图书馆：雷姆·库哈斯自述 | The Library – from Rem Koolhaas
The physical impact of books has been important in terms of my entire formation. The first books that fascinated me were the fairy tales of Grim illustrated by Gustave Doré. I still remember the physical nature of those books as one of the strongest memories of my entire life. In the 1950s I would spend time in the library of the Stedelijk Museum – almost like in a living room. My first intersection of writing and architecture was Delirious New York, which I wrote in the New York Public Library, going through microfilms, old newspapers, and books. I made one particular seat my own, almost day and night
© Iwan Baan – OMA
One similarity between architecture and bookmaking is that both have unbelievably long traditions but are also forced to be of the moment, constantly updating in order to survive. We have designed many libraries and built a few. Libraries, as a typology, are so exceptionally suitable to produce radical architecture. Apparently, there is a paradox that such a traditional form produces inventive solutions, and that is the case for the Qatar National Library.
The building is 138 meters long, equivalent to the length of two 747s. This is not to boast about scale but because from the beginning the idea was to make reading as accessible and as stimulating as possible to the population of Qatar as a whole. We thought we could achieve that by creating a building that was almost a single room, not divided in different sections, certainly not into separate floors.
We took a plate and folded its corners up to create terraces for the books, but also to enable access in the center of the room. You emerge immediately surrounded by literally every book – all physically present, visible, and accessible, without any particular effort. The library is a space that could contain an entire population, and also an entire population of books…
▼图书馆近景，exterior view by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti © OMA
项目描述 | Project Description
Qatar National Library contains Doha’s National Library, Public Library and University Library, and preserves the Heritage Collection, which consists of valuable texts and manuscripts related to the Arab-Islamic civilization. The public library will house over a million books and space for thousands of readers over an area of 42,000 m2. The library is part of the Education City, a new academic campus which hosts satellite campuses from leading universities and institutions from around the world.
▼图书馆鸟瞰，aerial view © Iwan Baan – OMA
Qatar National library is the latest expression of OMA’s long-term interest in the library, which goes back to the competition for the National Library of France in 1989. At that moment, the “electronics revolution” seemed “to eliminate all necessity for concentration and physical embodiment” of knowledge (S,M,L,XL). The whole raison d’être of the library was being questioned: Would we still need libraries? Could libraries survive the digital culture? With Qatar National Library, we wanted to express the vitality of the book by creating a design that brings study, research, collaboration and interaction within the collection itself – a collection that consists of over one million volumes, among which are some of the most important and rare manuscripts in the Middle East.
▼图书馆被设计为一个单一的空间，将人与书籍同时容纳其中，the library is conceived as a single room which houses both people and books by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti © OMA
▼建筑的边缘从地面上抬升，形成三座能够存放书籍的走廊，同时围合出一个三角形的中央空间，the edges of the building are lifted from the ground creating three aisles which accommodate the book collection and, at the same time, enclose a central triangular space by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti © OMA
The library is conceived as a single room which houses both people and books. The edges of the building are lifted from the ground creating three aisles which accommodate the book collection and, at the same time, enclose a central triangular space. This configuration also allows the visitor to access the building at its center, rather than laboriously entering from the perimeter. The aisles are designed as a topography of shelving, interspersed with spaces for reading, socializing and browsing. The bookshelves are meant to be part of the building both in terms of materiality – they are made of the same white marble as the floors – and of infrastructure – they incorporate artificial lighting, ventilation, and the book return system.
▼参观者能够直接抵达图书馆的中心，而无需费力从建筑的边缘进入，the visitors are able to access the building at its center, rather than laboriously entering from the perimeter © Iwan Baan – OMA
© Iwan Baan – OMA
by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti © OMA
▼遗产藏书馆顶部，heritage collection area by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti © OMA
© Iwan Baan – OMA
A column-free bridge connects the library’s main aisles, allowing for a variety of routes throughout the building. The bridge is also a meeting space: it hosts media and study rooms, reading tables, exhibition displays, a circular conference table, and a large multipurpose auditorium, enclosed by a retractable curtain designed by Amsterdam studio InsideOutside, who were also responsible for the landscaping.
▼无立柱的桥梁连接了图书馆的主要走廊，创造了通向各个区域的路径，a column-free bridge connects the library’s main aisles, allowing for a variety of routes throughout the building by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti © OMA
▼学习区，study area by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti © OMA
▼书架近景，bookshelves by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti © OMA
▼公共休息区域，public seating area by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti © OMA
▼外部入口通道，exterior access © Iwan Baan – OMA
The heritage collection is placed at the center of the library in a six-meter-deep excavated-like space, clad in beige travertine. The collection can also operate autonomously, directly accessible from the outside.
▼遗产藏书馆位于六米深的下沉空间，the heritage collection is placed in a six-meter-deep excavated-like space by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti © OMA
▼铝制的天花板将漫射光引向建筑的核心地带，the diffuse light is directed further into the core of the building by a reflecting aluminium ceiling by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti © OMA
▼下沉空间视角，view from the heritage collection by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti © OMA
The corrugated-glass façade filters the otherwise bright natural light, creating a tranquil atmosphere for reading. The diffuse light is directed further into the core of the building by a reflecting aluminium ceiling. Outside, a sunken patio provides light to the staff office space in the basement, and at the same time acts as transition space before entering the world of books.
▼波纹图案的玻璃立面，the corrugated-glass façade © Iwan Baan – OMA
▼夜景，night view © Iwan Baan – OMA
卡塔尔国家图书馆在教育园区内有着十分关键的作用。园区项目由Shiekha Mozah王妃和卡塔尔基金会共同发起，是卡塔尔向知识型经济转型的一项重要举措。项目的总规划由Arata Isozaki于1995年设计，并于2003年开始实施。该项目涉及一系列教育和研究机构的建设，包括国际知名大学的分校区，以及卡塔尔基金会的总部。后者也是由OMA设计，已于2016年完工。
Qatar National Library plays a central role in the Education City, a project initiated by Her Highness Shiekha Mozah and the Qatar Foundation as part of Qatar’s transition to a knowledge-based economy. The master plan, designed by Arata Isozaki in 1995 and inaugurated in 2003, consists of education and research facilities, including branches of internationally acclaimed universities and the headquarters of the Qatar Foundation, also designed by OMA and completed in 2016.
▼首层平面图，plan level 0 ©OMA
▼二层平面图，plan level 1 ©OMA
▼三层平面图，plan level 2 ©OMA
▼四层平面图，plan level 3 ©OMA
Qatar National Library, Doha
Partners in charge: Rem Koolhaas, Ellen van Loon, Iyad Alsaka
Associate in charge: Kunle Adeyemi
Design Team SD, DD and CD: Sebastian Appl, Laura Baird, Andrea Bertassi, Helen Billson, Benito Branco,Nils Christa, Daniel Colvard, Tom Coronato, Anita Ernodi, Clarisa Garcia-Fresco, Dina Ge, Mauricio Gonzales, Bermy Ho, Vincent Kersten, Keigo Kobayashi, Dimitri Koubatis, Jang Hwan Lee, Oliver Luetjeus, Bimal Mendis, Joaquin
Millan Villamuelas, Barbara Modolo, David Nam, Sebastian Nau, Rocio Paz Chavez, Francesca Portesine, Teo Quintana, Miriam Roure Parera, Peter Richardson, Silvia Sandor, Tjeerd van de Sandt, Louise Sullivan, Anatoly Travin, Yibo Xu
Executive team and on site team: Vincent Kersten, Gary Owen. Collaborators
Cost analyst: David Langdon
Interior, Curtains, Landscape: Inside Outside
Construction Document Phase: CCDI