在海外专辑第一百零三期 – 贾彬

第一百零三期为您呈现的是毕业于奥斯陆建筑与设计学院、现为独立建筑师的贾彬。

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海外存知己,天涯若比邻。
在海外专辑分享海外华人的故事。希望这份分享可以让世界更加海阔天空。
第一百零三期为您呈现的是毕业于奥斯陆建筑与设计学院、现为独立建筑师的贾彬。个人工作室主页:BIN ARCHITECT

A bosom friend afar brings distant land near. The Oversea album shares the lives of Chinese living abroad with all. The No.103 episode is about Bin Jia who graduated from AHO and is now practicing as an independent architect. Official website: BIN ARCHITECT.

为什么出国?
Why going abroad?

上学,接受更好的建筑教育,丰富人生经历。

Study, get better education, enrich life experience.

 

在国外遇到了什么让你印象最深刻的事情?
What impressed you the most when you are abroad?

印象最深刻的是北欧所处的社会背景有种“慢”的特质。在平均主义盛行的文化语境里,每个人不约而同地保持低调谦逊,都在寻找不太引人注目和不太花哨之间的平衡点,总之就是 “Never show off”。对比瑞士的山区文化和城市主义主导的设计传统,由于北欧领土辽阔而人口稀少,使得建筑和自然产生了独一无二的联系,北欧建筑师大多遵循于当地传统,倾向于透过自然而非城市化的角度回应场地。当我去奥斯陆北部看Fehn设计的由传统谷仓改造的海德马克博物馆,或者在斯德哥尔摩参观Lewerentz的林中墓地的时候,一种强烈的关联性带着从土地生长出来的感觉油然而生,用一种朴实的自然哲学回应大地(down to earth),这里的形式更复杂,更随机。同样我很难透过社会和都市叙述的角度去解读他们的作品。所以不同的学习和工作经历也让我在不同的文化和语境中切换着关注的对象。

The first impression was the “slow” vibe and the “Janteloven” peculiar in Scandinavian context. In the cultural where egalitarianism prevails, people reserve their opinions, and keep as humble as possible. Everyone is looking for a balance between being less noticeable and less fancy. In other words- “Never show off”. Moreover, in contrast to Switzerland’s mountainous culture and urbanism dominated design tradition, due to the vast territory and sparse population in Norway, architecture and nature have a unique connection. Most Nordic architects follow local traditions and tend to respond to the context through nature rather than urbanization. When I went to the north of Oslo to see the Hedmark Museum, also known as the Storhamar Barn, is one of Sverre Fehn’s best known works. As well as when I visited Sigurd Lewerentz’s Woodland Cemetery in Stockholm, a strong connection came to me with the feeling of growing from the ground. A simple natural philosophy responds down to the earth, so it is also difficult to interpret their works from the perspective of social and urban narrative.

 

最想念祖国的什么?
What do you miss the most about China?

食物,家人和朋友

Food, family and friends.

 

你会回国吗?为什么?
Will you come back China? Why?

应该会。如果追求舒适的生活和良好的职业环境,北欧是不二之选,但建筑创作有时需要一种饥渴感和不确定的状态跳出“舒适区”。而且我也希望能有机会能在国内独立建筑实践。

Most likely. If you are looking for a comfortable life and a good professional environment, Nordic country is the place to go, but architectural creation sometimes requires a sense of hunger and uncertainty out of the “comfort zone”. And I also want to work independently as an architect in China.

 

出国后在不同的背景下再看中国是否看得更清晰,有哪些感触?
Is it more distinct to view China in a different environment after going abroad? Any thought?

其实对我来说,留学最大的收获是补了那么一段本应该知道的内容和对于“为什么这样做”进行的追问。在北欧和瑞士的这两段学习经历就像打开了一扇门,从门外看到了更强,水准更高的东西。不同的工作方法和思考方式迫使我打磨学习过程中不求甚解、粗糙的东西,将知识结构精细化,以校对自己的坐标,同时也让我获得了另一种回看的深度和角度。就像贾樟柯导演所说“我真正获得故乡,其实是因为离开了它。”

The most important thing of studying abroad is that I have made up the content that I should have known by asking the question of “why do I do this”. So, the experience of studying abroad has opened up a new sight, which I gained from a lot. Different learning methods force me to refine the unintelligible and rough things in the learning process and rethink my own coordinates. It also gave me another way to look back from another perspective. As what director Jia Zhangke said, “I really got my hometown because I left it.”

 

你的学校有哪些教育特点?
What makes the curriculum of your school different from other architecture schools?

AHO带有北欧文化特有的温暖的“精确”。大部分studio对于方案前期并不推崇电脑介入设计工作,而鼓励大量的使用手工模型,那种未经打磨的、粗糙的呈现状态。模型也多以石膏,木头,混凝土等带有天然质感的材料,强调模型本身物质性与真实的重量感。studio设计往往不设限而是侧重激发每个学生自己的设计动机。对于方案也并不追求“精致漂亮”的结果导向,以鼓励个人兴趣作为主更多地培养学生建筑的‘敏感度’。一个被认为是“好”的方案,往往并不是图最好看,模型最精美的,而是最能引起讨论的,最能引发情感参与的,建筑作品具有一种介于蓄意与无意之间的张力。

对比ETH兼具德语区教学严谨清晰的学术态度,不同层次上精确细腻的操作训练,重视图纸的深度以及图像对于场景和氛围的生动表达。包括Kerez这种脱离形式语言转而探讨“空间”类型的教席,也对我个人产生了很大的影响。还有每年来自世界各地的教授和建筑师做Guest,所以不同的studio之间也各有差异性和侧重点,一学期下来高强度的学习和思考密度令人很难有闲暇喘息的时间,但后劲儿大,受益匪浅。

AHO has the “warm precision” vibe from Nordic culture. Most studios do not recommend computer involvement in the early stage of a project, and instead encourage the extensive use of manual models, which are unpolished and rough to present. Models are mostly made of plaster, wood, concrete and other materials with natural texture, emphasizing the materiality and real weight of the model itself. There is no limit setup in the studio but to focus on stimulating each student’s own design motivation. The project does not pursue the “delicate and beautiful” visualization, but encourages individual interests as the orientation to cultivate students’ architectural sensitivity. A “good” project is often not the one with the most beautiful renders or the most exquisite models, but the one that can arouse discussion and emotional participation. Architecture should have a tension between deliberate and unintentional.

There is a clear academic attitude towards teaching in ETH, precise and delicate operation training at different levels, and emphasis on the depth of the drawings and the expression of the place and atmosphere of the image. For example, in Kerez studio that rather investigates the “space” typology than talking about architecture form, which also brings me a great personal impact. There are also professors and architects from all over the world as teaching guests in school every year, so different studios also have their own preferences and focuses. After a semester of intensive learning and thinking, it is difficult to have time to relax, but it will benefit a lot

 

你现在工作公司的特色和有趣的地方?
What are the characteristics and interesting points of your firm?

毕业之后我成立了的自己的工作室,跟不同的建筑师和事务所合作,做自己感兴趣的研究和竞赛项目。

After graduating, I set up my own studio collaborating with different architects and firms to do research and competition projects that interest me.

 

最喜欢的艺术家(绘画音乐电影等广泛范围)是谁?给你创作带来了什么影响?
Who is your favorite artist (in wider range such as art, music, movie)? What is the influence?

作为一个经验有限的建筑师,我不认为建筑作品是绝对的个人创造也不可能像一件艺术作品那样纯粹和自主。所以我的工作方法倾向于在设计中经常进行大量的文献阅读以及案例分析,并将一些历史参考作为学习的起点——这些参考也不限于建筑的作品,可能是一段文字,一幅画、一个雕塑,甚至是电影场景等等。比如我做的一个旅馆设计中,将Matta Clark创作的一系列城市“切割”作品作为参照,让建筑空间的里外对接,打通了屋内与屋外,私人空间和公共空间的藩篱;在Kerez的设计课受到塔可夫斯基的电影《潜行者》的一个电影场景启发而发展的空间动态关系;毕设学校设计中参照Carel Visser的“悬挂”雕塑作品中表达结构的“非稳定性”以及Antonello的《书房中的圣杰罗姆》油画中表达的空间嵌套效果等等。所以另一方面,建筑学与文学、电影、绘画、雕塑等其他艺术种类有着很强的渗透关系以及相似之处,本质上都是对作者世界观以及生活经验的投射,是个人价值的具体体现。莫里斯·庞蒂说“我们要看的不是艺术作品,而是作品所暗含的世界。”同样对于建筑,也拥有双重结构,它们既有基础的功能和实用性,也包括空间与形式、存在与形而上的经验与感受。正是这样的二元性与对话性赋予了建筑作品的密度、意义及暗示性力量。

As an architect with limited experience, I do not believe that architectural works are absolutely personal creations, nor can they be as pure and autonomous as a work of art. Therefore, my working method tends to do a lot of reading and case study often before the design, and take them as the starting point for learning — these references are not only architectural works, it can be a paragraph of text, a painting, a sculpture, or even a movie scene, etc. For example, in the design of a Hostel, I used a series of urban “cutting” works created by Matta Clark as a reference to connect the interior and exterior of the architectural space, breaking down the barriers between inside and outside, private space and public space. In Kerez studio, spatial dynamics were developed inspired by a movie scene from Tarkovsky’s film Stalker. The diploma project of the Schoolhouse refers to the “instability” of the structure expressed in the “hanging” sculpture by Carel Visser and the space nesting effect expressed in the oil painting “Saint Jerome in the Study” by Antonello. Therefore, architecture, literature, film, painting, sculpture and any other types of subject have a strong penetration relationship and similarities. It is essentially a projection of the author’s world outlook and experience, is a concrete embodiment of personal value. Maurice Merleau-Ponty said, “We are not looking at a work of art, but at the world it implies.” Similarly for architecture, there are dual structures, which have both basic functions and practicality, as well as space and form, existence and metaphysical experience and feeling. It is this duality and dialogue that give architectural works the density, meaning and suggestive power.

▼Matta Clark的城市“切割”(左),Andrei Tarkovsky《潜行者》电影场景(右)
Gordon Matta-Clark. Splitting, 1974 (left) ;<Stalker>, Andrei Tarkovsky, 1979 Film (right)

▼Carel Visser的“悬挂”雕塑作品(左);Antonello的《书房中的圣杰罗姆》(右)
Carel Visser, Reinforced concrete sculpture , Hague, 1966 (left) ;Antonello da Messina, Saint Jerome in His Study, 1475 (right)

 

觉得自己的作品集有哪些迷人的特质?
What fascinates viewers the most in your portfolio in your opinion?

一种平衡感和就事论事的态度吧。回过头看我做过的这些项目,也随着个人兴趣的转变进行着迭代。从最开始通过最基本的建筑学语言去推敲,来表达建筑的自主和抽象,到最近项目中试着更加关联环境,在场地文脉和尝试创造建筑自治之间寻找平衡。但对于建筑物质性和复杂性的讨论,对于建筑最真实状态的追求是我始终关注的核心话题。

I think my works have a sense of balance and a matter-of-fact attitude. Looking back at the projects I have done, my interests are changing dynamically. From the very beginning, the most basic architectural elements were used to express the autonomy and abstraction of architecture, to the recent project to try to be more related to the environment, to find a balance between context and attempting to create architectural autonomy. However, the discussion on the materiality and complexity of architecture are the core topics that I always pay attention to.

 

什么时候开始看谷德网的?欢迎你提出建议哦,谢谢。
When did you start to follow gooood? Any suggestions?

大概从2012年吧,希望谷德保持高质量的内容分享和创作,也希望谷德越办越好。

Probably from 2012, I hope you can maintain high-quality content sharing and creating. Wish gooood all the best in the future.

 

 

 

 

 

W O R K

 

 

 

01.

环屋
Ring-House
Fall 2017, AHO
Tutor: Neven Mikac Fuchs, Kersten Geers

这个设计的题目是一个度假屋,基地位于西班牙南部的Matarraña山区,学期的第四周“西葡建筑考察”顺便去看了场地,从巴塞罗出发驱车大概2小时到达,整个山区坐落在一片原始森林中。作为课程设置的一部分,Kersten Geers要求我们学期开始的两周找到感兴趣的平面和剖面,然后进行平面分析与剖面空间的梳理,接着从reference里面提取符号进行解构、异化和重组。

The design topic is a holiday house, the base is located in the Matarrana mountains in southern Spain, the fourth week of the semester Spanish and Portuguese architecture study trip by the way to see the site, from Barcelona to drive about 2 hours, the whole mountain is located in a virgin forest. As part of the curriculum, Kersten Geers asked us to find planes and sections of interest in the first two weeks of the semester, then conduct plane analysis and section space combing, and then extract symbols from reference for deconstruction, alienation and reorganization.

这里有两个方案作为我的reference,一个是Palladio的圆厅别墅,另一个是一处未建成的墓地Capron Cemetery,一个是典型的文艺复兴式平面——中心对称,完型几何嵌套,回应文脉同时建筑自治。另一个是从文艺复兴式的古典美学符号进行提炼,圆厅异化成更大尺度的院子其中包含矩形的附属功能空间,带来更强的碰撞感,纪念性和日常性的共存,这种空间的双重性(dual phenomenon)也是我兴趣点的开始。

回到场地,我选择了一块平坦的高原,俯瞰着周围的森林和山区的景观。同时又远离城市,单一的景色没有可任何参照的对象和场所,文脉(context)成为了这个地方所展现的自然本性。建筑的特异性(specific)和自主性(autonomy)应该被强调,通过房子本身的趣味性对这种单一的山区景观做出回应成为了这个项目最初的思考方向。

I choose two plans as my reference. One is Palladio’s Villa Rotonda, the other is an unbuilt Capron Cemetery—-one is a typical Renaissance plan — central symmetry, gestational geometry embedded, in response to the context and architectural autonomy at the same time, the other is refined from the classical aesthetic symbols of the Renaissance. Villa Rotonda is dissimilated into a larger scale courtyard, which contains rectangular auxiliary functional Spaces, bringing a stronger sense of collision and coexistence of memorial and daily characteristics. The dual phenomenon of space is also the beginning of my interest.

The site is chosen on a flat plateau overlooking the surrounding landscape of forests and mountains, it is far away from the city. A single landscape has no object or place to refer to. Context has become the natural nature of this place. The specificity and autonomy of the building should be emphasized. Responding to the single landscape through the interestingness of the house itself became the initial thinking direction of the project.

从自然环境作为切入点,通过对不同空间处理的方式作出回应。圆形的外廊形成边界并‘框’出一个院子;地面不做任何人工修饰与铺设,没有人工的痕迹,大的围合空间包容土地,用一种大地艺术的方式回应一个没有尽头的平面,人们不能主宰这个‘空间’,只能成为其中一部分;起居室及厨房是开放的,面对‘院子’的一面不设任何封闭的墙和窗,整个空间作为院子的延伸,视野被限定在朝向室外大空间,使日常与非日常完全地对立起来。当两种尺度相差很大的空间碰撞到一起,需要一种从一种状态到另一种状态的改变,在相交的地方“小空间”被外部“大空间”干预,衔接的边界转化为住宅的内部空间,完成从竖向的墙体到水平向地面的过渡。

The natural environment was used as a starting point to respond to different ways of dealing with the space. The circular outer gallery forms a boundary and ‘occupies’ a courtyard; The ground does not make any artificial decoration and laying, and there is no artificial trace. The large enclosed space contains the land, and responds to an endless plane in a way of earth art. You can’t dominate this’ space ‘, you can only be a part of it. The living room and kitchen are open, with no closed walls or Windows facing the ‘yard’, and the whole space serves as an extension of the yard; The field of view is limited to the large outdoor space, making daily and non-daily completely opposite. When two vastly different scales of space collide, it requires a change from one state to another. At the intersection the “small space” is interfered with by the external “big space”. The connecting boundary is transformed into the interior space of the house, completing the transition from vertical walls to horizontal floors.

在房子内部,房间周围墙壁的突然变化完成了从结构性到围合性的转变,给人的印象是这个房间从属某个更大的空间。地下空间从功能上相对独立,唯一的一根柱子设置在台阶的入口处,对此空间做出结构性的提示。这几种不同尺度和类型的空间既表达某种“个体意识”又通过高度的咬合暗示整体之间的不可分割性。空间的状态也从开放-半开放-封闭,构成了空间延续的一种间歇。

关于方案,我希望它也是抽象与具象结合的产物,它一部分属于自然——但是却包含了更真实具体的情感;一部分属于建筑——但比任何空间更接近自然本质。同时我也在思考这样一个问题:当建筑师处于一种相对理想不受城市和文化文脉束缚的语境中,究竟是什么使我们能够在一特殊地点赋予一栋建筑以意义?弱文脉驱使我转向更具本质和精确的建筑练习,但也同时迫使我深入思考在远离我们的熟知的文脉语境上创造更加自主的建筑,并主动成为一种文脉。

Inside the house, the sudden change of walls around the room completes the transition from structure to enclosure, giving the impression that the room is subordinate to some larger space. The underground space is functionally independent. The only column is set at the entrance of the steps to give structural hints to the space. These different scales and types of space not only express a certain “individual consciousness” but also imply the indivisibility of the whole through the high degree of occlusion. The state of space is also from open – semi-open – closed, which constitutes a kind of intermission of space continuation.

Going back to this project, I hope it is also the product of the combination of abstraction and concreteness. The functional space is concrete, while the “courtyard” is abstract. It is part of nature, but it contains more real and concrete emotions. Part of it is architecture — but closer to nature than any space. At the same time, I am also thinking about this question: when architects are in a relatively ideal context free from the constraints of city and cultural context, what on earth enables us to give meaning to a building in a particular place? The weak context drives me to more essential and precise architectural practice, but it also forces me to think deeply about creating meaningful architecture far away from our familiar context, and to actively become a context.

 

 

 

 

02.

空间集
Space Anthology
Spring 2018, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Tutor: Christian Kerez

这个学期的课程设置跟之前接触过设计课有很大不同,“任务书”仅仅是几段文字,一个学期两个topic,在不停的尝试过程中更像是对于“空间提炼”的一次练习。展开来说,首先,Kerez通过抽象的方式描述特定的建筑空间原型(spatial prototype):仅使用文字,摒弃任何图像或参考,从理论上理解和思考空间的本质(这里的空间并不是特指某一个空间,而是把很多事件串起来的抽象的空间集合概念)。抽象的定义也是为了克服任何个人对审美品味的决策以及独立于个人情感或品味表达,例如形状或内部空间的大小和比例等,当然也并不回避哲学、电影、文学等其他学科的辅助理解。每名学生选两个空间原型(prototype)作为接下来贯穿整个学期的探讨对象,并用该空间类型分别设计一个私人度假屋。在这里文脉、场地,功能变得次要,建筑的自主性被推向前台,所以这次设计课更像是一个“命题作文”,给予“主旨”自己搭建框架,填充内容。

在方案初期, 手工模型以不带任何预判的方式介入,然后制作一系列对于特定空间的研究模型,在这个过程种不断的推敲和试错,减少无关元素的意义,以增强某种空间关系的唯一性。最终模型被打磨的足够诚实、直接。Kerez一直强调并要求我们使用大比例的模型和模型照片展示方案,从方案的最初阶段到每一步深化都要辅佐打印两张A0图幅大小的模型照片(以人的实际尺度丈量和感知空间)。从这个意义上说,模型既是思想又是对象,既是抽象的又是具体的。它允许人们通过简化来理解复杂的空间现象,他们以间接的方式再现现实,提供了以一种不同的形式来考虑一个想法的可能性,简单的概念、建筑被简化成一个元素,创造坚固的咬合关系,反而使建筑变的复杂多样。

First of all, Kerez describe specific architectural space by abstracting spatial prototype : only with words, deliberately without any images or references, and purely by the effort of thinking to trigger projects – working on the essence of architectural space itself. (the space here is not referring to a certain space, but a collection of abstract concepts). The definition of abstraction is also intended to overcome any individual decision about aesthetic taste and independent emotions, such as shape or size and proportion of internal space. Of course, it does not avoid the auxiliary understanding of philosophy, film, literature and other disciplines. Each student chooses two space prototypes as the objects to be discussed throughout the whole semester, and designs a private house with these space types respectively. Here, the context, site and function become secondary, and the autonomy of architecture is pushed to the foreground. Therefore, this design class is more like a “propositional composition”, giving the “theme” to build the framework and fill in the content. Throwing away the minutiae makes the design more essential and precise training.

At the beginning of the project, the manual model is introduced without any prejudgment, and then a series of research models for a specific space is made, during which the meaning of irrelevant elements is constantly tried and claimed, to enhance the more important things and to allow for a higher complexity. The final model is meant to be honest and direct enough. Kerez has always stressed and required us to use large scale models and model photos to present the scheme, from the initial stage of the scheme to each further step, assisted by printing two A0 size model photos — measuring and perceiving the space on a human scale. In this sense, models are both ideas and objects, both abstract and concrete, and they allow people to understand complex spatial phenomena through simplification. This is why conceptual models are a special way of working — they represent reality in an indirect way, offering the possibility of thinking about an idea in a different form. Simple concepts, buildings are reduced to a single element, creating strong interdependencies that make the architecture complex and diverse.

 

第一个题目——分隔的空间(Divided Space)

描述中这样写道:“不是每个墙都分割一个空间。实际上,大部分的墙壁都合在一起,无意让空间体验相互交流。如果一个房间可以清晰而独特地作为一个空间体验,那么墙只能分隔房间。除了清晰的几何或感官的边界之外,建筑也可以用于强调超出其划分的空间语境尽管这个空间被分割,但也可以作为一个单一的整体空间(holistic space)。分隔空间的表达与分隔墙之间的关系是至关重要的。一个难以整体感知的弱空间,仍然可以被看作是一个分隔空间,以弱的隔墙形式存在——玻璃或金属网。反之,只要存在可通过的开口,或者甚至视线上的沟通,即使使用坚固的封闭墙体也不算做分隔空间。”

成果要求两个大比例模型,两张A0的模型照片以及相关的参考图片或者任何能辅助表达设计意图的图纸。回到方案,我用了大概四周时间做了两个方向:第一个方案由竖向的墙和横向的楼板完成对整体空间的分隔。竖向的墙为两层通高,依次将首层平面分隔成起居室、餐厅,二层分隔成若开卧室。楼梯作为连接视线和空间的载体;楼板从中间被楼梯隔开变成强化第二层平面被分隔的“缝”,视线上通过墙洞产生交流,空间上被分离,墙体的独立性及竖向分割属性再次被强调。第二个方案中,倾斜的墙成为唯一被强调的分隔体。墙从中间向卧室方向倾斜,将更多空间留给起居室(右侧)。左侧卧室空间被若干道墙二次分隔 每两个房间共享通向起居室的走廊;通过天窗下来的光强化分隔墙的存在,双面坡屋面为被分隔空间提供构图上的平衡,同时强化左右两个空间的连续性。

Not every wall is divided a space. Actually, most of the walls fit together. Building incessantly, without any intentions to allow a spatial experience, to each other. Several concepts of anthropology of space would have to be used in a weakened form to spatially describe these houses. A wall can only divide a room if it can be experienced clearly and uniquely as a single space. In addition to a clear, geometrically or sensually clear boundary, the height development or the construction can serve to emphasize a spatial context beyond its division. Despite the division, this space can be experienced as a single coherent space. Despite multiple divisions, this space is still perceived as a holistic space. The relationship between the expression of the divided space and the separating wall is crucial. A weak space, which can hardly be perceived holistically, can still be perceived as a divided space in a similarly weak form of the dividing wall, be it made of glass or of wire mesh, and vice versa Its design has a distinctive, unique appearance, even through a solid closed wall can be experienced as a shared space, as long as even a single opening allows the passage or even the view from one part of the room in the other. Two rooms that are equally juxtaposed do not yet represent a shared space.

The Phase 1 outcome requires two large scale models, two A0 model photos and associated reference pictures or any drawings. I spent about four weeks doing two directions: The first concept is to separate the overall space by vertical walls and horizontal floors. The vertical wall is two-storey high, which in turn divides the first floor into the living room and dining room, and the second floor into the Rakhine bedroom. Stairs serve as a carrier connecting the line of sight and space; the floor is separated from the middle by the stairs and becomes a “gap” that strengthens the second-level plane separation. The line of sight communicates through the wall hole, the space is separated, and the wall is independent and vertical. The attribute of division is emphasized again. Although this space is divided horizontally and vertically, it can still be perceived as a single overall space.
In the second project, the inclined wall becomes the only partition. The wall is inclined from the middle to the direction of the bedroom. More space is reserved for the living room (on the right). The bedroom space on the left is divided twice by several walls, and each two rooms share the corridor leading to the living room; The light from the skylight enhances the materiality of the partition wall, while the double-sided sloping roof provides a balance of composition for the space separated, while strengthening the continuity of the Spaces.

 

第二个题目——喻象空间(Figurative space)

“这个空间主要是由独特简洁的几何形状所决定。这种形状逐渐发生改变并‘包裹(wrapping)’整个空间。 这个被包裹的空间是不间断的,不被任何其他因素所破坏。空间外围(envelope)的是决定这个空间的唯一建筑元素。它不强调质量和深度,可能仅仅是一个非常薄的‘表面’,但开口部分应该成为空间形式的一部分。” 值得注意的是,这里的Figurative的词根是figure,很容易联想到是从某一个物体(figure)异化而成,但恰恰相反的是并不特指或者说没有具体的参照对象,从普遍意义上对“具象物”的再“抽象”。就好比说身上穿着的衣服,衣服刚刚好落在了你的身体上,褶皱随着运动发生改变,这件衣服和裸露的皮肤之间就形成了Figurative space,也可以理解成存在于“表象”和“实体”之间的空间。

最终方案的目的在于创造“洞穴式的空间”。200mm的薄壳混凝土外壳包裹一个巨大的单一空间,并作为唯一空间边界(envelope)的决定因素。在这个房间,没有柱子和墙,地面和屋面的边界融化交织在一起。 地面随着屋面的变化上下起伏,留下具有导向性的平行空间。空间的不稳定性产生移动,移动导致感知和体验不断发生变化,从宽到窄,明到暗,清晰到模糊,流动到凝固,一系列的体验让空间充满张力。单个图像片段像一系列描述同等视角的空间切片一样难以捕捉空间的序列。起居室和厨房均在这个大空间中开放性存在,卧室和浴室藏在倾斜地面的下方,从顶部进入。 隐藏的私密空间很难从外部察觉,保证单一空间的完整性。两个大的顶部开口一个位于起居室上方,一个作为通向卧室的入口。由于形式的不确定性,模型的制作变得尤为重要。这个方案第一次从手工模型(石膏)过渡到图纸再到3D建模,从不确定到确定的过程,模型的制作成为了推动设计的重要手段,图像和技术图纸成为了结果。

▼石膏研究模型,Study model

This space is mainly due to the conciseness and uniqueness of its geometric shape determined. This shape is gradually changing but significantly over the entire extent of the building. Its wrapping remains an uninterrupted, widely ramified surface, without this form being compromised by any other element. Accordingly, the space envelope is the only architectural element that determines this space. It does not matter whether it is hanging down from a ceiling, whether it is infinitely heavy and massive, or just a very thin skin. The openings of this room should form part of the space figure. the root of Figurative here is figure, which is easily associated with the alienation from an object (figure). On the contrary, it does not specifically or have no specific reference object, and it is the “abstract” of the “Figurative” in general. For example, like a dress covering your body, the folds change with movement. The dress and the bare skin form a Figurative space, which can also be understood as the space between “appearance” and “substance”.

The inspiration for the project came from the “cave-like space”. A 200mm thin concrete shell wraps a large single space and acts as the sole determinant of the envelope. In this space, without columns and walls, the boundary between ground and roof melts and interweaves. The ground rises and falls as the roof changes, leaving a guiding parallel space. The instability of space leads to movement, which leads to constant changes in perception and experience, from wide to narrow, from light to dark, from clear to fuzzy, from flow to solidification. A series of experiences fill the space with tension. A single fragment is as difficult to capture a sequence of Spaces as a series of snapshots describing the experience of a space from the same perspective. The living room and kitchen are open Spaces in this large space, while the bedroom and bathroom are hidden beneath the sloping floor and accessed from the top. The hidden private space is difficult to perceive and detect from the large space, maintaining the integrity of a single space. Two large top openings, one above the living room and one that serves as an entrance to the bedroom. Due to the uncertainty of the form, the production of the model becomes particularly important. This solution is also the first time to transition from model to drawing to 3D modelling, from uncertainty to certainty. So manual model has become a means of design, and images and technical drawings have become the outcome.

 

 

 

 

03.

青年旅馆——“合作的乐趣”
Collective Hostel—“ A Pleasure of Collaboration”
Fall 2018, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Tutor: Cecilia Puga

第三个方案来自于ETH的客座教授Cecilia Puga 设计课,题目是《集体生活—合作的乐趣》。集合住宅、难民营或者临时的旅馆所等任何临时或永久的社会性住宅将成为这学期关注的主题。我选择的题目是一个青年旅馆,方案从逻辑关系(Relational system),氛围(Atmosphere)和材料(Materiality)阐明如何从空间和物质的交换方式来塑造和促进“合作的乐趣”,以及关注它与个人感情和特定空间记忆的关系。

The project is about “Collective Living—The pleasure of Cooperation”. Any temporary and or permanent social housing such as collective housing, refugee camps or temporary hotels can be the topic. The theme I chose was a youth hostel, and the scheme explained how the “pleasure of cooperation” could be shaped and promoted from the Relational system, Atmosphere and Materiality in terms of the exchange of space and matter, as well as its relationship to personal feelings and specific spatial memories.

方案的初期我们以小组的形式对人的行进和互动方式进行讨论,并通过将不同reference的平面元素进行“拼贴”,并以这个拼贴平面为基础找到与之相关的图像。在着手方案设计之前,我想通过学习两个案例找到如何在不同空间中获得不同维度的视觉体验。在Adolf Loos的Muller House中, 充分应用了他倡导的 “体积规划(Raumplan)”,即设计从三维的空间出发,集群的空间被放置在不同的水平层,每个房间设置不同的具体高度。空间序列通过楼梯连结创造出一种全新的建筑体验。这些空间的方向、高度和宽度不断变化,视线上的看与被看的控制和随之产生的心理暗示,构成了人置身于其中所能感受到的丰富的体验。同时参照 Matta Clark在1975年做的一系列”切割(splitting)“的装置艺术实验, 直接进入城市建筑中,对建筑空间进行的“破坏”,切断,钻洞,让建筑空间的里外对接,打通了屋内与屋外,私人空间和公共空间的藩篱,为缝隙不被注意的废弃空间寻找价值。

In the first few weeks, we discussed the way people move and interact with each other in a group, and “collage” the plane elements of different references, and found the related images based on the collage plane. Before starting to design, I want to find out how to get different dimensions of visual experience in different Spaces by studying two cases. In the Muller House of Adolf Loos, the “Raumplan” advocated was fully applied. The house started from the three-dimensional space, with the space of clusters placed on different horizontal levels and each room set at different specific heights. The sequence of Spaces is linked by stairs to create a new architectural experience. The direction, height and width of these Spaces are constantly changing. The control of seeing and being seen on the line of sight and the consequent perception constitute the rich experience you can feel inside. Matta Clark in 1975 to do a series of “cutting (splitting)” installation experiment, direct access to urban construction, the “destruction” of architectural space, cut, drill holes to connect the interior and exterior space, opening up the interior and out of the house, the barrier between private space and public space seeks value for the void space not being noticed.

回到方案,我希望把紧凑的生活方式‘打包’于简单基本的几何体中。在限定的周界内,一系列重复但可变的片段产生多方向和非分层空间,构成三维的“毯式建筑”。平面和剖面采用相似的逻辑,用连续的空间打破“层和剖”的概念,立面暗示内部空间。每个空间都相对独立并与另一个空间有明确的镶嵌错位关系。从空间的形状和大小,开放性和私密性,空间的变化开始,空间序列沿着两组行进流线展开,一组在外侧由连续的公共楼梯,连接每层开放的生活单元。另一组在内部,顺着空间序列由外向内的延伸,空间的公共性和开放性逐渐减弱而私密性逐渐增强。或者说,沿着内部楼梯在若干方向的盘旋,空间的公共性被渐渐滤出而私密性则逐步渗入。上下错开层高差异创造了一定的舞台效应,引得人们看向自己所在以外的空间,从而强化了视线的相互作用。结构上,由垂直和水平向的墙和楼板构成,它们在结构和材料上保持一致,不做区分。混凝土墙相互错开,彼此悬挂,形成稳定的承重结构。

Back to the project, I want to put things in a simple basic cube shape. The plane and section adopt the same logic, breaking the concept of “layer and section” with continuous space, and the facade implies expressing space. Each space is relatively independent and has an obvious substitution dislocation relationship with another space. Starting from the shape and size of the space, the openness and privacy, the change of materialized space, the space sequence is inserted into the displacement travel streamline to expand, and the groups are connected by continuous public stairs on the side to connect the open living units on each floor. Following the extension of the spatial sequence from the outside to the inside, the publicity and openness of the space gradually declined while the privacy gradually increases. In other words, circling in several directions along the internal staircase, the publicity of the space is gradually filtered out while the privacy is gradually infiltrated. The stagger height difference creates a certain stage effect, attracting people to look out of their own space, thus strengthening the interaction of the sight. Structurally, it consists of vertical and horizontal walls and floor slabs that are consistent in structure and material without distinction. Concrete walls stagger and hang from each other to form a stable load-bearing structure.

 

 

 

 

04.

奥斯陆的一所学校
A Schoolhouse in Oslo
Fall 2019 Diploma, AHO Oslo, Norway
Tutor: Beate Hølmebakk

硕士毕业设计我以Beate教授的<城市中的公共建筑>为选题,经过前半个学期的对不同场地和建筑类型的调研,最终在城市中心位置,在一个被周边社区环绕的室外运动场上,选择设计一所中小学校。与前三个设计对于更多讨论建筑本体,弱文脉不同的是,方案的场地处密集的城市区域,设计条件受限,城市尺度上的建筑关系更为复杂——既要满足学校与城市的关系,服务于社区,又要考虑如何创造有趣的空间以及结构类型。所以学生阶段的最后一个方案,我更希望通过设计接近真实。

My diploma followed on Professor Beate’s “Public Buildings in the City” as the topic. After the first half of the semester, I investigated different potential typologies. In the end, I chose the design in an outdoor sports field surrounded by communities in the center of the city -A primary and secondary school. Different from the previous two designs for more discussion on the architectural ontology and less context, the site is located in a dense urban community, the design conditions are limited, and the architectural relationship on the urban scale is more complex: both must meet the relationship between the school and the city requires, consideration of how to create unique spaces and structural types while realizing actual use needs. Therefore, I hope the last project of the student stage to be able to build up a bridge with reality.

项目场地位于奥斯陆人口稠密的BervensLøkke地区,场地轮廓为一个长宽大小为45m×30m的室外运动场,地下建有车库和发电站。运动场对面是一片绿地公园,四周为居住组团。 地段由南向北逐渐抬高,提供了跟随地形进行布局功能的可能。因为学校选择在传统的奥斯陆历史街区,我希望以尽可能小的动作来协调跟周边建筑的关系,建筑外轮廓即为运动场的边界,水平方向顺着街道的方向延续城市的肌理,垂直高度跟旁边住宅基本保持一致(约24m),并在北侧主入口保留部分室外场地作为建筑和自然环境的过渡区,与临近的高中和幼儿园一起形成一个教育组团。

The site is chosen in the dense neighborhood Bervens Løkke in Oslo. There is a playground with the size of 45m×30m. A garage and power station were built underneath. Due to the height difference of area, it rises up from right to the left side. That gives a opportunity to follow the terrain to layout functions. Because the school chooses to be in the traditional Oslo historical district, I hope to coordinate the relationship with the surrounding buildings with as little action as possible. The envelope of the building is the boundary of the sports field, the horizontal direction continues the urban texture, and the vertical height is consistent with the neighboring houses (24m), and reserve part of the outdoor site at the main entrance on the north side as a transition between the building and the natural environment. The new schoolhouse stands out and forms a new urban unit in combination with the neighbor school and kindergartens.

建筑总共5层13间教室,从功能上主要分成三部分:第一个是室外活动区域,包括首层和屋顶室外运动场;二是日常教学部分,楼层一到三;三是放学后以及对社区开放的半公共室内活动场,包括地面层和地下一层平面。由于建筑两侧的高差,两个不同的入口分别设置在不同楼层相反的方向,同时保证地下空间均有部分直接采光。

It was functionally divided into three zones: First one is outside area for the breaking time on the first floor and roof; Second is for daily school, from the first level to the third, basically for learning and teaching; The third is before and after-school care facilities, including common areas and sports hall. Due to the height difference, two entrances are placed in the opposite direction and different level of the building.

从左侧地坪层入口直接进入课后活动区,在这里可以通过楼梯到首层或者沿着两个大的开放式楼梯前往两层通高的体育馆和地下的衣帽间。首层更多用于公共以及行政空间,包括图书馆和礼堂。然后沿着第二个楼梯继续向上通往教室区域。在这里我希望楼梯成为一个不间断、连续的路径,串联不同楼层的开口,从而加强空间的整体统一性。从二层到顶层的教学区typology采用两个教室加上两个可以合并的小组室,以及一个公共过渡前室一起,构成一个教学单元的组团原则。

每个教学单元尽可能占据最好的采光立面,中间公共活动和交通区域。由于平面的尺度进深关系(30mx33米),为了给中心区域提供充足的自然光,故布置两个开放式楼梯,顶部开有玻璃天窗,同时透过教室隔墙上方的透明玻璃允许光线从各个方向穿过教室进入中庭,从而满足中心公共区域的采光需求。

The first access leads to the after-school zone directly. A staircase leads up to the first floor, and two big open staircase leads down to the sports hall and the cloakrooms at the basement level. The main access to the school is from the open area used by the children at break-times. Here the first floor basically more for more common use, admin, health room, auditorium and library. Stair Section: And you go up through a second staircase following the direction of walking from the first one. They are designed as a path that follows an uninterrupted, continuous route through several storeys, which are more like an extension of openings in the floors. Two classrooms plus two group rooms, together with a common area, form one teaching unit.

Because of the depth of the building which is 30mx33m, in order to provide adequate lighting for the central areas. Two stairs are open with a glass roof on top. The lightweight, non-loadbearing walls are glazed under the ceiling. The lightweight, non-loadbearing walls are glazed under the ceiling. This transparency allows light to pass through the classroom into the atrium from four directions. In the same time each floor also appears as a single horizontal and interconnected space. The sense of continuity emphasizes the unity of the whole space.

文艺复兴时期Antonello的一副著名油画《书房中的圣杰罗米》,刻画了通过摆设“家具般的”场所,创造一种空间中的嵌套效果。同时,与荷兰建筑师Aldo van Eyck设计的阿姆斯特丹孤儿院和Herman Hertzberger的阿波罗学校有异曲同工之妙——空间关系存在“家具式”空间的品质。

所以,一方面我希望能学习环境的地方能够在“掩蔽物”和“视野向外”之间找到平衡。另一方面,将建筑整体分成具有容纳能力的更小的单元。 “家具”摆放在平面中,清晰地表达它们与周围的空间关系, 它们使空间同时变得“大”和“小”——变小是因为每个单元都与人的尺度息息相关,大的空间被切分成小的单元;变大是因为从半围合缩小的场所始终能察觉被更大的空间所涵盖,是这个建筑整体空间的一部分。从这个意义上说,这些“场所”能够提供受保护半私密空间,并为建筑物的每个单独元素分配了特定的角色,如墙壁,地板和柱子等。但同时也能感到与其他区域是彼此的一部分——在专注于你正在做的事情和成为整体的一部分之间取得某种平衡,适当的“阈”(空间区隔)也可以使走廊区域和教室之间有一个平滑的转换,成为“正式”与“非正式”活动的间歇。

A famous painting by Antonello in the Renaissance, depicts the creation of a nesting effect in the space by furnishing the place ” furniture like “. I also find the relationship with van Eyck and Hertzberger exists in the quality of the “furniture like” spaces which relate to the scale of a child.

Places for learning situations are able to strike the right balance between ‘cover’ and views out. Fragment the whole into smaller units which have a containing capacity. Furnitures are put in space, articulate the space around them. They make the space smaller and larger at the same time. Smaller because each unit is closely related to the scale of person, and the large space is divided into smaller units; Larger because the small fragmental space triggers the clear idea of belonging to a larger space, giving the impression that the you are only in a section of this holistic space. In this sense that you are protected within the intimacy of the place, but also feel part of each other. It’s a balance between concentration on what you are doing and being part of the whole. The appropriate threshold can give a smooth transition between corridor area and classroom.

学校内部的建筑空间结构与承重结构一致,主要由柱子、清水混凝土墙和楼板组成的承重系统。外墙是由预制的混凝土竖向肋条构成的,这些肋将表面垂直分开,以回应周边建筑的垂直立面布局。与采用板柱原理的结构(多米诺体系)相比,并没有利用结构布置在房间内部而产生相对自由独立的立面,相反我希望立面作为张拉杆件是整体结构的一部分,让立面和内部结构彼此紧密相联,以此表达建筑元素和结构元素的咬合感和高度相关性。

关于在城市中建立学校,既要面向城市的需求,又要保持一定建筑自治——首先考虑学习和娱乐的特点如何在满足学校与城市的关系,空间的布置以及最终选择结构和材料的同时,可以满足计划需要和使用的要求,尽可能的创造更多元化学习空间供使用者学习。“教学”作为学校设计中最核心的内容,跟国内将课外“兴趣小组”剥离出学校之外相比,北欧的校园更鼓励互动、自主,为其课外活动提供对应的空间,并且每种活动都有自己的界限和要求(木工、纺织等),通过创造教室外面的学习空间,让学习也成为一件有趣的事情。这也是相对独立的“教学组团”中教室和活动室以及之间的区隔得以成立的前提。

在这个项目中,我希望学校作为街区里的公共建筑的一部分呈现一种对城市开放的姿态,故采用了大面积的开窗以及在保留原有运动场的基础上增加了屋顶室外活动空间。一方面由于北欧地理位置和气候,尤其到了冬天,自然光变得十分珍贵,所有的建筑必须向外争取极其有限的光——立面、天窗,甚至从立面引导出来的漫射光;另一方面,在大量的建筑面积需求与有限的用地情况下,整体建筑往垂直形态探索,为了满足必要的室外活动的需求,将部分风雨操场置于屋顶作为建筑的“第五立面”。所以我在开放与集中,正式与非正式,学习和娱乐的矛盾关系中寻求一种平衡,在适度的建筑背景下充分利用精心布置的空间,以达到适应学校生活的目的。

The spatial structure of the school building is almost entirely congruent with the load-bearing structure, with which it forms an inextricable unit. The organisation of the ground plan into cellular dividers is the architectural consequence of this fusion.The system is based on a composite bearing structure of the walls and floors, whereby the floors act not only as slabs but also as part of the load-bearing wall. The loadbearing structure is a system of columns and slabs braced with additional fair-face concrete walls to resist horizontal forces. The rational facade layout with its vertical strips indicate a corresponding arrangement of the loadbearing walls and columns behind. The expression of the facade is made by the precast concrete ribs which divide the surfaces vertically to refer the verticality of the surroundings. In comparison with existing structures that employ the column-and-slab principle (e.g. Le Corbusier’s Dom-Ino principle), I exploited neither the independent arrangement of the facade, nor the freedom in the internal layout that would be possible. Instead, this system can be regarded as a neutral framework for the structure of the facade. The façade and the internal structure are strongly related to each other.

Regarding the establishment of a school in a city, it must not only meet the needs of the city, but also maintain the autonomy of the building itself. Firstly, I considered how the characteristics of learning and entertainment can meet the relationship between the school and the city, the layout of the space, and the final choice of structure and materials. At the same time, it can meet the requirements of the plan and use. “Teaching” is the core content of school design. Compared with the domestic stripping of extracurricular “interest groups” from the school, Nordic schools are more encouraging interaction and autonomy, and provide space for extracurricular activities, and each activity has own requirements and boundaries (woodworking, textiles, etc.). This is also the premise for the establishment of classrooms and activity rooms in a relatively independent “teaching group”.

In this project, I hope that the school will be open to the city as a part of the public building in the block. Therefore, a large area of windows is adopted and the outdoor activity space on the roof is added on the basis of retaining the original sports field. On the one hand, due to the geographic location and climate of Northern Europe, especially in winter, natural light becomes very precious, and all buildings must strive for extremely limited light outwards-facade windows, skylights and diffuse light guided from the facade; on the other hand, because it is in the dense neighborhood these requirements pose a challenging situation. A school must accommodate spaces for a wide range of activities, both planned and unpredicted, each with their own requirements and thresholds. The project explores the relationship between the exposed and the protected, open and focused, the classroom and the playground, in order to make the most of the carefully arranged spaces within a modest architectural background for the life of the school.

 

 

 

 

05.

品酒室(国际竞赛—荣誉奖)
The Monte d’Oiro Wine Tasting Room
International Architecture Competition, Portugal, 2020 Fall
Honorable Award
Collaborator: Jiangyan Luo

最后一个方案是毕业之后作为独立建筑师参与的一个国际竞赛,作为入围的方案之一,最终获得了荣誉奖。项目位于葡萄牙里斯本葡萄酒产区的Quinta Do Monte D’Oiro,业主是这个葡萄酒庄园创始人的后代,他们希望在葡萄园和酿酒厂之间设计一个可以同时容纳30人,建筑面积约为90平方米的品酒室,包括配套的卫生间储藏间等,作为聚会和招待客人的永久性建筑。

For this competition, participants are tasked with creating an inviting and innovative tasting room for guests to enjoy both the wine and the views of the vineyard. The project is located in the Quinta Do Monte D’Oiro, Lisbon Wine Region of Portugal. The net area is approximately 58 square meters. Our design starts with defining one large space, and other functions revolve around it. It explores how to define a small-scale space to be an experience of large and wide by the architectural elements, and how to describe the connection of the parts of a room to its holistic effect.

我们的出发点从定义一个“主要空间”即品酒室开始,然后围绕它布置其他“次要空间”。尝试如何通过建筑元素将小而有限的空间高效地利用,从而产生更大的空间体验,以及如何描述房间各部分与其整体效果的联系。L形的主墙将主要空间与次要服务空间隔开——内侧通向地下酒窖,外侧为品酒室。游客从右侧穿过一个黑暗的走廊进入品酒室,穿过房间直至建筑物的西南端,然后到达外部平台。结构形式采用葡萄牙最常见的斜屋顶。它由混凝土墙和天然木梁支撑,结构上异化了梁和柱的杆件区分,柱子斜撑作为一种异质介入其中主,并且木质构件和天花板被涂成黑色(并涂了几层油和酒精,再加上油漆)。它使内部空间看起来更加外向,并与整个墙壁的落地大玻璃窗结合在一起,使整个空间的焦点被外部环境吸引。斜坡上连续的混凝土墙沿着地形建造了一条通往葡萄园的小路。墙壁,柱子和横梁没有围成一个封闭的空间,而是伴随着从一个空间到另一个空间的流动,从而定义了融入景观的轨迹。通过扩大感知来重新定义每个建筑元素的价值,让人一步步沉浸在葡萄园的环境中,品味景观的细微差别和季节的流逝。

An L-shaped main wall separates outside from inside, main from secondary—the inside leads to the underground wine cellar, and the outside is the main tasting room. People enter the tasting room from the northeast through a dark corridor, walk through the room until the end of the building on southwest and go out to the exterior platform. The walls, pillars and beams do not enclose the collective spaces but accompany the flow from one space to another, defining trajectories that blend into the landscape. The form of structure applies the most common Portugal pitched roof. It is supported by concrete walls and natural wood beams. The continuous concrete walls on the slope follow the topography so as to create a path down to the vineyard. The wooden structure and ceiling of the main room are painted black, with a few coats of oil and alcohol, plus paint. It makes the internal space look more outgoing, and combined with the floor-to-ceiling large glass windows of the entire wall. The focus of the entire space is attracted by the external environment. The value of every single architectural element is redefined by amplifying the sensorial perception. The Tasting Room invites step by step to immerse oneself in the environment of the vineyard, to savor the nuances of the landscape and the passing of the seasons.

在海外时间:2016年至今
在海外地点:瑞士,挪威
姓名:贾彬
学校:ETH苏黎世联邦理工学院,AHO奥斯陆建筑与设计学院
工作单位:BIN ARCHITECT
联系方式:https://www.binarchitect.com/

When: 2016-now
Where: SwitzerlandNorway
Name: Bin Jia

School: ETH; AHO
Firm: BIN ARCHITECT

Contact: https://www.binarchitect.com/

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