The Thyssen iron works in Duisburg-Meiderich saw production come to an end with the last tapping of Blast Furnace 5 on 4 April 1985. After that an unbelievable period of development was started. With some 100 projects, the International Building Exhibition Emscher Park (IBA) in 1989 in the Ruhr District was attempting to set quality building and planning standards for the environmental, economic and social transformation of an old industrialised region.
▼1952年卫星图: 国际竞赛范围; 1989年卫星图: 炼铁厂最后一个高炉停产; 2000年卫星图: 第一轮规划改造范围; 2012年: 公 园建成卫星图 Photo from 1952: the competition site boundary.Photo from 1989: the site shortly after the last blast furnace had closed. Photo from 2000: the site boundary of the first development framework. Photo from 2012 showing the current park boundaries.
© RVR, Bildflug 1952 Hansa Luftbild, Datenlizenz Deutschland – Namensnennung – Version 2.0 (http://www.govdata.de/dl-de/by-2-0)
© RVR, Bildflug 1989 Eurosense GmbH, Datenlizenz Deutschland – Namensnennung – Version 2.0 (http://www.govdata.de/dl-de/by-2-0) © RVR, Bildflug 2000 Kampsax, Datenlizenz Deutschland – Namensnennung – Version 2.0 (http://www.govdata.de/dl-de/by-2-0)
© RVR, Bildflug 2012 Aerowest, Datenlizenz Deutschland – Namensnennung – Version 2.0 (http://www.govdata.de/dl-de/by-2-0)
作为建筑展中的一个项目，蒂森梅德里希炼铁厂由彼得·拉兹教授 （Prof. Peter Latz）设计，被改造为杜伊斯堡北景观公园，成为如今享誉全球的后工业景观改造的典范。公园占地约200公顷，它既不是传统意义上的公园，也不是人们普遍感觉上的景观。北杜伊斯堡风景公园整合、重塑、发展和串联起由原有工业用地功能塑造的肌理，并为此寻找一个新的景观文法。原有的工业肌理与新的设计相互交织，形成新的景观。
▼园区平面图。Masterplan © Latz + Partner
The Thyssen iron works had been developed as the Landscape Park Duisburg Nord, which is one of these projects, designed by Professor Peter Latz and Partner. It is measuring roughly 200 hectares, which is neither park nor landscape in the traditional sense. The idea was to integrate, shape, develop and interlink the existing patterns that were formed by its previous industrial use, and to find a new interpretation with a new syntax. The existing fragments were to be interlaced into a new “landscape”.
▼相互连接的熔炉1和熔炉2的剪影已经成为公园的标志。The silhouette of the linked blast furnaces 1 and 2 became the logo of the park. © Michael Latz
In the landscape park Duisburg Nord, individual systems operate independently, such as the low-lying water park, the single fields and clumps of vegetation, the promenades at street level connecting parts of the town which were separated for decades, and the railway park with its high level promenades and the rail harp. They connect only at certain points through specific visual, functional or merely imaginary linking elements.
▼170米长的原发电厂前树阵广场。不同种类的树，甚至被认为在工业场地上无 法生存的树种，被阵列混植在广场上。The large Tree Plata was planted with various different species, including “impossible” species for this site, laid out on a strict grid. In the background is the 170-metre long Power Plant. © Michael Latz
Created collectively as an artwork by engineers, the rail harp reflects the centennial history of the place. The huge land art slowly emerged again due to a cautious vegetation management with the help of the gardeners.
▼秋日框景。The autumn foliage of the cherries framed by steel. © Michael Latz
Partial Project Blast Furnace Park
The Piazza Metallica is the symbol of this park, a metamorphosis of the existing hard and rugged industrial structure into a public park. Iron plates that were once used to cover casting moulds in the pig-iron casting works, form today the heart of the park. From the first moments of their existence, these cast iron plates have been eroded by natural physical processes. In this new place, they will continue to rust and erode.
▼被铸造车间和鼓风机车间环绕的方形广场诠释了一个设计理念: 让人们从视觉 上感受铁铸件的自然腐蚀过程。The square space, enclosed by the Cast House and the Blower House complex, led to the idea of making the process of iron production visibly comprehensible. © Michael Latz
▼樱花树冠形成的穹顶为人们在夏日提供荫凉，而在花期阳光则可以透过花朵 洒向地面。Now the crowns of the cherry trees form a closed canopy that provides shade in the summer and lets the sun filter through to the ground in the flowering period. © Christa Panick
It was a controversy to create places and public spaces inmidst of a blast furnace plant. Today, the fear of pollution and contamination has given way to a calm acknowledgement of the old structures. During festivities up to 50.000 people gather in these places where the trees in blossoms interweave with the bizarre framework of the blast furnaces and the windheaters to a fantastic image. So, by degrees, a fresh history and a fresh understanding of the contaminated site and of the landscape art have been developing…
▼浇注车间改造的露天影院。Outdoor Theatre with Cast House. © Thomas Berns
Partial Project Sinter Park
The place of the former sintering plant was heavily contaminated and had to be almost completely demolished. Today it is a flourishing meadow and a shady grove, a huge festival place, framed to the side of the blast furnace plant by the remainders of the former overhead railway and a high level walk. With a length of 300m it leads across the bunkers and gives views down into the gardens built at various heights and depths within the bunker site.
▼改造前后的熔渣园。Slag Garden Before and After Renovation. © Latz + Partner，Michael Latz
Once filled with ore, coal, lime and ashes, the walls now enclose old pollutants in sealed containers, excavated materials, water or gardens- horti conclusi of great variety and abundance. They are places of retreat and contemplation that are so important in a large public park. The new huge windmill is not only part of the ecological water cycle but the symbol of renewal of a once devastated area.
▼不同的设计形态和结构构成了矿仓花园丰富的设计语言。常绿的花园图案在花 期将变成一个绣球花花园。The patterns of the box garden play with diffe- rent art forms and configurations. In the flowering season the evergreen parterre turns into a hydrangea garden. © Michael Latz
Partial Project Waterpark
Existing profiles and constructions were used to create an ecological clean water system: The open waste water canal of the “Old Emscher”, crossing the park from east to west, was transformed into a clear water canal with bridges and footpaths, exclusively fed by the clear rainwater. The waste water is now carried within a 3.5m diameter underground main. It is sealed by a layer of clay which collects run off from the buildings, bunkers and former cooling ponds. A windpower installation was set up in the mill tower of the former sintering plant to ensure the cleaning and the transport of the water.
▼一望无尽的清洁的埃姆舍渠道。The apparently endless perspective of the Emscher Canal. © Michael Latz
The water channel and the whole water system are an artefact, which aims to restore natural processes in an environment of devastation and distortion. These processes are governed by the rules of ecology, but initiated and maintained by means of technology. Man uses this artefact as a symbol for nature, but remains in charge of the process. The system is at one and the same time entirely natural and entirely artificial.
▼沿着清水渠修复的围墙上有几个人为设计的开口。锥形的杨树标识出这些开口 并将游人引入亲水平台。 Openings were cut into this restored wall along the Clear Water Canal. Fastigiate poplars mark the openings that lead to the coveted decks at the water’s edge.© Michael Latz
▼多叶片水平旋翼产生的动力推动了阿基米得螺杆，其将水从运河提升到悬架于 烧结矿仓的景观步道的高度。Power generated by a multi-blade rotor drives an Archimedean screw that lifts water from the canal to the level of the walkway above the sinter bunkers. © Michael Latz
Partial Project The Railway Park
The railway lines, still open or out of operation, are the most continuous connections also in the park. They form a filigree pattern, going deep into the living and working areas of the city quarters: “Harps” without crossings and intersections diverging and meeting again – created by engineers and reflecting the hundred year evolution of the area.
▼台阶和坡道将不同高度的轨道串联起来。Steps and ramps connect paths on different embankment levels. © Michael Latz
The railway park develops according to the ways of transportation in the past. Numerous bridges open up specific perspectives on different levels and secure the coherence in the fragmentary 230 hectares of the park. Its colorful vegetation represents a flora immigrated together with the ore from all over the world. The management of the park takes this unique situation into consideration. The railroad tracks end above the gardens in the former ore-bunkers. A high level walk built with recycled material on the pillars of the former overhead railway, invites to experience the space in a new and different way.
▼景观步道横跨于矿仓之间。游人可以穿梭其间，俯视脚下12m深的水泥隔 间。The walkway between the charge bunkers and the ore bunkers provides views into the 12-metre deep concrete compartments from above. © Michael Latz
▼旧轨道被改造成了总长约300米的空中景观步道系统。这一旧与新的转化是这一 工业改造中一个象征。Former tracks become “skywalks”. The Viaduct and Sinter Walkway are around 300 metres long in all. The connection of the old and the new are a visible sign of transformation. © Michael Latz
Duisburg Nord Landscape Park – a huge adventure playground
All the mineral surfaces, lawns, meadows and gardens can be used throughout the park; the bridges and partially accessible industrial buildings and ruins are open to everyone and offer a large, safe playground in a dramatic environment.
▼攀岩者在攀岩过程中可以通过穿墙而过的滑梯“下坡滑行”。 The climbing is rewarded with a rapid “downhill run” in a pipe slide which passes through a wall. © Michael Latz
A network of ‘play points’ extends across the whole park. In the transition zones between park and residential areas, selected places and ‘ante-parks’ are specifically designed for children and youths. For example, the ‘alpine climb’ features a long tube slide at the Erzbunkergalerie, and a toddlers’ playground immediately opposite offers a radius of activity suitable for this age group. A water play area at the foot of a huge windmill allows children to control the flow of water, sedimentation and erosion in a large sand pit, where they can learn through play.
▼杜伊斯堡的多洛米蒂山，水泥构造被改造成了攀岩设施。The Duisburg Do- lomites，concrete transformed into rocks. © Michael Latz
A robust site for trend sports and active games has been built into the steel boxes which were used for storing manganese iron ore. Light and colourful spaces beneath a filigree rod iron structure serve as a popular meeting place for young people. They are set some distance away from the more intensively used spaces, which probably helps to keep vandalism in the park to a minimum.
▼夜晚人们被色彩斑斓的光线引入隧道和隔间中。At night people are guided by the coloured lights in the tunnel and the compartments. © Michael Latz
Partial Project Ore Bunker Gallery
In cooperation with artists and the Lehmbruck Museum in Duisburg. Through openings in the massive walls, paths and footbridges connect the labyrinthine complex. They will lead to artificial gardens with differentiated microclimates, with sound effects and various artistic interventions. With concrete saws entrances were cut into the massive walls 2 to 3 meters thick. They open up completely new prospects into the future gallery, the dark rooms of which had been visible only from above.
▼铁轨高架桥穿梭于矿仓的水泥隔间之间。 Railway bridges cross the com- partments of the bunker site. © Michael Latz
▼隧道顶部经过翻修支撑起一个屋顶花园。隧道的坡道在此转向并从巨大的混泥 土墙中穿墙而过。The tunnel roof was refurbished and now supports a roof garden. The ramp from the tunnel turns and at mid-height cuts through the massive concrete walls. © Michael Latz
▼矿仓展廊中的光影，改造前后对比。Bunker Gallery with trees and light. Comparison before and after Renovation. © Christa Panick
▼景观步道穿墙而出。Walkways penetrate the bunker walls. © Latz + Partner, Michael Latz
Green Good Design Award 2009
EDRA Places Award 2005
Play & Leisure Award 2004
Grande Medaille d´Urbanisme 2001
1st European Prize for Landscape Architecture Rosa Barba 2000
RUST RED (锈红) ——北杜伊斯堡风景公园
RUST RED – The Landscape Park Duisburg Nord
It’s been nearly 30 years since Peter Latz and his team began to work on the landscape park Duisburg Nord. In 1994 first parts of the park were inaugurated. But it is only now that the structures we had planned that time have developed their full spatial effect; what gives a good occasion for Peter Latz to have an intent look at his “masterpiece”.
This volume provides insights into twelve years of planning and realisation through photographs, sketches, plans and explanations, and reveals to the reader the fascinating world that follows the industry. With this book, Peter Latz presents an in-depth account of his knowledge and experience regarding this unique project. Impressive pictures taken by Michael Latz reflect his philosophy and the park’s look and feel following the seasons.
Project Name: Landschaftspark Duisburg Nord — Metamorphosis of the Thyssen-Meiderichiron works into a landscape park
Design:Latz + Partner
Project design & completion year: 1990-2002
Project address: Duisburg, Germany
Building area: 200 hectares
Partners: (Partner) Latz-Riehl, Günther Lipkowsky, Realization by help of citizens’ action, associations and employment schemes
Clients: Landesentwicklungsgesellschaft Nordrhein-Westfalen, Stadt Duisburg, Emschergenossenschaft Essen, Kommunalverband Ruhrgebiet
Leader designer & Team
Leader Designer: Peter Latz
Project managers: Christine Rupp-Stoppel in the head office in Kranzberg, Karl-Heinz Danielzik in the project office in Duisburg
Staff – design: Stefanie Meinicke (†), Peter Bedner, Renate Bickelmann, Tilman Latz, Marianne Reisig, Martina Schneider, Robert Wenk, Peter Wilde, Jutta Wippermann et al.
Interns: Claudia Baumstark, Ulrike Böhm, Georg Klumpen, Christoph Marx, Martin Prominski et al.