the vitality of the book by creating a design that brings study, research, collaboration and interaction within the collection itself – a collection that consists of over one million volumes, among which are some of the most important and rare manuscripts in the Middle East.

▼图书馆被设计为一个单一的空间,将人与书籍同时容纳其中,the library is conceived as a single room which houses both people and books by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti  © OMA

▼建筑的边缘从地面上抬升,形成三座能够存放书籍的走廊,同时围合出一个三角形的中央空间,the edges of the building are lifted from the ground creating three aisles which accommodate the book collection and, at the same time, enclose a central triangular space by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti  © OMA

图书馆被设计为一个单一的空间,将人与书籍同时容纳其中。建筑的边缘从地面上抬升,形成三座能够存放书籍的走廊,同时围合出一个三角形的中央空间。该结构使参观者能够直接抵达图书馆的中心,而无需费力从建筑的边缘进入。这三条通道延伸于书架之间,其中分布着阅读、社交和浏览区域。它们同时从材料和功能方面与建筑融为一体:使用了与地面相同的大理石,并结合了人工照明、通风以及书本归还系统等功能。

The library is conceived as a single room which houses both people and books. The edges of the building are lifted from the ground creating three aisles which accommodate the book collection and, at the same time, enclose a central triangular space. This configuration also allows the visitor to access the building at its center, rather than laboriously entering from the perimeter. The aisles are designed as a topography of shelving, interspersed with spaces for reading, socializing and browsing. The bookshelves are meant to be part of the building both in terms of materiality – they are made of the same white marble as the floors – and of infrastructure – they incorporate artificial lighting, ventilation, and the book return system.

▼参观者能够直接抵达图书馆的中心,而无需费力从建筑的边缘进入,the visitors are able to access the building at its center, rather than laboriously entering from the perimeter © Iwan Baan – OMA

© Iwan Baan – OMA

by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti  © OMA

▼遗产藏书馆顶部,heritage collection area by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti  © OMA

© Iwan Baan – OMA

无立柱的桥梁连接了图书馆的主要走廊,创造了通向各个区域的路径。这座桥同样也是一个集会场所:它容纳了媒体室和学习室、阅读桌、展览空间、圆形会议桌以及大型多功能礼堂——来自阿姆斯特丹的InsideOutside工作室为之设计了可伸缩的围合幕帘,同时负责了项目的景观设计。

A column-free bridge connects the library’s main aisles, allowing for a variety of routes throughout the building. The bridge is also a meeting space: it hosts media and study rooms, reading tables, exhibition displays, a circular conference table, and a large multipurpose auditorium, enclosed by a retractable curtain designed by Amsterdam studio InsideOutside, who were also responsible for the landscaping.

▼无立柱的桥梁连接了图书馆的主要走廊,创造了通向各个区域的路径,a column-free bridge connects the library’s main aisles, allowing for a variety of routes throughout the building by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti  © OMA

▼学习区,study area by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti  © OMA

▼书架近景,bookshelves by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti  © OMA

▼公共休息区域,public seating area by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti  © OMA

▼外部入口通道,exterior access © Iwan Baan – OMA

遗产藏书馆位于图书馆中央的一个六米深的下沉空间,由米色的石灰华作为饰面。该藏书馆可以独立运作,并直接从外部进入。

The heritage collection is placed at the center of the library in a six-meter-deep excavated-like space, clad in beige travertine. The collection can also operate autonomously, directly accessible from the outside.

▼遗产藏书馆位于六米深的下沉空间,the heritage collection is placed in a six-meter-deep excavated-like space by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti  © OMA

▼铝制的天花板将漫射光引向建筑的核心地带,the diffuse light is directed further into the core of the building by a reflecting aluminium ceiling by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti  © OMA

▼下沉空间视角,view from the heritage collection by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti  © OMA

带有波纹图案的玻璃立面过滤了多余的光线,带来宁静的阅读氛围。铝制的天花板将漫射光引向建筑的核心地带。图书馆的外部有一个下沉露台,能够为位于地下层的员工办公室提供光线,同时成为进入图书世界之前的一个过渡空间。

The corrugated-glass façade filters the otherwise bright natural light, creating a tranquil atmosphere for reading. The diffuse light is directed further into the core of the building by a reflecting aluminium ceiling. Outside, a sunken patio provides light to the staff office space in the basement, and at the same time acts as transition space before entering the world of books.

▼波纹图案的玻璃立面,the corrugated-glass façade © Iwan Baan – OMA

▼夜景,night view © Iwan Baan – OMA

卡塔尔国家图书馆在教育园区内有着十分关键的作用。园区项目由Shiekha Mozah王妃和卡塔尔基金会共同发起,是卡塔尔向知识型经济转型的一项重要举措。项目的总规划由Arata Isozaki于1995年设计,并于2003年开始实施。该项目涉及一系列教育和研究机构的建设,包括国际知名大学的分校区,以及卡塔尔基金会的总部。后者也是由OMA设计,已于2016年完工。

Qatar National Library plays a central role in the Education City, a project initiated by Her Highness Shiekha Mozah and the Qatar Foundation as part of Qatar’s transition to a knowledge-based economy. The master plan, designed by Arata Isozaki in 1995 and inaugurated in 2003, consists of education and research facilities, including branches of internationally acclaimed universities and the headquarters of the Qatar Foundation, also designed by OMA and completed in 2016.

▼模型,model ©OMA

©OMA

©OMA

▼首层平面图,plan level 0 ©OMA

▼二层平面图,plan level 1 ©OMA

▼三层平面图,plan level 2 ©OMA

▼四层平面图,plan level 3 ©OMA

▼剖面图,sections ©OMA

Qatar National Library, Doha
Partners in charge: Rem Koolhaas, Ellen van Loon, Iyad Alsaka
Associate in charge: Kunle Adeyemi
Design Team SD, DD and CD: Sebastian Appl, Laura Baird, Andrea Bertassi, Helen Billson, Benito Branco,Nils Christa, Daniel Colvard, Tom Coronato, Anita Ernodi, Clarisa Garcia-Fresco, Dina Ge, Mauricio Gonzales, Bermy Ho, Vincent Kersten, Keigo Kobayashi, Dimitri Koubatis, Jang Hwan Lee, Oliver Luetjeus, Bimal Mendis, Joaquin
Millan Villamuelas, Barbara Modolo, David Nam, Sebastian Nau, Rocio Paz Chavez, Francesca Portesine, Teo Quintana, Miriam Roure Parera, Peter Richardson, Silvia Sandor, Tjeerd van de Sandt, Louise Sullivan, Anatoly Travin, Yibo Xu
Executive team and on site team: Vincent Kersten, Gary Owen. Collaborators
Sub-Consultants: ARUP
Acoustics: DHV
Façade: ABT
Cost analyst: David Langdon
Interior, Curtains, Landscape: Inside Outside
Construction Document Phase: CCDI

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