A smart city for everyone instead of another gated land reclamation
印尼共和国有望在2030年成为世界第五大经济体，而这一愿景也将成为印尼共和国的重要转折点。快速增长的中产阶级给国家的发展带来巨大机遇，气候的变化和人口及经济的增长也可能会对其未来发展带来阻碍。这一系列危害包括地表下沉，海平面上升，并可能由此引发的雅加达地区洪水泛滥。巨型海堤将成为保护城市的最有利措施。土地开垦是海堤建设项目的重要组成部分，这一系列举措将有可能为雅加达地区带来宝贵的未来发展空间。自2012年起，Jesse Kuijper、Florian Heinzelmann和Daliana Suryawinata 便投身于城市未来的研讨当中。他们相信，大面积的土地开垦计划，似乎是实现雅加达绿色城市，并满足社会需求的唯一方法。
The Republic of Indonesia is at a turning point. It is expected to become one of the world’s five largest economies by 2030. While the fast-growing middle class represents a huge opportunity for the country, the combination of climate change and rapid population and economic growth could jeopardize its future prosperity. For example, land subsidence and a rising sea level could cause flooding in Jakarta. The National Capital Integrated Coastal Development (NCICD), commonly known as the Giant Sea Wall, will help protect the city. Land reclamation is an integral part of the seawall mega project, with the potential to provide valuable new space for Jakarta’s future growth.Jesse Kuijper, CEO of the Borneo Initiative, together with Florian Heinzelmann and Daliana Suryawinata of SHAU have been working on the master plan since 2012 as an independent initiative, founded on the premise that large-scale land reclamation is perhaps the only chance to build an integrated green city responding to Jakarta’s social needs.
▼“绿色曼哈顿”鸟瞰图， the Green Manhattan and the city of Jakarta
▼绿色曼哈顿与城市的连接，Connectivity map of Jakarta Jaya: the Green Manhattan and Jakarta Raya
▼未来发展目标：最宜居，最绿色，最和谐的宜居城市，the ambition: the most liveable, integrated, green, socially-inclusive city which benefits Jakarta
A multiple-grid master plan designed for diversity
Indonesia has the second longest shoreline in the world, but most of its cities are not well integrated with the sea. In addition to significant new living space, this master plan is designed to provide beautiful and accessible public promenades, parks and plazas for Jakarta residents, so that the city can finally express its identity as the capital of a maritime country.
▼符合人均要求的多层次城市规划，City functions layered according to requirements per capita
该规划受曼哈顿城市网络启发（60 m x 160-240 m），该城市网络示例了在紧凑、多样城市环境中运行的可持续城市发展模式。而其他的城市规划示例中如巴塞罗那，萨凡纳，依帕内玛，上海，深圳，阿姆斯特丹，威尼斯，哥本哈根，维也纳和洛杉矶也为世界展示了不同尺度下的城市发展模式。该项目构想的总体规划包括公园，休闲，能源，事物，水，土地，水上交通，医疗和教育，文化和宗教，住宅和安全等方面。
The plan’s main base is inspired by the Manhattan grid (60 m x 160-240 m), which provides a sustainable framework for living in a compact, diverse area. The use of other city grids – Barcelona, Savannah, Ipanema, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Amsterdam, Venice, Copenhagen, Vienna, and Los Angeles – unlocks a wide range of dimensions and spatial qualities for city living. The comprehensive plan encompasses parks, leisure, energy, food, water, land and water transportation, health and education, culture and religion, affordable housing and security.
▼基于曼哈顿城市肌理和其他优秀城市规划案例的规划构想，the plan is based on Manhattan grid and other notable city grids to accommodate a wide range of dimensions and spatial qualities
The proposed oval-shaped island of Jakarta Jaya: the Green Manhattan is expected to accommodate at least 1.9 million residents. According to Heinzelmann and Suryawinata, founders and architects at SHAU, “the master plan is envisioned as an ensemble of ecological and social projects in one multiple-grid layout. It will be a pedestrian-based city. Each plot will have special green regulations for buildings and open spaces, covering horizontal and vertical connections between buildings, for example. There will be special architecture and landscape designs for recreation, education and housing, among others.”
▼可容纳190万城市居民的58平方公里多层次城市空间规划，the integration of various grids within a 58 km2 island for about 1.9 Million citizens
▼绿地和海洋：多尺度绿地，湖水，运河及公共空间组织，blue and green: multiple sizes and types of parks, lakes and canals for public access
▼多种模式公共交通网络，multimodal public transportation network with limited car access at the outer ring
▼街道剖面：建立多种步行道路系统，street sections: providing multiple pedestrian experience and functions
▼城市剖面：可实现水平及垂直绿色渗透的建筑类型，city section: permeable building typologies to enable air flow through the whole city with horizontal and vertical green connectivity
While land reclamation often caters to the wealthy, as seen in cities such as Dubai, Jakarta Jaya takes a different approach: a fully integrated, green, socially diverse city. As Kuijper puts it, “the plan will boost employment and create a nearly ideal living environment not only for the new urban middle class but also for low-income workers and fishermen. It has the potential to become the world’s greenest, most innovative metropolis.” He added: “The Jakarta Jaya Foundation believes the financial structure of the plan can benefit all Indonesians by enabling the creation of a pension fund, a longstanding goal for the country.”
▼高品质综合居住社区，integrated high quality affordable housing
Residents will enjoy access to plenty of lush tropical parks, beaches, lakes and canals. The city aims to meet the following objectives: 50% of green and blue open spaces, zero net CO2 emissions, 50% of food self-grown and produced, 80% of water self-provided, 150% of green energy produced, 150% of garbage recycled, 90% car-free zone with automated public and private transport, 1 public white solar car for every 10 inhabitants, 20% of people using boats to commute, 200 m maximum distance between public transportation stops, and 1:1 people to bicycle ratio. In each commercial development, 20% will be dedicated to middle- and low-income housing and marketplaces.
▼十二个待实现目标，twelve objectives towards Jakarta Jaya
Helping coastal communities
Fishing villages are usually marginalized when land reclamation takes place. In this master plan, coastal communities are given a dedicated zone on the most strategic part of the island, where small-scale traditional and modern fisheries can thrive. Housing for fisheries workers is planned for the north coast of the island, with specially designed courtyard houses on stilts for optimal airflow and natural lighting, and boat moorings next to the dwellings. Green roofs, plazas, playgrounds and promenades will all be integrated into the housing compound.
▼渔村：强调传统沿海社区，fisherman villages: empowering coastal communities
Benefits for Jakarta
Through integration with the Giant Sea Wall, the Green Manhattan will help prevent flooding in Jakarta. It will improve accessibility for all residents by connecting new metro lines to existing monorail tracks and by adding new highways, bike paths and walking routes. Water quality in Jakarta Bay will improve, enabling new commercial and sustainable projects. The project will increase coastal tourism dramatically, produce green energy and help recycle non-toxic waste. Last but not least, it will catalyze Jakarta’s growth in a responsible way.
▼商业区和中央绿地，business district and central green
▼多模式混合交通和办公，multimodal transportation hub and multinational offices
▼城市水路和传统市场，waterways through the city and traditional floating markets
▼购物街区与热带环境的融合，shopping district with diverse tropical public space activities
▼旅游业：垂直绿化城市与户外沙滩，new tourism: a juxtaposition of white sandy beach with vertical green city
▼新景观：从红树林到果园，new nature: from mangrove forests to fruit gardens
Project title: Jakarta Jaya: the Green Manhattan
Project type: master plan
Initiator/ Client: Jakarta Jaya Foundation (Jesse Kuijper (NL))
Architects: SHAU (Daliana Suryawinata (ID) & Florian Heinzelmann (DE))
Location: Jakarta Bay, Indonesia
Size: 58 km2/ 5800 ha
Timeframe: 30 years
Status: open proposal
awarded a WAFX Prize
nominated for WAF Future Projects master plan category
(public presentation on November 16, 2017)
Image credit: @shauarchitects