在海外专辑第九十二期 – 张丹棣

第九十二期为您呈现的是毕业于哈佛大学设计学院、目前就职于OMNIPLAN的张丹棣

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海外存知己,天涯若比邻。
在海外专辑分享海外华人的故事。希望这份分享可以让世界更加海阔天空。
第九十二期为您呈现的是毕业于哈佛大学设计学院、目前就职于OMNIPLAN的张丹棣。

A bosom friend afar brings distant land near. The Oversea album shares the lives of Chinese living abroad with all. The No.92 episode is about Dandi Zhang who graduated from Harvard GSD and is now working for OMNIPLAN.

 

 

为什么出国?
Why going abroad?

小时候我就梦想成为一名设计师。我从六岁开始学习画画,也获得过很多大大小小的奖项。选择大学专业的时候没想得太清楚,因为建筑师听起来很酷,就选择了建筑专业。一直听说美国的建筑教育不仅注重理论性而且兼顾思辨性,同时也希望在一个全新的环境中感知世界,中国的古训“破万卷书,行万里路”就是这个含义。19岁那年我慕名来到爱荷华州立大学学习,可能是迄今为止做出的最勇敢的决定了。之后发生的一切都是顺其自然。

When I was a kid, I knew I would become a designer. I started to draw and doodle since 6 and I have won tons of awards for drawing and painting as a kid. When I grew up, I signed up for architecture without fully understand it, but the idea of being an architect sounds really cool to me. I always heard the architecture education in the US had a focus on design theory and critical thinking, and I also wish to perceive the world in a totally new background, as the Chinese saying goes: “It is better to travel ten thousand miles than to read ten thousand books.” I came to Iowa State University when I was 19, and that was the bravest decision I made in my life. Everything else that happened after that seems natural.

 

在国外遇到了什么让你印象最深刻的事情?
What impressed you the most when you are abroad?

在美国十年,我试图想出哪个事件给我印象最深,但似乎很难挑出单独的事件。我觉得日常学习、生活和工作中遇到的人和事,包括读到的东西,都在不知不觉地塑造着我的设计视角、理念和价值观。

在Corgan工作的时候,一个社区大学实验室的研究项目令我印象深刻。这个研究项目调查如何让实验室变得更加符合人机工程学,适应多媒体教学,从而产生更好的学习成果。我们面试了30多位生物、化学、地质和物理学科的老师,详细列举了所有影响教学体验的条件 – 实验室的比例、朝向、操作台的布局、高度、灯光、储物空间的布置等等。之后的两个月,我们利用这些一手信息生成了一份600页的评估报告。针对实验室和人机工程学如此深入的研究,对于我来说是一个很特别的体验。

Looking back a decade that I was abroad, I am trying to think about the most impressive event that happens to me, but it’s really hard to pick one. I believe my perspective and value towards design are shaped by everyday work and life, people I met, books I read, etc.

One thing I can think of is a community college synergy lab project when I worked at Corgan. It was a research project that investigates the potential to make a lab more ergonomical, adapted to digital teaching, therefore enhance the studying experience. I interviewed 30+ teachers and students from biology, chemistry, geology, physics department and tried to itemize the ideal condition – room proportion, direction, station layout, height, light condition, equipment storage, etc. After that, me and my teammates put together a 600 pages assessment report with firsthand information. It was a very special experience for me to do such a thorough study about ergonomics and science laboratory.

 

最想念祖国的什么?
What do you miss the most about China?

家人、朋友、美食。

Family, friends, and food.

 

你会回国吗?为什么?
Will you come back China? Why?

会的,因为国内有着巨大的潜力,但是目前还不确定时间点。

Yes, but not sure when. China has huge potential.

 

出国后在不同的背景下再看中国是否看得更清晰,有哪些感触?
Is it more distinct to view China in a different environment after going abroad? Any thought?

不能说更清晰,但是有一些个人观点可以分享一下。

我觉得很有意思的一点就是在国内司空见惯的一些东西乃是西方国家规划设计师努力想要实现的。比如说,城市步行道的尺度、友善度、和使用率,具有活性的公共空间,热闹的街道生活(广场舞)等等。在我看来,中国城市的生命力就是城市设计的典范。这一点会提醒我不要将她的优势视为理所应当。当然,伴随着城市化的速度和规模,中国城市的乡绅化也是史无前例的。如何从之前的案例中找出不足并发挥优势,可能是我们新一代设计者需要努力实现的。

I cannot say more distinct, but here is my personal thoughts.

One interesting finding is that sometimes what we are used to see in Chinese cities is what designers and planners try hard to achieve in a lot of western cities. For example, pedestrian friendliness, eyes on the street, activated public space, vibrant street life, etc. For me, the liveliness of Chinese cities is the paradigm for urban design. It always reminds me that we should not take it for granted. Of course, as a side effect of urbanization, the intensity of gentrification in Chinese cities is also unprecedented. How to learn from the past and exploit the potential is probably what designers from our generation need to achieve.

 

你的学校有哪些教育特点?
What makes the curriculum of your school different from other architecture schools?

我的两个学校都倡导学术自由,思想多元化,允许我成长的同时“做自己”。

本科所在的爱荷华州立大学,五年建筑项目的第一年是“核心设计课”。这个设计课设置了几个项目, 分别聚焦在建筑、景观、室内和平面设计。这样可以帮助一些没有设计背景的同学迅速找到自己的兴趣所在。

哈佛设计研究生院非常注重学科交叉,并且设计课的设计很多都是开放式结尾。一个课题可能是老师介绍某个城市或者某种社会现象,然后学生自己找到切入点,建立设计的叙事性。这种设计课很有意思,也很紧凑。它可能会需要大量的阅读、调研、实地考察等等。这种学习经历为我后来开启职业生涯并做为一个设计思考者打下了基础。

I’d say both schools have freedom, diversity, and allow me to become who I want to be.

Iowa State University has a five-year architecture program and the first year is core design education. The studio has several projects that each has a focus on architecture, landscape, graphic design and interior design. It allows people without design background to explore disciplines to find the most suitable fit.

Harvard GSD is highly interdisciplinary, and the studio can be very open-ended. Basically, the instructor introduces a city or a phenomenon, and the student to find the breakthrough point and build up their own narrative for the design intervention. It is very interesting and intense. It requires a lot of reading, research, documentation during fieldtrip, etc. The study experience has well prepared me as a design thinker for my career.

 

你现在工作公司的特色和有趣的地方?
What are the characteristics and interesting points of your firm?

我现在的公司是位于达拉斯的OMNIPLAN。顾名思义(omni- 是全面的意思),我司非常注重多样性。项目小到室内改建,大到总体规划。我们属于中型公司,所以工作的速度和强度远大于我之前工作过的大型公司。迄今为止我在这里工作了15个月,总共经手了20多个项目,其中包括商业、住宅、混用、总体规划以及公益项目。这种高强度的训练促使我快速出方案并深化。

OMNIPLAN is a diversified firm. The projects we worked on can be as small as interior renovation, and as large as masterplan. Our firm is mid-size, and the paces are much faster than those big firms I have worked at. I have been working here for 15 months, and have touched 20+ projects, including several commercial, multi-family, mixed-use, masterplan, and pro bono projects. Thanks to the fast pace and intensity, I am able to get ideas quickly and make it tangible.

 

最喜欢的艺术家(绘画音乐电影等广泛范围)是谁?给你创作带来了什么影响?
Who is your favorite artist (in wider range such as art, music, movie)? What is the influence?

坂茂。他利用自我承重的编织结构使起伏的表面合理化。在后面的滑板工厂项目里,我们借鉴了这个结构在已有的十六世纪教堂里加建了一个滑板测试碗,效果甚好。更重要的是,他发明了纸质紧急避难所的设计,来帮助那些因为自然灾害无家可归的人们。这种人文关怀赢得了我的尊重。

Shigeru Ban. He rationalized beautiful undulating surface by the self-supported woven structure. Inspired by him, we used this 3-way structure to wrap around existing columns when adding a testing bowl in the existing church for the Venice Skateboard Factory. It turns out to be very successful. In addition, he is also famous as a designer of emergency shelters for people suffering from earthquakes and floods, and that earns my respect.

 

觉得自己的作品集有哪些迷人的特质?
What fascinates viewers the most in your portfolio in your opinion?

我认为是我在设计过程中始终将聚焦社会和人文的要素作为核心价值。作品集的第一页我就引用了一句话,“The underlying principles we use to shape our world are social and cultural, whether we work at the scale of architecture or landscape”这句话完美地诠释了我的设计理念。在我后面的作品中,吉隆坡项目的核心价值是在全球化背景下尽力保护马来文化;草场地项目的核心价值是用合作社的形式倡导社会公平;休斯敦高铁站项目的核心价值是清理棕地和场所营造。虽然这些项目的尺度不一样,但它们都体现了我作为一个设计者对社会和人文的愿景。

I think it’s my core value on social and cultural emphasis. On the first page of my portfolio, I quoted a sentence from Galen Cranz, “The underlying principles we use to shape our world are social and cultural, whether we work at the scale of architecture or landscape.” The quote perfectly interpreted my design philosophy. In my works in the following sections, the core value is to preserve the Malay culture against characterless skyscrapers; to promote social equity in the form of cooperative; to achieve placemaking while cleaning up the brownfield. Although those projects are at different scale, they all reflect my vision as an architectural and landscape designer.

 

什么时候开始看谷德网的?欢迎你提出建议哦,谢谢。
When did you start to follow gooood? Any suggestions?

从2015年开始。我给我的外国朋友也推荐了谷德网。他们很喜欢!

Since 2015. I also recommended gooood to my non-Chinese friends. They love it too.

 

 

 

 

 

W O R K

 

 

 

01.

微观基础设施重塑社区文化
Micro-Infrastructure as Community preservation
2017 ASLA Student Honor Award – Residential Design Category
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Teammate: William Baumgardner, Chenyuan Gu
Critic: Spela Videcnik, Rok Oman, David Rubin

Kampung Baru (马来文意为“新村”)坐落在紧邻吉隆坡市中心,这里是一块由英国殖民政府于1900年划出的马来 “飞地”。作为给予马来人的文化内核,Kampung Baru目前正处于发展道路上的十字路口。如今,周边作为首都现代化标志拔地而起的摩天大楼和Kampung Baru保留的传统建筑比肩并存,体现出了现代化与传统的巨大反差。由此摆在大家面前的一个重要问题是:究竟应该选择哪条路径并能够获得成功?

Kampung Baru is located directly adjacent to Kuala Lumpur City Center (KLCC). Founded as a Malay enclave by the British Empire in 1900, Kampung Baru has served as a cultural nucleus that was a draw for the Malay population and is now situated at the crossroads of Kuala Lumpur’s development path. The towering skyscapers that represent the new growth and development of the capital city have quickly surrounded the area, embodying the juxtaposition of modernity against tradition. It has become a critical issue for the city: which path they will take and champion?

▼从双子塔鸟瞰Kampung Baru, Aerial view of Kampung Baru from Petrones Tower

Kampung Baru 由七个社区组成,充分地表达了一个富有多元发展历史的马来社区文化。从建筑上看,这里不仅有富含传统特色的马来建筑,还有殖民时期的西方建筑,更有兼具两者特点而产生的新马来建筑。从景观上看,得天独厚的热带气候,使得整个社区拥有郁郁葱葱的果树,更有热闹非凡的、占据了整条马路的商业区。Kampung Baru 仍然是吉隆坡多元化和身份认同的代表,这里的居民对他们的社区有着难以割舍的情结。但面对现代化快速推进的城市化进程,Kampung Baru不仅有着非常巨大的发展压力,而且也暴露出其文化传承脆弱的一面。

Within the seven villages of Kampung Baru is a vibrant array of expressions of identity. From architecture that has evolved from the vernacular to the colonial and the fusion that naturally occurred, to a verdant landscape of dense shade trees with fruits hanging from their branches, to a bustling set of commercial corridors that overtake the streets, Kampung Baru remains an integral manifestation of the diversity and identity Kuala Lumpur champions. The residents here are deeply connected to their neighborhood and the way of life their families have known for generations. In the face of the new development, Kampung Baru encapsulates the pressures of modernity and the fragility of community and cultural ancestry.

▼Kampung Baru的七个社区和车流循环,Community and circulation of Kampung Baru

▼原有的建筑和景观类型学 ,Existing typology of architecture and landscape

2017年Kampung Baru的发展面临诸多问题,归根结底主要集中于两个方面:第一,该地区在白天的空心化,由于种种原因,房产持有者选择搬离Kampung Baru。 他们把房子租给外来的打工者(包括泰国,印度尼西亚,老挝和中国)来赚取一定的收益。这些外来居民对Kampung Baru的日常生活不太感兴趣,都选择在别的地区工作,使得这里产生了空缺。第二,整个社区的社交活动开始慢慢减少,各年龄段的人均缺乏参与度。在历史上,清真寺作为整个社区的中心,通过日常祷告,婚礼等一系列社交活动把人们凝聚在一起。但随着时间的推移,年轻一代人更愿意在空余时间去拥有空调的现代化购物中心(比如KLCC)消磨时光。

然而,作为Kampung Baru的主要文化基石之一,夜市仍然是社区和城市日常生活的重要方面。夜市里有各种各样的食品、服装和商贩摊,这些货摊占满了城市的街道。夜市经营时间为晚上8点至第二天凌晨1点左右,这是一天中最黑暗、最凉爽的时刻,人们日常祈祷也在这个时段结束了。在夜市灯光的照射下,Kampung Baru体现了其生机勃勃的一面。夜间活动不仅具有时间特征,它更多的是空间和社会文化力量的体现。在热带高温和闷热的环境中,夜晚活动成为社区和城市运作的重要角色。

▼每日活动时间线与气候和宗教的关系,Daily activities in relation to climate and religion

2017 finds Kampung Baru faced with myriad issues. Central to all of these are two main topics. First, is the absence of landowners who have moved elsewhere in the city for a variety of reasons. In their place, new residents have moved into the area and are primarily migrant workers from neighboring countries such as Thailand, Indonesia, Laos, and China. These residents are not as invested in the quotidian life of Kampung Baru, and therefore are choosing to spend their time elsewhere, leaving a physical and tangible vacancy. Second, is the lack of participation in the community from all age groups. Historically, the mosque was the central force of community that brought the seven villages together through daily prayers (Salat), weddings, and other social events. Over time, the younger generations have chosen to spend their time in the new mega shopping mall developments like KLCC instead of traditional means.

However, one of the main cultural cornerstones of Kampung Baru, the night markets, remain key aspects of daily life in the community and the city. The night markets are a variety of food, clothing, and other goods stalls that overtake the city streets. Opening past 8 pm and closing around 1 am, the night markets occur at the darkest and coolest part of the day, and after the daily prayers have ended. It is within this darkness, illuminated by the lights of the city, that Kampung Baru comes alive. The nocturnal is not a temporal feature, but a spatial and socio-cultural force. Amidst the tropical heat and humidity, the role of the night is integral into how the community and city operates.

▼商业走廊早晚街景的对比, Streetscape of Commercial Corridor Day and Night

今天,Kampung Baru的发展陷入僵局。这里大约有1300个住宅,超过5000名业主,土地价值超过16亿美元。法律保障所有家庭成员拥有平等的财产所有权导致了一连串的繁文缛节,在很大程度上阻碍了这一地区的发展。同时,Kampung Baru也进行了各种各样的总体规划,设想将历史悠久的住宅夷为平地,以毫无特色的高楼大厦取而代之。在那里,甚至连效果图上都填满了白人用户,完全不符合现有社区人口和人口统计数据。

Today, Kampung Baru is a stalemate of development. There are around 1,300 residences with over 5,000 property owners, with land that is valued over 1.6 billion US Dollars. Laws guarantee equal property ownership amongst all members of a family causing a litany of red tape that is preventing much of the development. Various master plans have also been undertaken for the city that envision razing the historic homes and replacing them with characterless new steel and glass developments where even the renderings are filled with Caucasian users in place of any figures that resemble the existing community’s population and demographics.

▼原有地块与总体规划地块尺度对比, Parcel comparison between existing and envisioned masterplan

通过对当前和历史问题的分析,以及通过各种阅读总体规划对城市发展的愿景和启发,我们的项目提出了一种新形式的微观基础设施,目的是鼓励社区参与,并限制Kampung Baru高楼的发展。由于缺乏公共空间,该项目旨在通过利用社区每个村庄的空地和绿地来满足公共空间的需求。这些公共空间可以用来举办每个村庄的会议,同时考虑开辟一个密切的邻里规模的空间,居民可以在白天休息,晚上聚集,并适应用户的日常需求。每个村庄都有机会将其潜在的公共空间转化成为社区定制和独特的落脚点。这些空间有助于将人们本身、他们的房屋和周围景观等独特的文化特征利用起来。

从这些公共空间中,我们开发了一种可以在地块规模上实现的发展类型学语言。这些类型可按顺序分为三大类:小块、中块和大块。我们假设土地所有者可以实现这些不同的类型,即把1-2层的现有建筑增加到3-7层。这几种类型都设置在5×5×3米的网格上,允许其灵活性和模块性随时间而变化。墙壁单元、阳台等都是模块化的,允许土地所有者在给定的参数下工作,然而又保持独特性,这对Kampung Baru的身份识别至关重要。随着时间的推移,这些地块也可以通过空中桥梁相互连接,形成另一个层面的行人循环。在整个Kampung Baru 地区保持同样的分区也将确保感知社区中已经存在的各种体验。

Through an analysis of the current and historic issues, along with the aspirations of the city through various master plans and schemes, the projects posits a new form of micro-infrastructures that would encourage community participation and counter the towering developments that are constricting Kampung Baru. Lacking a public space, this project aims to address the need of public space by utilizing the vacant lots and green spaces with each village of the community. These public spaces could host the meetings of each village and allow for an intimate neighborhood-scale space where residents could rest during the day, gather at night, and adapt to the everyday needs of the users. Each village would have an opportunity to make their potential public spaces into bespoke and unique anchors of the community. These spaces would help to capitalize on the distinct cultural identities of the people, their houses, and the the surrounding landscape.

From those public spaces, the project has developed a language of development typologies that could be implemented on the parcel scale. These typologies are ordered into three main categories: small, medium, and large parcels. We posit that the landowners could implement these different typologies that are an increase from the 1-2 floor existing buildings to something from 3-7 floors. Both typologies are set on grids of 5 x 5 x 3 meters, allowing for flexibility and modularity over time. Wall units, balconies, and more are all modular as well, allowing for the landowners to work with in the given parameters, but maintain a uniqueness that is so critical to Kampung Baru’s identity. Over time, the parcels could also be connected to one another through sky bridges, creating another layer of pedestrian circulation to the lots. Maintaining the same zoning throughout Kampung Baru as well would also ensure the variety of experiences that is already found in the community as well.

▼小型地块类型学研究,Proposed small parcels taxonomy

▼中型地块类型学研究,Proposed medium parcels taxonomy

▼大型地块类型学研究,Proposed large parcels taxonomy

通过包括新的公共空间,无论是积极规划的还是灵活规划的,Kampung Baru新的社区发展指南倡导社区的作用,并促进社区重新参与到使与其土地紧密联系在一起的能力。作为未来发展的指南,新的发展模式也可以推广到吉隆坡的其他族群,利用和实施这些新的社区发展形式将有助于确保维护Kampung Baru和吉隆坡独一无二的多样性,也可以作为说明建筑环境和景观如何塑造和传播城市的文化完整性方面研究讨论的垫脚石。

By including new public spaces, whether actively programmed or flexible, the new guide of community development for Kampung Baru champions the role of the community and facilitates the ability for the community to re-engage with their land they are so deeply tied to. The new models of development could also then be disseminated throughout the other ethnic clusters of Kuala Lumpur as a guide for future development as well. Utilizing and implementing these new forms of community development would help to ensure the preservation of the unique diversity of Kampung Baru, and Kuala Lumpur and could also serve as a stepping stone for similar discourses of how the built environment and landscape can shape and inform the cultural integrity of a city.

▼白天场地活动,Proposed day activities

▼夜晚场地活动, Proposed night activities

▼多层住宅与街道互动, Multi-family interaction

该项目旨在打破双子塔等高层城市化对社区造成的巨大冲击。有了更大的容积率和密度,拟议的结构有助于为社区成员提供一系列指引和规则,让他们更好地融入社区,并减少长短期冲击。面对城市的快速发展,建筑和景观建筑在社区保护方面的未来角色是什么?作为负责为所有人设计新空间和拓展的主体,我们有能力为那些在社区中没有发言权的人代言。同时,我们能够胜任确保作为一种文化、社区或社会支柱的系统、结构和基础设施得到保护,甚至超越他人的浅薄野心。

The project aims to breakdown the immense effect of urban shock the Petronas Towers have had on the community. While the structures themselves are new and taller, they help to provide the community members with a set of guidelines and rules that will help the proposed structures better fit into the community and reduce the immediate and long-term shock. What is the future role of architecture and landscape architecture when it comes to community preservation in the face of rapid urban development? We are those charged with designing new spaces and developments for all. We have the ability to speak for those who may not have a voice in their communities. And we have the capability to ensure that the systems, structures, and infrastructure both physical and metaphorical that are the backbone of a culture, community, or society are preserved and even championed over the shallow ambitions of others.

▼新型住宅社区和公共空间,New residential community and public space

▼模型照片, Model of a swath and a parcel

▼发展愿景,Development vision

 

 

 

 

02.

自搭自建装置
Urban Apparatus of Ad Hoc
Beijing, China
critic: Inaki Abalos

这个项目探究如何在北京高密度的城中村引入城市综合体这种建筑形态。

This project “Apparatus of Ad Hoc” explores the possibilities of adapting the urban hybrid typologies of House and Palace to a high density urban village in Beijing.

▼城中村的自搭自建装置,Apparatus of ad hoc in urban village

草场地是位于北京市东北朝阳区五环路与机场高速交汇处的一个城中村和著名的艺术区。2000年前后,当艺术家们开始进入该地区时,草场地就发展成为一个繁荣的艺术和文化中心,引发了类似于附近798艺术区的国际关注。和规划而成的行政村相反,草场地是一个自然村。村庄里的建筑、家具和日常生活用具也都是自然的、自发的和违章的。它的改建和加建很大程度体现了一种“自发性”——即根据手头的需要直接创建的,这与艾未未在建筑上的理念一致。他认为自然增长和渐进式的城市化是草场地美丽的原因,因为它是人性化的建筑和街景。在一应国际艺术家的带领下,草场地的业余设计社区蓬勃发展。

Caochangdi was an urban village and renowned arts district located in the Chaoyang District of northeast Beijing at the intersection of the 5th Ring Road and Airport Expressway. Caochangdi developed into a thriving arts and cultural hub when artists began to move into the area around 2000, attracting international attention similar to the nearby 798 Art Zone. As opposed to an administrative village planned and implemented from above, Caochangdi is a natural village. The architecture, furniture, and apparatus of daily life built in the village are also natural, spontaneous and illegal. The progress of its development is ad hoc – directly created in response to a need at hand. It corresponds with Ai Weiwei’s stance on architecture. He believes that the natural growth and incremental urbanism is what makes Caochangdi beautiful, because it is people’s architecture and streetscape. Followed by a group of international artists, an ad hocratic amateur design community is thriving in Caochangdi.

▼草场地南北不同风格的违章建筑,Different illegal structures north and south Caochangdi

整个地区被一条横贯东西的无名公路隔开。这条路的北端像是福柯笔下的“异托帮”,主要居民是农民、出租车司机、建筑工人等底层大众。而这条路的南端则是著名的艺术区,由艾未未和其他国际艺术家创办。南北端的街景和社区氛围迥异,但彼此并不排斥,也并非不可兼容。

有三组居民共同生活在这个场地上。艺术家们被低地价和无政府主义所吸引,获得了建造的机会和自由。当地农民因有机会建房出租而被吸引,获得了较高的生活质量。通常作为非法居民、被称为外来者的“北漂”,能够在此拥有一个栖身之地得以出卖自己的廉价劳动力。随着南向道路的加速发展,土地价格将逐步上涨,马路对面的底层大众将被迫搬离草场地,从而带走艺术家的日常灵感和创作素材。为了维持这个社区的平衡并实现自给自足的发展,应根据热力学唯物论的原理,引入一种新的城市综合体原型,以加强它们之间联系。原型始于场地的中部,向外延伸到周边。

The whole district was divided by an anonymous road running east-west. North to this road is a heterotopia city, like Foucault described in “of other spaces”, where its main residents are underclass people like farmers, taxi drivers, construction workers, etc. While south to this road is a renowned art district, started by Ai Weiwei and followed by other international artists. The streetscape and community vibe is different, yet not exclusive or incompitable to each other.

There are three groups of inhabitants co-existing on this site. Artists, attracted to the low land value and anarchism, was provided with the opportunity and freedom to build. Local farmers, attracted to the chance to build up and rent out, was provided higher quality of life. “Floaters”, also known as outsiders, who are usually illegal residents, was able to have a roof over their head while contribute as cheap labors. With the increased development south to the road, the prices of the land will increase, and exiled the lower class people across the road, taking away the everyday inspiration of the artists. To maintain the balance and achieve self-sufficiency in this community, a new kind of mixed-use urban prototype should be experimented with programs strengthening their relationships according to thermodynamic materialism. The prototype starts in the middle of the site and grow outwards to its perimeter.

▼居民关系图与功能关系图, Inhabitants and program diagram

该场地实施的项目包括:一家陶瓷厂,在社交和空间上将艺术家和底层大众融合在一起,并在冬季充当热力来源;一所小学,为村里无证居民的子女提供基础教育;一家画廊,展示艺术和文物;一个健身房和游泳池,向公众和居民开放;32个为艺术家提供的双层住宅;112个非正式建造并与官僚机构运作方式相反的、给当地居民提供的“岩洞”以及相邻的额外空间。设计策略是集中放置厨房卫生间这些功能性区域,并给居民(无论是艺术家还是底层大众)保留最大的灵活性来管理空间。

The programs implemented into the site include a ceramic factory that socially and spatially stitching the artists and underclass people together and serves as heating source in the winter, an elementary school that provides fundamental education to the children of illegal residents in the village, a gallery that displays art and artifacts, a gym and swimming pool that open to both public and the residents, 32 units double-space housings for artists, 112 units “cave” housings plus the adjacent extra space for the underclass to build informally, and operate in an opposite fashion to a bureaucracy. The design strategy is to centralize the utility and leave maximum flexibility for the residents to manage the space – both artists and underclass.

▼首层平面图,Ground floor plan

▼二层平面图, Second floor plan

 

▼艺术家居住空间与工作室,Artist live work studio

▼底层大众居住与搭建空间,Underclass ad hoc cell

我的设计愿景是利用艺术家和底层大众自发建立的合作社的形式,通过建筑立面打造一个工作狂的梦想城市。在白天,学校、画廊、补鞋匠、修理自行车、理发厅、炸油饼、卖煎饼的小贩填满了建筑的立面。随着夜幕的降临,台球厅、私人室内娱乐、网吧、餐厅和小吃摊都生意兴隆,黑暗中的建筑立面呈现出栩栩如生的景象。

My design vision is to create a workaholic dream city within the building through the cooperative in between artists and small business. During daytime, the school, art gallery, cobblers, bicycle repairs, barbers, fried dough, and pancake vendors filling up the building facade. As the night sets in, the pool halls, private interiors, Internet cafes, restaurants and food stands come to life, and the building façade by dark is especially lively.

▼剖面图1, Section 1

▼剖面图2, Section 2

 

 

 

 

03.

OUTLAWED INVADERS – Venice Toy Factory
被放逐的入侵者 – 威尼斯滑板工厂
Venice, Italy
Teammate: Rachel Johnson, Gladys Petersen
critic: Mitchell Squire

威尼斯一直以来都拒绝滑板文化。虽然允许在几个泻湖岛上使用滑板、滑板车和自行车,但她通过立法有效地消除了这种文化,改变了滑板在威尼斯市中心的地位。她大胆地反对被那薄薄的面纱所掩盖的旅游文化所面临的风险。因此,我们采纳了滑板文化和圣扎卡利亚教堂的修女无拘无束的精神,以“激进女权主义”的形式采取积极的立场,通过一个富有策略的建筑过程质疑教会和政府的政策制定。由于过去和近代尼姑庵内外的自由化,我们看到的不仅仅是“一种建筑”(无政府形式)的机会,而是一种适合对抗政府机构和抵制因它们导致的限制的建设和项目的机会。

Venice has refused skateboard culture. Though allowed on several of the lagoon islands, she has forbidden skateboards, scooters, and bicycles in the city center, effectively banishing the culture and altering the status of skateboarding through legislation. She has taken a bold stand against what has been determined a risk to her thin veiled touristic culture. Therefore, we adopt the unbridled spirit of skateboard culture and that of nuns of San Zaccaria accused of “radical feminism” to take an activist stand in the form of a creative protest that questions both church’s and government policy making—by a tactical architectural process. Because of liberalization inside and out of the nunnery in past and recent history, we see an opportunity not for ‘an architecture’ (anarchistic form) but for both building and program that befits an antagonistic stand to confront the governing institutions and to push back against the constrictions they have caused.

▼剖面模型照片,Final section model

要做到这一点,我们的滑板工厂必须引入冲突和讨论,因为我们开发的建筑不受法律压力的限制,而是适时地加以开发和拓展。换句话说,我们正在探索通过起源于教会的出口来创造经济活力的可能性,以及威尼斯目前的状况是否服务于人民、社区和生活在其之内的社会更大的利益。

滑板者的天性就像是城市游击队员:他们开发了城市基础设施的另外一套使用规则,与此同时,又像打游击战一样躲避政府和当局的监管。这与文艺复兴鼎盛时期圣扎卡利亚修女的习惯似乎是相似的。她们利用了自己因被父权制而被与世隔绝的便利条件,建立了一个能够在其中工作的自治机构,最终挑战了社会对于女性价值的陈腐传统。她们的反叛使得这个教会的地位得以提升,使得圣扎卡利亚深受后人对宗教遗迹的追捧。

To do so, our toy factory must introduce conflict as well as discussion as we develop an architecture that does not constrict to the pressures of the law but rather opportunistically exploit them. In other words, we’re inquiring as to whether it is possible to create economic vitality through exportation whose origin is the Church, and if the current state of Venice is serving the greater interests of the people, the communities, and societies that live within herself.

Skaters by their very nature are urban guerrillas: exploiting physical infrastructure while at the same time remaining mobile to avoid government and corporate regulatory structures. Habits of the nuns of San Zaccaria during the heightened period of the Renaissance were seemingly parallel. They built upon their isolation from the Patriarchy of the Venetian Church to become an autonomous body working within, ultimately challenging the convention of a woman’s worth. Their rebellion was a form of status advancement for this particular church, filling San Zaccaria with well sought after religious relics.

▼场地信息和设计概念,Site information and concept diagram

但她们的努力并不都是为了教会,他们同时强化了自我利益和需求,因此极大的藐视并挑战了教会的父权制。我们发现,在教会内部产生的反叛的历史形式既稳定,又能同时威胁机构。为了教会的经济繁荣并使之处于守法的状态,这个文化上被排斥的物体(滑板)的创造和输出来自修女们的内在动力,同时它也将保持作为姐妹机构的修道院的政治活力和优势。

But their efforts were not all for the sake of the Church. They also fortified their own self-interest and desires, resulting in a big FUCK YOU to the patriarchy. We find that historic forms of rebellion operating within the church can both stabilize and threaten the institution simultaneously. The creation and exportation of this culturally shunned object (skateboard) will come out of the nuns inner drive for the church’s economic prosperity and law-abiding status, but it will also maintain the political liveliness and edge that has mark their sister institution, the convent.

▼相关事件时间线,Timeline of related event and artifacts

 

第一阶段:互利共生 [ 5年后 ]
Stage 1. Symbiosis [ 5 years later ]

9世纪建成的第一个圣扎卡利亚教堂,目前作为一个伪宗教商业空间,通过展现和出售当地的艺术品来筹集资金。为了使企业在财务上更加成功,教堂和玩具作坊之间建立了一种更可行的商业合作关系,生产一种在威尼斯街道上被禁止的物品——滑板。

在启创阶段,车间从一个精致的作坊空间起步,用以满足3-4名设计师对于板面和桥的设计需求。一楼工作室主要进行板面设计,随后将图纸传递到二楼的制作空间,最后一步负责手工雕刻板面、部件的组装和出口。旧教堂的整体外形仍然保持原样,由于每年会发洪水,因此将所有的工序都搬上二楼。此外,加装了电梯,两个防火楼梯,在保留现有木质结构的基础上拆除了部分楼板。

这个阶段之所以被称为共生,是因为教堂和滑板的实体在分享着共同利益,一个提供空间,另一个提供资金。然而,随着滑板实体的资产开始增加,它打破了平衡,从而进入下一个状态。

The first Church of San Zaccaria, completed in the 9th Century, currently serves as a pseudo religious – commercial space, curating and selling local art to raise funds. In an effort to make the enterprise more financially successful, a more viable commercial partnership is established between the church and toy workshop that produces an item banned from Venetian streets, the skateboard.

During its initiation, the workshop begins as a subtle maker space to fulfill the needs of 3-4 designers involved in deck and truck design in addition to deck characterization on the first floor studio before the drawings are passed to the manufacturing space on the second floor. The final step is a hand carved deck, assembly of parts, and exportation. The entire exterior of the old church remains untouched, though the program demanded moving all work practices up one floor due to annual flooding, addition of an elevator, two enclosed fires stairs, and removing portions of floor slabs, while keeping existing timber floor members in place.

This stage is called symbiosis because the church and skateboard entity are sharing a mutual benefit, one provides space, the other provides funds. However, as the skateboard entity’s assets begin to increase, it breaks the balance, thus entering the next state.

▼第一阶段平面图和轴测图,Stage 1 floor plans and axon

第二阶段:寄生 [ 15年后 ]
Stage 2. Parasitism [ 15 years later ]

随着业务的扩展和需求的增加,车间需要空间鼓励新媒介和测试产成品。为此,他们希望从主办方获得扩张许可。在这个阶段,商业实体从单纯的制造商空间转变为雄心勃勃的寄生虫。制造空间通过从旧教堂屋顶的东端建造出来,巧妙地挖掘到15世纪教堂的侧壁,悬挂并安装一个小测试碗池,从而使面积和高度翻倍。由于宗教制度与商业制度的分裂统一,这个过渡阶段被称为寄生。资本主义进入了新的圣扎卡利亚教堂。

As business expands and demand increases, the workshop desires space that encourages experimenting with new medium and testing completed products. For this they desire from their host, permission to expand. In this stage, commercial entity transforms from a mere maker space to an ambitious parasite. The manufacturing space becomes double the area and height by structuring itself out of the east end of the old church’s roof as well subtly digging into the 15th Century Church’s side apse to suspend and frame a small testing bowl. This is a transitional stage, and is called parasitism due to the fractured unity of the religious institution and commercial institution. Capitalism has entered the new Church of San Zaccaria.

▼第二阶段平面图和轴测图,Stage 2 floor plans and axon

 

第三阶段:瘫痪 [ 40年后 ]
Stage 3. Paralysis [ 40 years later ]

第三个发展阶段是对未来的预测。当海平面上升了4英尺,导致威尼斯被淹,滑板实体完全占据了教堂的主要空间,使得所有的宗教实践濒临瘫痪。滑板工厂从制造商空间转变为高端定制设计空间。除了之前的项目,第三阶段引入了一个展示厅和测试碗池,为客户测试他们的产品。在这个阶段有两种类型的设计师产品:设计板和定制板。在大众营销的保护伞下,设计板使用最新开发的材料,而定制板为客户提供个性化的服务。在最后阶段建造的吊顶继续向下延伸到教堂,创造了两个三向结构构成的的起伏表面。两个起伏方向相反的表面形成几个“细胞”的展厅,在那里产品的测试在头顶上进行。这个最后的状态被称为瘫痪,因为滑板实体破坏了存在了几个世纪的教会地位。

The third stage of development is the speculation that by the time the sea level rises an additional four feet, rendering Venice flooded, the skateboard entity will spill over entirely to the main space in the church, paralyzing all religious practices from being carried out. The skateboard factory transforms from a maker space to a high-end customized design space. In addition to the previous programs, the third stage introduces a show room and testing surface for customers to test their product. There are two types of designer products in this stage: design board and custom board. Design board uses newest material development, under the umbrella of mass marketing, while custom board serves a customer on an individual basis. The suspended vaults built in the last stage continue down into the church, creating two undulating surfaces of three way structural timbers. The double opposing surfaces form several “cells” for the showroom, where product testing takes place overhead. This final state is called paralysis as the skateboard entity disrupts the church’s status as it has remained for centuries.

▼第三阶段平面图和轴测图,Stage 3 floor plans and axon

▼模型照片,Model details

▼模型照片,Model details

 

 

 

 

04.

生产性景观动脉 – 休斯敦高铁站总体规划
Productive Artery – Houston Bullet Train Station Masterplan
Houston, TX
Teammate: Ashton Knepper

位于610号州际公路和290号国家公路的交汇处,高铁站的场地在休斯敦的工业区的城市纹理中发挥了巨大的作用。目前,该场地被一个大型货运列车和亨普斯特德路分为两部分。由于巨大的分割,目前的规划很容易被占据者搁浅。为了改变目前的现状,我们的提议是创建一个作为社区和整个休斯敦生态、社会和经济催化剂的绿色生态弹性系统。

Located at the intersection of Interstate 610 and US 290, the proposed site for the train station has played a large part in the industrial fabric of Houston. Currently, the site is divided by a large freight train and Hempstead Rd. Along with the large divide, the current programming lends itself to being off-putting towards the occupant. In view to change this current typology, our proposal is to create a green resilient system serving as an ecological, social and economic catalyst of the community, and Houston as a whole.

▼总平面图和小插图,Masterplan of the Houston bullet train station and vignettes

通过创建绿带将所有拟议的功能区串联起来,该选址目前着重于生态和经济弹性、公共生活、人性化步行、教育,并将技术与都市农业联系起来。考虑到在此建设火车站的机会,本提案试图将一个目前工业化的社区转变为一个公共交通导向式的目的地。行人友好的中央走廊作为美化空间的交通工具,同时创建了一个可连接的步行走廊,其脊骨从位于货运列车和汽车之上的集中走道开始。这条人行道就像一条大动脉,连接着曾经分散的地块。绿色手指作为通往各个项目的交通工具加入到这个中心轴里。这些项目包括不同的类型,如住宅、商区、综合用途、创业孵化器、娱乐中心、儿童图书馆、日托、社区学院、农贸市场、微型啤酒厂、植物园等等。这些多样化土地用途的引入,创造了空间并鼓励人们全天候地在社区中往返活动,避免在夜间出现鬼城或白天出现空心化现象。

Through creating the green belt linking all proposed programs, the site is now focused on ecological and economic resiliency, public life, walkability, education, and links technology to urban farming. Given the opportunity of building the station on the site, this proposal seeks to turn a community that is currently industrial into a transit-oriented destination. The pedestrian-friendly Central Walkway serves as the vehicle for beautifying the space and creates a connected walking corridor. The spines start at the largely centralized walkway that is situated over the freight train and cars. This walkway acts as a large artery and connects the once separated plots. The green fingers then join this central axis which serves as the vehicle to a variety of programs. The programs include different typologies like residential, commercial, mixed-use, start-up incubators, recreation centers, children’s library, daycare, Lone Star Community College, farmers market, micro-brewery, botanical gardens and more. The introduction of these diverse land uses, creates spaces that encourage people to circulate through the neighborhood 24/7 which avoids creating a ‘ghost town’ at night or ‘bed town’ during the day.

▼设计策略分析图,Design strategy diagrams

总体规划将重点放在交通连接上,特别是针对行人、骑自行车的人和公共交通工具使用者。这些循环空间连接到贯穿整个空间的绿色中央动脉上,并提供进入所有社区、公共建筑和娱乐活动的通道。伴随着交通工具多样化的建议,该计划的初衷是让空间具有一种混合功能。

The masterplan lends itself to focus on transport connectivity, especially for pedestrians, cyclists, and public transport users. These circulation spaces then connect to the green central artery which runs throughout the space and provides access to all neighborhoods, public buildings, and recreational activities.  Along with the multiple transportation proposals, the plan is to allow the space to become a mix of functions.

▼高铁站台,Bullet train station platform

高铁站是许多行人进入转运空间的枢纽,邻近的巴士总站和轻轨站有助于确保旅客有一个相对集中的位置以满足他们的所有需要。子弹头列车的轨道高出地面层,以保证下层行人活动的连续性以及维护一个大型的无障碍场地。它还允许小型企业,小型公园,还有自行车道占据下层空间。

The train station acts as the hub for many pedestrians arriving into the space, the adjacent bus terminal and light rail station help ensure that the traveler has a centralized location for all their needs. The track for the bullet train is elevated above the ground floor to allow for continuity of pedestrian movement below as well as maintaining a large accessible site. It also allows small business, pocket park, and bike paths which now occupy the space below.

▼下层行人活动空间和店铺,Pedestrian, bike lane and small business underneath

除了具有弹性且美观的特点之外,绿化带作为一种清洁剂,更使得场地再次具有生产能力。通过将废弃的tex-tube工厂改变用途重塑成一个农贸市场,周围的大面积绿地作为生产性景观,清除了土壤中的污染物并使之得到净化。伴随着这些种植和花园,绿色的墙壁被用于帮助鼓励垂直园艺和当地农业。通过利用农贸市场、植物修复、微型啤酒厂和植物园,我们获得了一个健康、有生态弹性和自给自足的土地。总之,该方案旨在通过关注以行人为中心的项目和交通,让居住者能够在休斯敦的都市纹理中享受曾经被忽视的空间。

Along with introducing a resilient and beautified landscape, the greenery serves as a cleanser and allows the site to become productive once again. By re-purposing the Tex-Tube Factory as a farmers market, the large green spaces around it act as a productive landscape, cleansing the brownfields from contaminants and detoxing the soil. Along with these plantings and gardens, green walls are used throughout to help encourage vertical gardening and local farming. By use of the farmers market, phytoremediation, micro-brewery and botanical gardens, we achieve a land that is healthy, resilient and self-sufficient. In conclusion, this proposal seeks to bring life back into the site, by focusing on pedestrian-centered programs and transportation, occupants are now able to enjoy a once neglected space within the Houston fabric.

▼工厂改造而成的农贸市场, Repurposed farmers market

▼功能分析图和场地剖面,Program diagram and site section

 

 

 

 

05.

臧氏公寓
Zang Flats
OMNIPLAN
Dallas, TX
Team: Stephen Lohr, Sam Stribling, Jared Brown, Mario Izquierdo

北橡树崖最初是达拉斯第一个高端总体规划社区的中心。然而, 50年前随着中产阶级居民迁居至郊区,这个社区陷入了经济衰退。幸运的是,过去20年的振兴和总体规划项目已经把北橡树崖变成了年轻的“城市先锋”们的时尚家园,这些“城市先锋”被流连在老房子当中装修一新的新餐馆、酒吧和精品商店中的生活所吸引。现今,北橡树崖甚至有“达拉斯的布鲁克林”之称。

臧氏公寓是一个由71个单元组成的城市多家庭发展项目,它位于北橡树崖的中心地带,那里有一个五向交叉口。它以臧氏大道上首层展现的几个居住办公一体loft为特色,底座上方是一个宽敞的庭院设施,上面的楼层均可以俯视到。这些设施包括一个合作办公空间、健身房,游泳池,狗狗洗浴间,一个居民自行车维修间以及优步的载客站。面向街道的庭院可以看到达拉斯市中心的景色。另外一边,由于小巷明显低于街道水平面,停车场可被完美地隐藏在下面。

从审美的角度看,该项目的重点在于对历史上毗邻的崖湖和主教艺术区等周边环境的敏感度。为适应周围的小尺度环境,立面用不同的材质进行体量上的分化,给人一种不同时期建造出来的错觉。

North Oak Cliff was originally the center of one of Dallas’ first upscale master-planned communities. However, the neighborhood fell into economic decline as middle-class residents fled to the suburbs 50 years ago. Luckily, revitalization and master-plan projects over the last 20 years has transformed North Oak Cliff into a trendy home base for young “urban pioneers” drawn to life in updated old houses set among the slew of new restaurants, bars, and boutique shops. Nowadays, the neighborhood even has a reputation as “Dallas Brooklyn”.

Zang Flats is a 71-unit urban multifamily development in the heart of North Oak Cliff where a five-way intersection was located.  It features several live-work lofts along Zang Boulevard on the ground floor. Above the podium sit an abundant amenity courtyard that can be overlooked from levels above. The amenity spaces include a co-working space, a gym, a pool, a dog wash, a resident bike repair, and a loading zone for Uber. The courtyard facing the street provides a view to downtown Dallas. On the other side, because the alley is significantly lower than the street level, it allows the below grade parking tucked perfectly underneath.

The aesthetic of this project is sensitive to the context of the historic adjacent Lake Cliff and Bishop Arts District. The façade was carefully broken up with different material to match the scale of its immediate surroundings, and to look like it is something built over time.

▼臧氏公寓街景,Street view

▼合作办公空间, co-working space

▼标准室内,Typical interior space

▼二层娱乐设施,Amenity Deck

▼租赁办公室,Leasing Office

▼租赁办公室,Leasing Office

在海外时间:2010.1 至今
在海外地点:爱荷华州,伦敦,波士顿,达拉斯
姓名:张丹棣
籍贯:北京
学校:Iowa State University, Harvard GSD
工作单位 : OMNIPLAN (曾在Corgan, SOM, Zaha Hadid Architects)
联系方式:dandi.zhang@hotmail.com

When: 2010.1 to present
Where: Iowa, London, Boston, Dallas
Who: Dandi Zhang
From: Beijing
School: Iowa State University, Harvard GSD
Firm: OMNIPLAN (previously Corgan, SOM, Zaha Hadid Architects)
Contact: dandi.zhang@hotmail.com

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