Overseas NO.109: Minquan Wang

The No.109 episode is about Minquan Wang who graduated from Tsinghua University and Yale University, and is now working for KPF New York

Project Specs

海外存知己,天涯若比邻。
在海外专辑分享海外华人的故事。希望这份分享可以让世界更加海阔天空。
第一百零九期为您介绍的是毕业于清华大学耶鲁大学、现工作于KPF纽约的汪民权

A bosom friend afar brings distant land near. The Oversea album shares the lives of Chinese living abroad with all. The No.109 episode is about Minquan Wang who graduated from Tsinghua University and Yale University, and is now working for KPF New York.

 

 

 

 

为什么出国?
Why going abroad?

主要还是单纯想好好学建筑的执念和好奇吧,当时对于将来要做什么也没有太想好。

Mostly because of a naïve curiosity about architecture. Frankly speaking I scarcely had much if any plan.

 

在国外遇到了什么让你印象最深刻的事情?
What impressed you the most when you are abroad?

18年夏天在耶鲁的罗马小学期,我去画波洛米尼的四泉圣卡罗堂。中午在门外小公园啃三明治,有个本地大爷看见我的画板-当时刚起稿,只有一个大形-马上问我是不是在画圣卡罗堂。然后很高兴地跟我聊,说波洛米尼小时候当石匠,喜欢拿石墨画图云云;又让我看隔壁的圣安德肋堂,是他的老对头贝尼尼做的:贝尼尼是教皇和反宗教改革的拥趸,所以圣安德肋堂很华丽,反观四泉圣卡罗几乎没啥装饰;如此这般说了很多,一直说到无理数、微积分跟巴洛克建筑的关系。说完他就去接着遛弯了。

从罗马回来以后就去纽约KPF实习,每天坐地铁到时代广场,公司楼下是Bryant Park,周围都是中城大厂上班族,也有不少流浪汉举个纸牌行乞。有一挺整洁的长发男子混迹其中,纸牌上并没说什么悲惨身世,只写了句“I just like holding a cardboard”。过两日,又见这人,披着纸牌跟上班族搭讪,牌上写:”Life is a joke, quit your job, buy a van, it’s not too late.” 又两日,发现他突然剃成光头静坐在大楼门口。这以后就没见过他了。

It was during Yale’s 2018 summer seminar in Rome. I went to draw Borromini’s San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Lunchtime came and I was biting on my sandwich in the park outside the church. A local grandpa came by and saw my drawing board – it was barely started, with only a rough shape. He immediately asked me if I was drawing San Carlo. He then started merrily chatting, telling me how Borromini was a stonemason when he was a kid, and he was fond of using graphite. He also let me pay attention to the Sant’Andrea al Quirinale next door, which was the work of Bernini, Borromini’s lifetime rival. Bernini was a proponent of the Pope and Counter-Reformation, therefore Sant’Andrea was lusciously decorated, whereas San Carlo hardly had any. He went on and on until I found myself listening to his account on how irrational numbers and calculus pave way for Baroque architecture. After the chat, he went on strolling.

Right after the summer in Rome I went on my internship at KPF New York. Every day I took the 1 train to the Time Square. The Bryant Park is right down our office building, with a lot of midtown corporate men and women passing by. There were also quite a few homeless people who would put up a cardboard with their misfortunes written on it asking for money. Somehow, a neat handsome long-haired fellow was amid the homeless. His cardboard says: “I just like holding a cardboard.” A few days later, I saw the man again, he was chatting up random corporate guys on the street, with a cardboard over his shoulders saying: “Life is a joke, quit your job, buy a van, it’s not too late.” A couple of days past and I saw him yet again, suddenly shaved bald and sitting quietly by our office building’s entrance. That was the last time I saw him.

 

最想念祖国的什么?
What do you miss the most about China?

家人朋友;身处文化共同体的默契。

Family and friends. Tacit contextual understandings.

 

你会回国吗?为什么?
Will you come back? Why?

会。美国给人感觉是种种矛盾被精细包裹住,也有疏通渠道,但不太能解决;国内是会采取直接粗粝的方式,但能试图解决。

Absolutely. My impression is that in the US, problems are well encapsulated and channeled, but hardly solved, whereas in China there are stronger attempts to come to resolutions, despite the means and methods being often crude.

 

出国后在不同的背景下再看中国是否看得更清晰,有哪些感触?
Is it more distinct to view China in a different environment after going abroad? Any thought?

谈不上。其实离开祖国有些时日,常有“故乡成了他者”的错觉。应该说了解得更少了,但这种陌生不适感反之会刺激观察思考吧。其实人在哪儿都会被环境左右,最重要的可能还是学会保持距离看待一切,不把任何事视作理所当然,不要太安逸。

Hard to say. In fact, having left for a while, I am often stroke by this illusion that my home has now become the other. While the knowledge has diminished, the defamiliarization and discomfort therein are stimulative to observations and thoughts. I guess one gets assimilated by his system in one way or another over time. It’s important to distance oneself a little from everything and never take them for granted. Don’t get too comfortable.

 

你的学校有哪些教育特点?
What are the educational characteristics of your school?

耶鲁的人文氛围很浓,很多建筑学院的同学们会去隔壁戏剧、艺术学院之类修课。建筑学院很理想化,有书卷气。鲁道夫馆从外面看很野蛮,但系馆内很有亲切感。同学之间竞争激烈,但很融洽,几乎所有人都互相认识。大多数同学还是挺纯粹的。建筑学院是家,既不是公司也不是斗兽场。

Advanced Studio和选修研讨课轮番请各路大牌,意识形态可选范围很广,从新古典主义到Michael Young、Mark Foster Gage等等。但耶鲁也有传统的一面,会耳濡目染古典知识基础。主张透过物质表观洞悉内层形式空间秩序,提倡理性分析严谨构建,不鼓励肤浅的形式操弄;同时也关注建筑的智识属性,大量灌输各类旁系领域的学术参照,把设计作为论述的延申,不会囿于单纯为了盖个好房子而做设计(但能把房子做好还是基本的)。这种对建筑学本体性与智识外延的双重关切构成了教学的核心。

Yale thrives on a strong foundation of liberal arts. Many students in the School of Architecture would take courses at the School of Drama and the School of Arts next door and so on. The School of Architecture is very idealistic and scholarly predisposed. The Rudolph Hall appears savage from the outside, but the interior is amicable. Peer competition is fierce, but people get along well. Everyone knows everyone. Most people came across as pure human beings. YSOA was neither a corporate nor an arena but rather a home to me.

You can shop for the full spectrum of ideologies in the Advanced Studios and electives, ranging from New Classicism to Michael Young, Mark Foster Gage and the likes. Regardless of these, Yale has its way of being traditional. The school imbues you in a knowledge base of the Classical. It is advocated to see through the material surface the innate order of space and forms. Rational analytics and rigorous constructions were recognized, while shallow manipulations and mannerism were discouraged. Architecture’s intellectual implications were equally underlined, with heavy exposure to scholarly references. Design is treated as the extension of discourse. Making a good building just for the sake of it was never the goal, though being able to make a good building is prerequisite. The dual concern for architecture’s autonomy and intellectual engagements is at the core of Yale’s teaching.

 

你现在工作公司的特色和有趣的地方?
What are the characteristics and interesting points of your firm?

KPF作为老牌国际商业公司劲旅,相信早已为国内的大家所熟知了。在KPF能快速接触到各类高光地标项目,并且往往有一流顾问配置与公司内部的重重技术团队支持,加之有条理的管理结构和严谨高效的工作流,很能帮助新人培养起受益终身的专业精神。公司不鼓励个人英雄主义,也不会强硬灌输某个设计领导者的个人主导,每个项目的成功结案都是团队与系统的胜利。

Acing the commercial design international market for decades, KPF has made its name in China. KPF offers wide exposure to high-profile projects around the globe, often with top consultancy configuration and the powerful in-house technical support. These, in addition to the well-structured management and rigorous workflow, are very helpful to a junior designer’s establishment of professionalism. The firm does not endorse individualism, nor does it over-magnify personal dominance of singular design leaders. Each project success is a victory of the team and the system.

 

最喜欢的艺术家(绘画音乐电影等广泛范围)是谁?给你创作带来了什么影响?
Who is your favorite artist (in wider range such as art, music, movie)? What is the influence?

一是福柯和Guy Debord,二是Giuseppe Terragni (好像都算不上艺术家)。

福柯写了很多关于权力与空间的东西。他说的是一种作为社会关系的“空间”,但往往亦是与物理空间并驾齐驱的。Guy Debord剖析了有关商品社会和大众传媒的很多现象。我小时候在那种很典型的单位大院里长大,后来随着海外学习工作的足迹从一个极端走到另一个极端。可能出于这个,我对空间政治、消费主义文化、个体规训之类的比较敏感吧。

Terragni对我的影响主要是出于他公式一般极致理性的形式化方法。但他做的也并非是那种冰冷的纯形式。他通过对一些空间描述和数字的引用,在但丁堂方案里单纯拿理想几何去讲《神曲》里的故事。他的方法让我很受启发。

Foucault and Guy Debord, and after them, Giuseppe Terragni. None of them are artists admittedly.

Foucault wrote much on power and space. The “space” he talks about is rather a state of social relation, but it often works in tandem with physical space. Guy Debord analyzed a plethora of phenomena regarding the commodity society and mass media. I grew up in a typical Chinese work unit, and underwent quite a polar-opposite change as I walked my path of studying and working abroad. It might be attributable to these experiences that I became sensitive to the politics of space, consumerism, and the disciplinary power, etc.

Terragni had an influence on me with his almost mathematical formal rationalization. But his method was not devoid of emotional charge. His Danteum told the story of Divine Comedy with nothing but ideal geometry and numerology. I was much inspired.

▼Giuseppe Terragni的但丁堂设计案用理想型几何和数重构了但丁在《神曲》里想象性的历程
In his Danteum proposal, Giuseppe Terragni reconstructed Dante’s imaginative journey
in the Divine Comedy with ideal geometry and numerology

 

觉得自己的作品集有哪些迷人的特质?
What fascinates viewers the most in your portfolio in your opinion?

我喜欢有系统复杂度的设计想法,相对于simple & elegant,更偏好elaborate & sophisticated。享受那种彻底掌控和完成某物的快感。我觉得看建筑与其关注其物质结果,倒不如凝视结果背后的内在机制和社会关系,甚至也包括建筑师特定表现的结构性原因,或者说建筑专业的权力再生产。

早些年我很依赖直觉,后来又觉得如果没有足够强烈的理由,宁可克制个人表达而追寻理念的明晰度。再后来发现这么做反而限制了自己,所以又时不时故意搞一点任性的东西。可能我就是经常处在这种理智和直感的撕扯中吧。

I like design ideas with systemic complexity. I’d rather be elaborate and sophisticated than simple and elegant. I enjoy having total completion and control over something. I often feel that to think about architecture, one would better be contemplating the inherent mechanisms and social interactions producing its material outcomes, than such outcomes themselves. One could even go one step further to investigate the structural reason for certain behavioral patterns of architects, or in other words, the power reproduction of the architectural profession.

I had my days of heavily relying on design intuition, but a few encounters at Tsinghua urged me to be alerted of this reliance. In the absence of sufficient justification, I would rather contain personalization in exchange for a conceptual lucidity. After a while I came to realize that this was a limitation of its own kind, which then pushed me to liberate my nature from time to time. So I guess I am kind of in this constant tension between sense and sensibility.

 

什么时候开始看谷德网的?欢迎你提出建议哦,谢谢。
When did you start to follow gooood? Any suggestions?

本科起就关注谷德啦。谷德上能看到有深度有组织的想法分享,也会不时闪现一些现实中的良师益友。说谷德伴随了我的成长并不夸张。祝谷德越办越好!

I have been a reader since undergraduate days. gooood goes beyond images to offer in-depth organized thoughts. Many of my real-life acquaintances would flash by from time to time here. To say that gooood accompanied my journey is without exaggeration. Best wishes to gooood’s future endeavors!

 

 

 

 

 

W O R K

 

 

 

 

01.

劫持迈阿密风情
Détournement of Allure

Partner: Istvan van Vianen
Critic: Emre Arolat, Gonca Paşolar, Kyle Dugdale
2017 Fall
2018 H.I. Feldman Prize Nomination

迈阿密滩沿岸被商业开发重度染指,近年来涌现了很多高端住宅和酒店,其中不乏H&M, OMA, Renzo Piano等大佬作品。海滩原本是迈阿密重要的文化符号和市民空间,但业主们都执着于抬高身价、塑造特权,彼此间持不合作态度,以致竞相画地为牢、海滩支离破碎。Studio的预设是说假如有一强大开发商同时拿下相连六个地块都交给建筑师你执行,功能还做商住酒店混合开发,你要怎么挑战现状。

The shorefront of Miami Beach intensively meddled by commercial developments, mostly luxury hotels and condo/ apartments, some of which the works of the class of H&M, OMA, Renzo Piano. The beachfront is an important cultural symbol and civic space in Miami. The developers though were keen to each privilege their properties with a non-cooperative mentality, to the point that everyone started building up fences, chopping the beachfront in pieces. The studio assumes that a powerful developer takes six adjacent blocks, and hands them all over to you, the Architect. Given the same mix-use residence/hospitality program, what would you do?

我跟队友觉得这种预设太不现实。我们决定六块地还由各自开发主体分别把持(其中一块公共停车场默认归城市),而我们的任务是代表城市跟他们对弈,做一个让他们都买账同时还改善公共生活的项目。

这些高端开发的用户体验其实很怪:大家逃离生活来这里追寻所谓迈阿密风情:派对,节庆,或者单纯身处奇奇怪怪迈阿密人之间。他们的住地都有顶级文娱设施配置,但大家还是要走出门去寻找迈阿密感。私有开发的零和博弈不允许共享,在大家都竖立藩篱的前提下,率先开放意味着落败。这是纠结的根源。

My partner and I considered such assumption unrealistic. We decided instead to acknowledge that the six blocks were still each owned and operated by individual owners (except a parking ground attributed to the city). Our mission was to play the game with these developers with something that they buy into but still improves public life.

The visitor experience of these developments is rather weird: People escape to Miami in search of the so-called Miami allure: parties, festivals, or simply chilling amid assorted Miami people. With all the top amenities where they stay, people end up spending most of their time out for that Miaminess. Yet the zero-sum game of private developments undermines sharing. When everyone is erecting fences, the one who opens up will be the first to lose the game. This is the paradox.

▼迈阿密感到底是怎么回事?What makes Miaminess?

▼期望与现实,Expectation vs. Reality

我们想做一个中介结构去突破这个困境。我们的提案是每块地维持独立运营,但空间配置一致采用典型的塔楼(客房)加跌落裙房(商业)布局。裙房所有设施用一条连续开放流线从街道层串到中高层。这些设施是盈利导向的,例如零售、餐饮之类。开放流线到达上层后并入一个环状结构,我们戏称它为天使环(Halo)。相对每块地的私有化、逐利性运营,天使环就由城市出资和管理,容纳的也是为城市保留的中立性非盈利空间,例如展演、论坛集会等。

We want to challenge this paradox with a mediating structure. We propose that each property remains independently operated, while the spatial configuration stays consistent with tower (guest rooms) combined with a cascading podium (retail & amenities). The amenities are profit oriented as well. A continuous open path starts from the street level and connects all amenities to the higher floors, where it merges into a circular structure nicknamed the Halo. Contrary to the privatized and profit-driven nature of each individual properties, the Halo is built and managed by the city, carrying neutral non-profit spaces, such as exhibitions, forums, and other public events.

天使环成了终极打卡胜地,并重建了公共领域与私有领域的拓扑关系。它会不断吸引公众经由镶嵌在各私有开发中的路径走上来。过程中的消费为业主们贡献了盈利,鼓励他们开放各自的设施。天使环并联所有地块,如果有业主闭门自守,其访客流量就会被竞争对手瓜分;天使环还结合公共用地保留了自身独立的可达路径,即使所有业主都不合作,它也能运作。

The Halo becomes an ultimate urban destination and remodels the topology of the public/private domain, pumping visitors up through the paths embedded in each individual property. The process generates consumptions, which feed into the owners’ profits, encouraging them to keep their doors open. The Halo merges all properties in parallel. A non-cooperative owner risks loss of visitor traffic at his rival’s gains. The Halo reserves its own independent accessibilities, and remains functional even if all connected properties rejects cooperation.

▼公共序列及天使环和各地块间的界面,The public flow and the interfaces

▼首层平面图,Ground floor plan

▼天使环层平面图,The Halo level plan

为了做到足够有说服力,在功能和流线的分离上花了不少功夫。我们还查了每块地的注册历史文化遗产(如当地经典的Faena House),以及是否有值得利用的既存结构。这些为每块地的基本布局和语汇提供一个参照系。与之相对的,天使环采用简洁中立的方式呈现,并被设计成不仅向其内部展陈、亦向城市空间宣示的姿态。

To make the project convincing enough we worked quite a bit on organizing the program groups and circulations. We also investigated the registered historical heritages and the existing structures worth preserving as a reference for each block’s basic layout and design language. In contrast, the Halo manifests itself as clean and neutral. It is also designed in a way that shows not only to those within the structure but also the external urban environment.

总的来说就是想做一个用市场逻辑抵抗市场自身的思维体操吧。事后有同学质问我说你怎么划清劫持利用和同流合污之间的界限呢?我想想也觉得这个平衡还能做得更好些。

All in all, we took this as a thought experiment to rebel against the market by hijacking its own logics. After the studio finals, a friend questioned how we drew the fine line between hijacking and collusion. I agred with her. We could have walked the wire better.

▼模型照片,Model photos

 

 

 

 

02.

随便办公室
Easy Office
Critic: Florencia Pita, Jackilin Hah Bloom, Miroslava Brooks
2018 Spring

在纪录片《布里洛肥皂盒》里,有人问安迪·沃霍尔他为何把一个寻常的布里洛牌肥皂盒做成雕塑。沃霍尔随意答道:“因为好做”。“挪用”这一做法识读起来容易,但脱离了特定的社会经济文化内力,却很难做好。这个studio借Culver City一个仓库的适应性改造为题,研究了如何运用现成品的挪用、误读、和抽象化来生产形式议程。

In the documentary Brillo Box (3¢ Off), when Andy Warhol is asked why he turned a common Brillo box into sculpture, he casually responded “because it’s easy to do”. Appropriation yields irony which is easily interpreted, but is paradoxically difficult to attain without an alignment of particular social, economic and cultural forces at play. This studio investigated the appropriation, misinterpretation, and abstraction of the ready-made as tools to generate formal agendas in the adaptive reuse of a warehouse building in Culver City.

▼安迪·沃霍尔,布里洛肥皂盒,1964 Andy Warhol, Brillo Box, 1964

Studio的前半段让大家凭感觉收集各种日常物件(假装自己是策展人),作为素材进行图像拼贴。这个过程随后转移到三维实物,并转制为热塑模型。练习的意图是鼓励大家将直觉化的搜取提炼为有意识的论点与方法。最终的热塑模型以通过去物质化和“拍平”效果,提供了一层额外的抽象。

The first exercise of the studio involved each student gathering daily items at their intuition, pretending to be the curator of one’s own collection. The items were documented as materials for 2D collages, which then escalated to 3D collages using real objects. The 3D collages were subsequently reproduced as thermoforms. The intention of the exercise was to distill meaningful formal/programmatic arguments from unconscious appropriations. The final thermoforming offered an additional layer of abstraction by dematerializing and flattening the assembly.

▼物件收藏,Item collection

▼二维拼贴,2D collages

▼三维实物拼贴与热塑模型,3D collages to scale and thermoformed models

随后以热塑模型为参照,绘制一幅二维图纸作为形式陈述。这一图纸非对前述过程的物理描述,而是意在利用实物与抽象之间来回转置过程中有意识的误读,以图的方式概括形式系统的组织原则。我在收藏与拼贴中关注了形状非常特定的工业产品。它们的尖锐感、线性与铰接暗示了某种排斥与协调间的张力。相应地,我作了一幅有关独立组件与连贯整体的形式陈述图。通过拆解与重组、并置与遮蔽、以及对轮廓和形体的操纵,希望呈现一种在个体可识别性与获得了新的自主性的组合体之间摇摆的状态。

Referencing the thermoform, a 2D drawing concluded the formal statements. The drawing is not a simple material description of the previous iterations, but rather to uncover the implied order and significance of the formal system with the intentional misinterpretation found in repeated transpositions between objectivity and abstraction. In my collections and collages, I tended to industrial products with highly specific shapes. The sharpness, linearity and hinges implied a tension between exclusivity and coordination, Taking this thread, I investigated the dialectics between the constituent parts and a cohesive whole. By disassembling and reassembling, juxtaposing and obscuring, and by manipulating outlines and volumes, I aimed to produce a flickering state between individual recognizability and a new aggregation with its own agency.

▼图纸作为形式陈述,Drawing as formal statement

这之后大家去了LA Culver City的一个历史工业区,每人认领一座废旧仓库,画成展开图(developed surface)作为“画布”来实施前述的形式章程,作为建筑原型。展开图是18世纪建筑师爱用的一种制图方式,意在通过二维投影的组合(而非透视法)表达三维空间。

▼Robert Adam 1761年为锡永宫大厅作的展开图
Robert Adam’s 1761 developed surface drawing of the Great Hall at Syon House

The studio then visited an industrial district in Culver City, each student claiming a warehouse to be drawn into a developed surface drawing as the canvas for the deployment of the collage and abstraction method explored in previous iterations. The developed surface is a drawing technique favored by 18th century architects which describes three-dimensionality in the absence of perspectival.

▼仓库展开图拼贴图解,Warehouse developed surface collage diagram

▼地段周边挪用来的形式片段被增补进物件收藏
Appropriated forms from the site in addition to the item collection

▼仓库展开图,Warehouse developed surface drawing

然而,正如Robin Evans评论的,这是一种高度依赖读图人对空间主观重构的表现方式。以废旧库房展开图为画布进行架空拼贴时不存在客观原本,因此其三维重构与其说是图纸表现的逆向工程,倒不如说是以图纸惯例为支点的空间再生产。它既非纯主观的创作亦非机械的制图运作,而是建筑师主体性与图纸惯例自治性的协商。

However, just as Robin Evans’ pertinent comment, this is a drawing technique highly relying on subjective reconstruction of the space. The fictional collaging using Culver City warehouse developed surfaces operates without an authentic reference. Therefore, the collages’ 3d reconstructions are much more a reproduction of space based on drawing conventions, than the reverse-engineering of representations. It is neither purely subjective speculations nor mechanical formations, but rather a negotiation between the design agency and the autonomy of drawing conventions.

▼办公室首层平面,Office ground floor plan

▼办公室剖面,Office sections

Studio的大前提是办公空间。考虑到此前对个体与整体的讨论,我把建筑原型发展成了一个概念艺术工作室。CG和VFX行业人员流动性大,需要不同专业背景和创作习惯迥异的团队互相协作完成共同愿景。工作室用空间原型中的基本形体(figure)提供了一系列吻合高度特定工作情景的小口袋, 一些拟合基本形体的可使用表面(programmed surface)将其层叠在一起,去实现游弋于个人泡泡与连贯工作流之间游弋的工作景观。

The studio prerequisites the spaces to be offices. Considering my argument on individuals vs. aggregation, my prototype was developed into a concept art studio. The CG and VFX industry faces high turn-over rates, and often relies on individuals with disparate backgrounds, styles, and preferences to collaborate on a common vision. Reflected on the spatial configurations, the concept art studio offers a range of figural niches befitting highly particular scenarios, which are weaved by transitional programmed surfaces approximating their figures. A work landscape flickering between individual work spheres and cohesive workflow is thereby achieved.

▼办公室轴测,Office axonometric

▼模型照片,Model vignettes

 

 

 

 

03.

脱离模型
Ohne Leitbild

Partner: Winston Yuen
Critic: Peter Eisenman, Anthony Gagliardi
2018 Fall

在Yale的最后一个学期,身为Eisenman爷爷曾经的粉丝,果断来了这个被大多数同学排最末志愿 (lol)的studio。

Studio选址于纽黑文Oak Street Connector。这里被包围于纽黑文历史规划的九宫格、The Hills社区小尺度肌理、Union Station火车站、与郊区设施大盒子之间,是城市空间脉络交汇的三角地。上世纪60年代的城市更新中,34号高速公路穿越此地将南北两侧的市区彻底切开。此举加剧了此后数十年纽黑文的衰退,也造就了Oak Street Connector的城市断裂带。

This project was from Eisenman’s studio during my last semester at Yale. As Eisenman’s used-to-be fan, I was determined to go with it despite the studio being poorly ranked among my classmates’ Advanced Studio lottery choices.

The studio’s site was at New Haven’s Oak Street Connector. Flanked by the Nine Square of New Haven’s historical planning, the fine texture of the Hill neighborhood, the Union Station train yard, and the giant suburbia boxes, the Oak Street Connector sits at the delta where urban fabrics collide. In the 1960s urban renewal, Route 34 went across this site, cutting the city apart. The decision contributed to New Haven’s decline in the following decades, and rendered the Oak Street Connector an urban fracture.

▼34号高速路,Route 34

▼城市更新前后的纽黑文,New Haven before and after the urban renewal

Eisenman的理论近年来在逐渐从形式主义向“弱形式”转变。他借用了Theodor Adorno有关美学的论文《Ohne Leitbild》作studio的主题。Ohne Leitbild直译为“脱离模型”(Without a Model)。“模型”可以简单理解为艺术的形式化章程,比如巴洛克音乐和七言律诗。但“模型”的存在本身亦是谈“脱离模型”的先决条件。Adorno提倡艺术要有自律、要与现实保持距离,而这种自律性依托于形式;然而仅遵循形式自律的艺术又往往是专制、排他、对现实漠不关心的。

Adorno理想中的艺术作品应同时调谐这两种特质。Eisenman把这一论点类比到建筑领域,主张既要应用形式化方法,又要批判形式化的独裁与局限。为此,studio首先集体研究了大批建筑历史上出现过的建筑与城市形式模型,包括科林·罗的拼贴城市、罗西的类比城市、OMA的拉维莱特公园和毯式建筑等。先用图解理清形式模型的要素与章程(类似formal analysis),然后轮番强加到纽黑文Oak Street Connector地段,以揭露出模型的矛盾与缺陷。以此为契机去批判与改造模型,直至达到Eisenman口中的“弱化模型” (debilitated model)。

▼O.M. Ungers的一些作品,A survey of O.M. Ungers’ works

Eisenman’s theory took a turn from formalism to weak forms in recent years. The studio borrowed from Theodor Adorno’s treatise on aesthetics, Ohne Leitbild, which translates to “Without a Model”. The Model describes the formalized protocols in art (e.g. Baroque music and seven-character octave). Ironically, to talk about “Without a Model” necessitate the presence of the Model in the very first place. Adorno advocates for an autonomous art, one which distances itself from reality. Such autonomy resides in form. Yet a formally autonomous art is often totalizing, exclusive, and disengaged.

Ohne Leibild was the dual criticism of both trends, with Adorno’s idealized art form reconciling the two. Eisenman drew an architectural analog to propose both formalization and the criticism of its totality. To this end, the studio collectively studied a spectrum of historical architectural and urban Models, some of which included Colin Rowe’s Collage City, Aldo Rossi’s Analogical City, OMA’s Parc de la Villette and Mat Builidng, etc. We diagrammatically clarified the elements and protocols of the Models (i.e. formal analysis), and forced them upon the Oak Street Connector site. The process exposes contradictions, creating an entry for criticizing and modifying them as Debilitated Models in Eisenman’s terms.

▼对Ungers的Lichterfelde竞赛提案的形式模型分析,Model analysis of Ungers’ Berlin Lichterfelde competition entry

我和队友最终选择了O.M. Ungers在柏林Lichterfelde住区的竞赛提案作为模型。这是一个基于框架+元件+网格的强调内在凝聚力的空间范式。我们使用Oak Street Connector地段的实际肌理去扭曲它的框架原型,并试图通过与周边环境的互文作为元件形体尺度调整的依据,而网格则顺应空间脉络以交织叠加的方式呈现。此外,框架的主轴被从场地内部挪到边界,从而使框架从强调内在凝聚力转变为新建区与既存区交融的界面。

My partner and I picked O.M. Ungers’ Berlin Lichterfelde competition entry as the Model. The Model is based on the trinity of framework +components +grid, reinforcing internal structurality and cohesion. We distorted the framework with the fabric of the site, and contextualized the components with the scale and form found in adjacency. The grids, following the flow of spaces, manifest themselves as serial overlays. In addition, the spine of the framework was relocated from the site’s interior to its boundary, transforming the framework an interface for the new constructions to blend into what exists.

▼轴测概览,Axonometric overview

▼以地段的实际情况去削弱形式模型,Debilitating the Model with the site’s actualities

▼首层平面图,Ground Floor Plan

▼首层平面图局部Ground Floor Plan zoom-in

地段西侧被作为框架主轴的Church Street被重塑成一个弥合城市更新伤痕的商街与城市游廊。功能上的考量也反馈到形式模型在更小尺度上的呈现。

The Church Street to the west of the site is shaped as a retail and event corridor over the Route 34 scar. The programmatic decisions reciprocally informed the formal performances on smaller scales.

▼模型局部,Model vignettes

▼局部轴测,Zoom-in axonometric

个人感觉这个studio跟Eisenman以往的教学差异挺大。以处在多重社会内力交汇点的大尺度城市地段为题,就注定了现实考量将击穿形式主义的漠不关心。老爷子既要求削弱形式模型,又严格要求其过程的形式规范性。某种意义上他给自己和studio出了一个过于艰难的题。且Studio研究的很多模型中形式要素是交缠于功能程式(如拉维莱特公园)和文化指涉(如类比城市)的。在分析阶段将模型的形式化与这些外部要素相剥离将有损对其批判的彻底性。期末评图评委们纷纷表示:整个studio对模型们还是有些延承居多、批判不足。

This studio took a turn from Eisenman’s previous pedagogy. Choosing an urban site at the crossfire of a multitude of social dynamics has dictated that realistic concerns shall penetrate the indifference of formalism. Peter was adamant about remaining formally disciplined while debilitating the Models simultaneously. He arguable set up an extortionately high standard for the studio and himself. Furthermore, many models studied in the studio demonstrated the entanglement between formal prescriptions and their programmatic involvement (e.g., Parc de la Villette) or cultural implications (e.g., Analogous City). To deprive the Model of these external engagements during initial studies would preclude a resolute criticism. The final review jury unequivocally agreed that the studio was more of an expansion than a critique of the Models.

▼模型照片,Model photo

 

 

 

 

04.

争端之城
Contentious City
Partner: Istvan van Vianen
Critic: Edward Mitchell, Aniket Shahane
2016 Fall
2017 H.I. Feldman Prize Winner

Gloucester是东岸新英格兰地区波士顿附近的一个滨海小镇,有着深厚的海事文化传统。近年来小镇陷入颓势,传统产业被逐渐淘汰,当地文化受媚俗旅游开发逐渐侵蚀。小镇原生社区人员流失,社群亦受到外来务工移民群体冲击。

为了调解复杂的社会冲突,我和队友构想了一个半企事业半职教的机构,称之为格洛斯特海事产业园(Gloucester Maritime Trade Campus, GMTC)。这一系统为当地若干冲突利益方提供了博弈的框架:小镇的既有海事产业设施被选择性升级,维持其实际生产属性,仍由当地社区运营;外来务工移民被招募为生产设施的学徒,贡献劳力换取职业教育;这一符合Gloucester真实面貌的生产过程被呈现给观光客,使其无需在 “死历史“中体验当地文化;外来资本充当产业园金主,而生产设施与旅游观光业的部分收入成为其盈利来源。

Gloucester is a New England shoreside town near Boston with deep maritime traditions. In recent years the town is under siege: the traditional industries are falling out of date, while the local culture is encroached by kitsch tourism developments. The local communities are losing their members, while an influx of immigrants seeking job and training opportunities is seen.

To reconcile the complexity of conflicts, my partner and I conceived an institution that functions as a combination of enterprise and vocational education platform. We call it the Gloucester Maritime Trade Campus (GMTC). The institution offers a framework of negotiation between the conflicting interest groups: The existing maritime facilities were selectively upgraded to maintain their productivity, and still run by the local community; The immigrants were recruited as the apprentices in the production facilities, contributing their labor in exchange for vocational education; The process is presented to visitors, allowing them to experience the true rusty Gloucester instead of a dead history; Big capitals fund the campus, taking part of its profit in return.

整个城镇机构的运作是建立在若干利益群体互相利用的基础上的。我们无意描绘童话式的理想化图景;恰相反,我们预期到各群体之间的摩擦。然而GMTC试图维系的是一种制衡状态:没有任何一方能彻底主导小镇发展的未来,而小镇的本貌得以延续 – 既不是作为千人一面的度假地,也不是作为博物馆中的文化化石。为了传达这一愿景,项目最终展示包含了四种不同的参与者视角,呈现他们的私心、疑虑、争执、与接受。

作为一个城市项目提案,具体的建筑解决方案反而是次要的,而核心在于系统设计及其编织的社会关系。项目斩获建院2017年度最优Advanced Studio项目奖H.I. Feldman Prize。

The campus run on the premise that the various groups take advantage of each other. We had no intention to depict a fairytale. Quite the contrary, we expect frictions between the social groups. However, what GMTC strives form is an equilibrium: no single party dominates the town’s future, whereas the town is allowed to extend itself, not as generic tourism resort nor a cultural fossil in museums, but with its true living characters. To deliver this vision, the project is presented with four contending perspectives of the parties involved, showing their selfishness, doubts, contentions, and acceptance.

As an urban proposal, the specific architectural solutions were secondary, while the design of the system with its orchestration of relationships sits at the core. The project was awarded the 2017 H.I. Feldman Prize, YSOA’s annual award for the best Advanced Studio project.

 

 

 

05.

太阳照常升起
The Sun also Rises

Partner: Xiyao Wang
Personal project
2015 Summer

申请期间和同学自己做着玩的项目,拿姜文的同名电影做了一个博物馆。彼时我沉迷于Terragni式的形式化和《恋人絮语》这类解构主义文本。设计初衷是找一个非线性叙事的文本,将其叙事结构作一空间化的映射,从而用建筑去重构文本本身。相对于文本提供的结构性,故事本身其实不大重要。我的野心是用纯粹抽象的空间语言去再现电影脉络,而拒绝具象化的场景渲染。

A personal project that my friend and I did for fun. The project is a museum named after Wen Jiang’s movie of the same title. Back in those days I was obsessed with Terragni-styled formalization and deconstructivist texts such as A Lover’s Discourse. The project intended to locate a text of non-linear narrative, map its narrative structure with space, and thereby reconstruct the text in architecture. Compared to the structurality that the text offers, the story itself was secondary. My ambition was to rebuild the film‘s procession with pure spatiality, while rejecting figural scenography.

▼叙事结构图解,Narrative structure diagraming

提案首先把电影《太阳照常升起》的叙事要素拆解。影片包含四个相互独立而又联动的子故事。每个子故事由若干关键事件组成。基于其中的人物处境,事件被概括为四种类型,并类比为四种空间原型。这些空间原型依据原片中的次序重组为四个子故事,进而串联起整个叙事。

在电影中,四个子故事有一实际时间线索(timeline)。但导演选择将其重组,形成影片的叙事线索(narrative line)。叙事线索是导演的意识流主观再现,而时间线索反映了客观事实与事件内在逻辑关联。这两条线索被转置为博物馆的两条参观流线与空间单元的上下两个层次。跟随叙事线索时,访客身处影片人物的切身处境,代入其角色经历一系列看似荒诞破碎的事件而沉浸式地体验整个故事;跟随时间线索时,访客对此前体验过的空间序列获得上帝视角,从而理解前因后果,并完成从演员到观众的身份转换。

As a start, the project dismantled the narrative elements of The Sun also Rises. The film includes four independent yet interrelated episodes, each of which consists of several key events. These events were categorized into four types according to the situation it places the protagonists in. The four event types were analogized as four spatial types, which inversely reforms the four episodes and subsequently the whole story’s progression.

The four episodes followed an inherent timeline. However, the director rearranged their sequence following the movie’s narrative line. The narrative line represents the director’s stream of consciousness, whereas the timeline reflects facts and logics. These two threads were transposed into the museum’s two visiting sequences and the dual layering of each spatial unit. While following the narrative line, the visitor plays the part of the movie characters to walk through a series of seemingly absurd and incoherent events in an immersive experience; yet while following the timeline, the visitor gains a privileged view over the re-examined sessions, thereby coming to understand their causality and transition from the actor to the spectator.

▼事件类型与空间类型映射,Mapping between event typology and spatial typology

▼四个子故事的空间重建,Rebuilding the four episodes with space

▼空间序列组合,Spatial sequence formation

▼几何构建,Geometry

为了实现两条线索之间的转换,主展陈序列背后还引入了一个专门用于流线转换的重定向厅。最终,空间成为了事件的编程,重定向厅则作为此程式的跳线器,而剖面成为叙事结构的忠实投影。

To achieve the transition between the timeline and the narrative line, a space behind the main exhibition sessions is dedicated to the redirection of circulation (the Chamber of Redirection). Ultimately, the space was a programming of events, with the Chamber of Redirection a rerouting device. The section resulting therein became a candid projection of the narrative structure.

▼重定向厅,Chamber of Redirection

▼剖面,Sections

 

 

 

 

06.

首都墓葬综合体
Capital Cemetery Complex

Partner: Xudong Sun, Zijian Wang
Personal project
2014 Summer

这是个比较激进的空想项目。首都墓葬综合体将储存1935年至2050年间出生的过世北京市民的遗存物。项目希望通过个体记忆自下而上的堆叠去对抗宏大叙事,进而为所谓时代精神的开放解读提供素材。

墓葬的本质属性是对逝者身份(identity)的照护。然而这种身份究竟意味着什么,又由谁裁定?在首都墓葬综合体中,逝者的身份被分解为三重切片:物理遗存、个人生活、与社会形象。骨灰是死者肉身的索引,生活化的个人物件是其个性的写照,而公民档案记录了体制对个人的陈词。首都墓葬综合体即是储藏这三者的设施。

This was a radical fictional project. Capital Cemetery Complex houses the remains of deceased Beijing citizens born between 1935 and 2050. It resists meta-narratives with the compilation of individual memories, providing raw materials for open interpretations of the city’s Zeitgeist.

The cemetery’s fundamental function is to preserve the identity of the deceased. What and who defines that identity? In the Capital Cemetery Complex, each deceased person’s identity is deflected into three facets: the physical remains, the personal life, and the social image. The ashes of the deceased lend index to his physical presence, while his personal belongings reflect his personal life. The citizen profile, on the other hands, is the system’s statement of such a person. The Capital Cemetery Complex thus became of a facility storing these three classes of items.

▼新中国历史与出生人口波动的对照,Mapping PRC history and birth population

▼逝者个人形象的三重映照,Three reflections of the personal image of the deceased

项目地段选在北京故宫与老北京四合院肌理交接处,南北横跨长安街与紫禁城护城河,东西串连太庙与皇史宬,行人可在其间自由来往。而项目设施大部分下挖入土,呈现为一道裂口。紫禁城与四合院分划了集权与世俗的边界。太庙是明清皇家宗庙,皇史宬则是皇家档案馆。他们都是往日权威主义叙事的见证。而首都墓葬综合体属于人民。

The project site sits between the Forbidden City and the adjacent old Beijing courtyard houses fabrics. It traverses the Chang’an Street and the Forbiden City’s moat, and sits across the Ancestral Temple and the Imperial Archive, allowing pedestrians to stroll around at will. Most of the project carves down into the ground, manifesting itself as a trench. The Forbidden City and the courtyard houses demarcate the border between power and secularity. The Ancestral Temple was Ming and Qing dynasty’s ritual tomb. The Imperial Archive houses royal artifacts. They are one form or another of authoritarian narratives. Yet, the Capital Cemetery Complex is dedicated to the people.

▼总平面图,Site plan

墓葬综合体的纵轴沿着1935年至2050年的时间线展开。地面上为骨灰堂,下挖入地的部分则是死者遗物展陈。二者均设计为模块化可扩展结构。历史人口变动记录为其扩展规模提供了参照。对应项目计划实施时间的2010年,即过去未来交界的原点处,设置了一集约化的档案中心,也是访客接待处。

The Cemetery Complex’s axis extends along the timeline from 1935 to 2050. Columbarium sit above grade, while the personal item depository crouch underground. Both are designed as modular expandable structures. Population records lends reference to their scale. Corresponding to the year 2010, the planned year of deployment of the project where the past and the future intersect, an archive center is set. It also serves visitor reception purpose.

来此地安置亲人遗物的逝者亲属需经历一个仪式化的过程。逝者亲属首先把死者的档案存放到档案中心的指定档位,随后在那里把他的遗物交由设施的传递机械。传递机械将遗物分拣、运送到对应的储藏单元,而逝者亲属可以往外步行到中央裂谷观看这一过程。

而对于一般的市民而言,他们可以在地面层的骨灰堂和裂谷中的遗物展陈间自由闲逛。如果沿纵轴穿越整个建筑群内部,个体记忆的堆叠将给出属于其自己的时代叙述,而社会面貌的变迁则在步移景易间展开。设施本身并不提供所谓的主题展陈或者说官方版本的历史解说,只是任由观者自行判断。

The bereaved go through a ritualistic process when submitting the items of the deceased. They are first required to insert the citizen profile of the deceased in the designated slots of the Archive, after which they shall hand over the personal items to the delivering mechanism of the facility. The mechanics classify and transport the items to corresponding depository units. The bereaved are encouraged to witness this process at the Central Rift outside.

The average citizen, however, is allowed to freely stroll the columbarium above grade and the depository along the Rift. As visitors walk through the entire facility’s axis, a sense of vicissitude is found, where the pixels of individual memories start forming a historical picture of its own account. The facility does not setup organized “theme exhibitions” or official interpretations of history by any means. It is up to the visitors what they make of the materials.

▼中央裂谷,The Central Rift

▼档案中心,骨灰堂,与遗物展陈,The Archive, the columbarium, and the personal item depository

对逝者亲属而言,逝者个人形象的三重凭依物在程序与机械中被分离,是对人之自然属性被现代生活剥离的隐喻;而档案中心对个体的孤立与分门别类则是社会机器规训权力的直接演绎。然而从城市层面看,项目提供的是一系列跨越城市交通屏障的基础设施与公民性空间(civil space),打开了对历史与集体性的开放解读。档案馆、骨灰堂、遗物展陈所提供的未必一致的讯息亦将互为对照。

For the bereaved, the programmed and mechanical separation of the three reflections of one’s identity serves as a metaphor of the alienation of the “natural person”. The Archive’s isolation and categorization of individuals was the animation of institutionalized disciplinary power. On the other hand, from an urban perspective, the project provides a series of infrastructures overcoming the city’s existing barriers and constructs a civil space that sheds light on open interpretations of history and collectivity. The potentially inconsistent messages provided by the archive, the columbarium, and the depository also lend themselves as indexes to critiques.

▼档案中心中庭,Archive atrium

▼传递机械笼,The delivering cage

▼传递机械示意图,The delivering mechanisms

 

 

 

07.

罗马拾遗
Rome Fragments
Critic: G. Knight, M. Brooks, S. Harby, K. Dugdale
2018 Summer

一些在罗马小学期的写生碎片。在罗马每天就是画画,每个同学都攒了好几本子。期末要作一个绘图项目,我画了波洛米尼的四泉圣卡罗堂。

圣卡罗堂的空间组合关系直观看比较复杂,但室内檐口(cornice) 衬线非常直接地给出了几何布局,因此在绘图之初直觉性地先勾勒出了这个檐口线当作一个框架。以此为基础,把对圣卡罗堂不同角度与层次的体验与观察组装起来。其中一些是对尺度与构成的严谨测绘,一些是对建筑动人之处的主观印象。上与下,内与外,实体与空间被半即兴地衔接起来,把几天时间里对这座建筑历时性的体验凝缩成一张图。

Some bits and pieces of drawings during the Rome Seminar. Every single day at Rome was spent sketching. Everyone in the class went through a few sketchbooks. The seminar was concluded with a final drawing project, My drawing studied San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane by Borromini.

The space of San Carlo came across as hard to grasp at a glimpse, but the interior cornice line was a frank give-away of its geometry. At the beginning of the drawing, such cornice line was thus intuitively traced. Upon such framework, various layers of observations were assembled, some of which being rigorous surveying of scales and compositions, while some others delineating impressionistic moments. Upward and downward, in and out, solid and void were blended into each other at improvision, resulting in an animated image condensing my chronic experience of the architecture over several days’ span.

▼被展开的圣卡罗堂,San Carlo Unfolded

▼圣卡罗堂一隅,San Carlo vignette

▼初次到访圣卡罗堂时画的草图,Study sketches upon first visit at San Carlo

此外还有一些平常游览城市时的写生。大多数都是在跟着同学老师窜来窜去、被游客挤来挤去的间隙画的。罗马小学期这门课的要旨是 ”to draw is to see”:真的看见了才画的出来。希望这些片段能折射出一些个人视角吧。

In addition, here are some bits and pieces of daily sketches. Most of these were done in the few minutes’ worth of time while tumbling with the class or getting carried away in the swarm of tourists. The Rome Seminar is based on the belief that “to draw is to see”. Hopefully these fragments tell something about my personal perspectives.

▼一些平时的写生作品,Some of daily sketches by Wang

在海外时间:2016年至今
在海外地点:纽黑文,纽约
姓名:汪民权
学校:清华大学,耶鲁大学
工作单位:KPF纽约
联系方式:Minquanwang00@gmail.com
个人网站:www.minquanwang.net

When: Since 2016
Where: New Haven, New York
Name: Minquan Wang
School: Tsinghua University, Yale University
Office: KPF NY
Contact: Minquanwang00@gmail.com
Website: www.minquanwang.net

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