Jingdezhen Imperial Kiln Museum, China by Studio Zhu-Pei + THAD

Root: Rediscovery of Jingdezhen Contemporary

Project Specs

Location:

非常感谢 朱锫建筑设计事务所 +  清华大学建筑设计研究院 予gooood分享以下内容。 更多关于: Studio Zhu-Pei on goooodArchitectual Design and Research Institute of Tsinghua University on gooood
Appreciation towards Studio Zhu-Pei + Architectual Design and Research Institute of Tsinghua University for providing the following description:

御窑博物馆位于景德镇历史街区的中心,毗邻明清御窑遗址,地段周边环绕着不同年代的建筑,从明、清、民国时代的老民居及私家民窑,到49年后建造的厂房,再到90年代末的商品住宅,丰富、多元的城市肌理,塑造了极其特殊的、厚重的地段环境。

▼鸟瞰,Aerial view ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

▼自御窑遗址观博物馆,View from the Imperial Kiln Relic to the museum ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

▼自御窑遗址观博物馆,View from the Imperial Kiln Relic to the museum ©田方方 Tian Fangfang

 

场地 | Context

御窑博物馆的地域性实践融入了对场地的阅读,这种复杂的分析涉及到了城市学、考古学、人类学、气候等相关知识领域。

景德镇“因窑而生,因瓷而盛”, 人们远道而来,依山而建、择水而居,终生的劳作就是建窑做瓷。瓷窑、作坊、居住三位一体构成了城市的基本单元,城市的雏形和结构也因此诞生。一条条狭窄的里弄连接着众千私家民窑沿东西向布置,径直走向昌江,几条城市的主街平行于昌江沿南北布置,将市场连在一起。这样的城市结构不仅反映了当地人的生活、生存方式,更是城市应对湿热气候的智慧反映。

御窑博物馆由八个大小不一、体量各异的线状砖拱形结构组成,沿南北长向布置,它们若即若离,有实有虚,以谦逊的态度和恰当的尺度植入于复杂的地段之中。一方面,拱形结构的尺度不仅接近于周边的传统的柴窑,也在大尺度厂房、住宅楼和传统民居之间做了良好的过渡。另一方面,长短不一、伸缩自由的拱体结构巧妙地和周边参差不齐的地段边界产生了有机的缝合。特别是应对复杂、多变、不可预测的历史街区内建造,这种化整为零的策略,就越发凸显它的前瞻性。开工不久,发现了新的遗址,通过拱体结构彼此之间的调整,将新发现的遗址巧妙地编织到博物馆的内部空间之中。

▼场地位置,Site location&context ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

▼博物馆和周边环境轴测图,axon – aerial view of the museum and surrounding environment ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

▼整体概念模型,Conceptual model-Museum with existing context ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

Located in the center of historical area, the site of the Museum is adjacent to the Imperial Kiln ruins surrounding with many ancient kiln complexes. Jingdezhen is known as the “Porcelain Capital” in the world because it has been producing pottery for 1,700 years. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, Jingdezhen exported huge amount of porcelains to Europe.

Jingdezhen was growing naturally fitting in the valleys surrounding with rivers, hills, and mountains because of porcelain industry. The early settlements of the city developed around kiln complexes which included kiln, workshops and housing. The street pattern was generated by nature and porcelain industry. Most of small alleys in between kiln complexes have always approached to Chang river in order to transport porcelain products to the river, the main streets have always been along with Chang river to bring all businesses and commercial together.

Situated on a fairly restricted historical area adjacent to the east side of the Imperial Kiln ruins, the plan of Imperial Kiln Museum was aligned with the north-south street grid of Jingdezhen, with its entry, water pools, bridge, facing west, embracing the open file of Imperial Kiln Ruins, welcoming visitors from Imperial Kiln Relic Park and public pedestrians to be wandering through the forest under green canopy, going through the bridge, flowing into the foyerof the museum.

▼西北视角,North-west view ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

 

原型 | Prototype

御窑博物馆建筑的形式源于当地传统柴窑的启发,与罗马时期的拱券截然不同,它不是简单的几何形,而是复杂的双曲面,具有强烈的东方拱券的特征。建造过程中不用脚手架,而是利用砖的收缝错位,借助重力完成的。

▼概念模型和研究模型,conceptual model and study model ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

▼轴测图:拱券下的空间,axon – vault-shaped voids of the museum ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

砖窑不仅是景德镇城市的起源,更是人们赖以生存的生活与交往空间。它“保存着与这座城市的生命不可切割的记忆温度——旧时孩童在冬天上学途中,会从路过的瓷窑上捡一块滚热的压窑砖塞进书包抱在怀中,凭借这块砖带给他的温度,捱过半日寒冬”。冬季,学校也常常会移至温暖的瓷窑旁;夏季,歇窑期间,砖窑所散发的湿冷空气更是孩童玩耍,年轻人交往、老人纳凉的好去处。这些断壁残垣的老窑遗址,这些薪火相传的不灭记忆,是御窑博物馆自然而然的源泉。瓷窑独特的东方拱券原型,窑砖的时间与温度的记忆,塑造出窑、瓷、人的血缘同构关系。

“不仅窑炉作为建筑类型融入了城市的历史,修建窑炉的材料“砖”也是可知可感的。在达到一定生命周期蓄热性能衰减后窑砖被从窑炉上替换下来,又可以成为修建居住建筑的材料。窑炉早已成为景德镇文化记忆和城市生命的重要组成部分,也顺理成章成为了御窑博物馆的空间类型。”

▼建筑的形式源于当地传统柴窑的启发,the architectural form is inspired by the local traditional kiln ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

▼下沉庭院,Sunken courtyard ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

The Imperial Kiln Museum comprises more than half a dozen brick vaults base on the traditional form of the kiln, each of vaults is of a different size, curvature, and length. They were naturally applied into the site, carefully integrated with many existing ruins including a few ruins were found after the construction.

The unparalleled, liner, and arched structures of the museum, like old kilns, reach below the level of the street to not only give the flexibility to adapt itself into the complicated site, but also achieve intimate scale of interior space.This strategy – in part also a response to height of surrounding historical buildings – leads to productive ambiguity in relation to the building’s horizontal datum. The “insertion” of the building into the ground of the site produces a series of public spaces at street level; also, more importantly, it allows for the design of a number of more intimate open vaults, and courtyards within the museum. Most of those public spaces are covered under shaded, protected from rains because of hot and rain a lot during summer in Jingdezhen. One of those open spaces, two open vaults sited in both end, will also reveal the traces of the historic fabric on the site.

▼开放的拱券,View to open vaults ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

▼开放的拱券之间,View in between open vaults ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

 

空间经验 | Spatial Experience

博物馆建筑分为地上、地下两层,门厅位于地上层。这样的布置不仅仅会让人们在走向它时感到体量的亲和感、感受到它的尺度和城市中现存的建筑保持接近,更重要的是人们进入它的空间经验与过去工匠在此劳作烧瓷的经验十分类似。

当人们漫步御窑遗址公园,穿越在绿荫下,行走在沙沙作响的碎石地面上,跨越平静的水面之上、缓步进入门厅。向左行,人们将穿越一系列尺度大小略有变化、时而室内时而室外的拱体结构空间,穿越明代的遗迹和丰富的下沉院落,开启了窑、瓷、人同源的博物馆经验之旅。从门厅向右,书店、咖啡、茶室、最终来到半户外的拱体下,阳光下水体的波纹映射在粗燥的窑拱的表面,低矮、水平的横缝诱使人们好奇的席地而坐,御窑遗址长长的水平地表扑面而来,意想不到的惊喜不期而遇。这与人们进入门厅之前走向报告厅空拱时,透过垂直切割的竖缝所看到御窑遗址中的玲珑阁的经历如此不同,惊喜又如此相似。

▼剖面图,section

▼明瓷窑遗址,Ming porcelain relics ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

▼自户外剧场观明瓷窑遗址,View from the amphitheater to Ming porcelain relics ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

▼自展厅观户外剧场,View from the exhibition hall to amphitheater ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

▼自半户外展厅观明瓷窑遗址,View from the semi-outdoor exhibition hall to Ming porcelain relics ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

When one walk on the bridge and enter the foyer, and then turn left, you will pass a series of arched exhibition spaces lightly varied in size and with contradicting openness (enclosed or open to the sky) to encounter a gentle stair in the end flowing down to the underground level with five sunken courtyards. Meanwhile you can obtain a three-in-one (kilns-porcelains-people) museum experience when you see those porcelain, ruins and sunken courtyards which create manifold layers’ experiences with ancient bricks on façade. As you turn right at the foyer, you will respectively pass the bookstore, cafe, tea room and finally reach a semi-outdoor area under the arch, witnessing a picturesque scene: in daytime surfaces on these arches reflect the waves of water while low horizontal gaps tempt people to sit down on the floor to see the long horizon of the imperial kiln ruins, without expectation. Similar surprise would be created when you see the Longzhu Pavilion of the imperial kiln ruins through the vertical seams when you are on the way to the auditorium before accessing the foyer.

Five sunken courtyards varied in size have different theme: gold, wood, water, fire, soil. Those five themes not only reflect old Chinese thinking about earth, but also associate with porcelain making techniques. The overall experience of the museum tries to rediscover the roots of Jingdezhen, to recreate the past experience among kiln, porcelain, and human being.

▼序厅,Foyer ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

▼自序厅观茶&咖啡厅 View from the foyer to tea&cafe ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

▼自茶&咖啡厅观御窑遗址,View from the tea&cafe to the imperial kiln ruins ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

▼自半户外的茶&咖啡厅观博物馆主入口,View from tea&cafe open vault to main entrance ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

▼中庭,Atrium ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

▼报告厅序厅,View to the foyer of auditorium ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

固定展览借助于一个密闭的水平上下环路完成,临时展厅可以任意并入环路,融入整体展览,也可独立存在,因为它有自己独立的出入口。博物馆另外一个特点是将古瓷修复过程融入展览,成为展览重要的组成部分。办公入口位于整体建筑的东南侧相对独立的拱的北端,安静、隐蔽。货车可以从该拱的南端倒入拱内,封闭、安全装卸货。

博物馆建筑与自然之间形成很多灰空间,它们虚实相涵、内外相生,彼此缠绕,人们行走在博物馆内部的整体空间经验,反映出中国传统建筑特有的“藏、息、修、游”东方美学特质。

▼楼梯细节,Stair detail ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

▼拱、窑砖、光线,Vault, brick, and light ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

▼报告厅,Auditorium ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

▼报告厅与下沉庭院,View to auditorium and sunken courtyard ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

 

结构和材料 | Structure and Material

建筑拱体的结构近似三明治,内外两层砖中间为混凝土,混凝土拱为主体结构,以抵御地震时的侧推力,外部采用新老窑砖混合砌筑,映射当地传统建造方式。

I was fascinated in local ancient kiln tectonic and material. Looking in the past, craftsmen built the brick kiln without scaffolding in a very special way. Thin and light brick kiln achieved a maximum interior space with minimum materials, the brick kilns appeared in organic forms reflecting heat flow from the one end to another.

The basic structure of the museum is arch structure system, it is made up of concrete poured in between two layers ‘masonry brick walls. There is a small arch to be layout perpendicularly to connect two arches. Using recycled kiln bricks to build house and all kind of buildings is a significant character in Jingdezhen because brick kilns have to be demolished very two or three years in order to keep a certain thermal performance of the kilns. Entire city was covered by recycled kiln bricks. Those bricks record a warmth, inseparable from the lifeblood of the city. In the past, the children would take a warm brick from the firing kilns to place in their schoolbags to keep warm the whole day in the freezing winter.

The materials of the museum are dominated by bricks, recycled old kiln bricks are mixed with new bricks together to reflect the local culture of construction. This interweaving of two different historical phases proposed by the combination of new and old bricks must arouse interest, curiosity, create new questions and give new answers by interacting with the mind of people who inevitably evoke memories and enjoy a unique experience. The past cannot be erased but rewritten by recounting with a new awareness and maturity, a sort of contemporary archeology.

The visitor can have a 360-degree sensory experience through the repeated contact between exterior and interior that stimulates touch, smell, hearing and sight and transports the visitor into a sort of trip between past, present and nature.

▼茶&咖啡厅前水景,The water garden in front of tea&cafe ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

▼砌筑砖墙与混凝土梁细节,Detail of masonry brick wall and concrete beam ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

▼报告厅前水景,The water garden in front of auditorium ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

▼回收的窑砖,Recycled kiln brick ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

 

气候 | Climate

整组建筑拱体沿南北长向布置,包含很多开放的拱体结构和下沉院落。地面上拱体的灰空间,不仅可以遮阳避雨,更可以捕捉夏季南北的主导风向,让凉风鱼贯而入,自然通风;多个大小不一、下沉的垂直院落,大多都种竹,不仅为地下空间营造了充满诗意、自然光线的环境,且具有很强江西意象。也塑造了烟囱效应,就像当地民居中的垂直院落一样,实现良好自然通风。

Even the light evokes active and tangible memories and is the proof of how ancient techniques can be reinterpreted and reread in a contemporary key. The interior natural light is achieved by both skylight and sunken courtyard, inspired by smoke holes of ancient brick kiln, the skylight in hollow cylinder shape are distributed on the top part of the arch to provide natural light in day time and artificial light in the night time.

▼下沉庭院,Sunken Coutyard ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

▼西南视角,South-west view ©是然建筑摄影  schranimage

▼鸟瞰,Aerial view ©田方方 Tian Fangfang

▼草图,sketch ©朱锫 Zhu Pei

▼研究模型,study model ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

▼博物馆和周边环境轴测图,axon – aerial view of the museum and surrounding environment ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

▼首层平面图,ground floor plan ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

▼地下一层平面图,under ground floor plan ©朱锫建筑事务所 Studio Zhu-Pei

设计时间:2016-2017
施工时间:2017-2020
地点:景德镇,江西,中国
建筑面积:10370㎡

建筑设计:朱锫建筑事务所,清华大学建筑设计研究院有限公司
主持建筑师:朱锫
前置批评:周榕
艺术顾问:王明贤、李翔宁
设计团队:由昌臣,韩默,何帆,刘伶,吴志刚,张顺,Shuhei Nakamura,杨圣晨,杜扬,陈奕达,贺成龙,丁新月

结构顾问:清华大学建筑设计研究院有限公司
机电顾问:清华大学建筑设计研究院有限公司
景观设计:朱锫建筑事务所,清华大学建筑设计研究院有限公司
展陈设计:朱锫建筑事务所,北京清尚建筑装饰工程有限公司
室内设计:朱锫建筑事务所,北京清尚建筑装饰工程有限公司
幕墙顾问:深圳市大地幕墙科技有限公司
照明顾问:北京宁之境照明设计有限责任公司
声学顾问:浙江大学建筑技术研究所
业主:景德镇市文化广播电影电视新闻出版局,景德镇陶瓷文化旅游发展有限公司
施工单位:中国建筑一局(集团)有限公司,中建一局华江建设有限公司
摄影:朱锫建筑事务所,是然建筑摄影,田方方

Design: 2016-2017
Construction: 2017-2020
Location: Jingdezhen, Jiangxi, China
Area: 10,370 square meters
Address: East gate of Royal Kiln Factory, Junction of Shengli Road and Zhonghua North Road, Zhushan District, Jingdezhen, Jiangxi

Architect: Studio Zhu-Pei, Architectural Design and Research Institute of Tsinghua University
Design Principal: Zhu Pei
Front Criticism: Zhou Rong
Art Consultant: Wang Mingxian, Li Xiangning
Design team: You Changchen, Han Mo, He Fan, Liu Ling, Wu Zhigang, Zhang Shun, Shuhei Nakamura, Yang Shengchen, Du Yang, Chen Yida, He Chenglong, Ding Xinyue

Structural Consultant: Architectural Design and Research Institute of Tsinghua University
MEP Consultant: Architectural Design and Research Institute of Tsinghua University
Green Building Consultant: Architectural Design and Research Institute of Tsinghua University
Landscape Design: Studio Zhu-Pei, Architectural Design and Research Institute of Tsinghua University
Exhibition Design: Studio Zhu-Pei, Beijing Qingshang Architectural Ornamental Engineering CO., LTD.
Interior Design: Studio Zhu-Pei, Beijing Qingshang Architectural Ornamental Engineering CO., LTD.
Facade Consultant: Shenzhen Dadi Facade Technology CO., LTD.
Lighting Consultant: Ning Field Lighting Design CO., LTD.
Acoustic Consultant: Building Science & Technology Institute, Zhejiang University
Client: Jingdezhen Municipal Bureau of Culture Radio Television Press Publication and Tourism, Jingdezhen Ceramic Culture Tourism Group
Main Contractor: China Construction First Group Corporation Limited, Huajiang Construction CO., LTD of China Construction First Group
Photography: Studio Zhu-Pei, schranimage, Tian Fangfang

More: 朱锫建筑设计事务所 + 清华大学建筑设计研究院。 更多关于: Studio Zhu-Pei on goooodArchitectual Design and Research Institute of Tsinghua University on gooood

版权️©谷德设计网gooood.cn,禁止以gooood编辑版本进行任何形式转载Copyright©gooood

Post a Comment