Helsinki Central Library Oodi by ALA Architects

A new central point for the city’s impressive public library network

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设计理念 | Architectural concept 

Oodi的落成标志着图书馆的全新时代:这座位于赫尔辛基市中心的新建筑几乎完全由公共空间构成,并且提供种类齐全的功能服务。在未来,Oodi将成为城市公共图书馆网络中的重要节点。

Oodi represents a new era of libraries. The newly completed building in the heart of Helsinki consists almost entirely of public space and offers a wide selection of services. It will become the new central point for the city’s impressive public library network.

▼图书馆鸟瞰,aerial view

图书馆的功能被划分为三个层次:充满活力的首层空间、安静的顶层空间,以及位于这二者之间的、功能更加具体的中央空间。设计利用拱形元素来吸引人们使用不同的功能空间。最终的建筑呈现为一处具有启发性且功能强大的场所,为赫尔辛基和Töölönlahti区的城市生活注入了新的活力。

▼剖面图,section

The design divides the functions of the library into three distinct levels: an active ground floor, a peaceful upper floor, and an enclosed in-between volume containing the more specific functions. This concept has been developed into an arching form that invites people to utilize the spaces and services underneath, inside and on top of it. The resulting building is an inspiring and highly functional addition to the urban life of Helsinki and the Töölönlahti area.

▼建筑西立面,west facade

▼从街道望向建筑,view from the street

图书馆的首层空间与议会大厦对面的Kansalaistori市民广场形成了无缝衔接。灵活的空间可用于举办各类小型和大型活动。电影院和多功能厅可与开放式大厅连接为一个整体,也可以分开使用以满足不同的活动需要。穿越首层空间即可大致了解整栋建筑的功能和服务。具有雕塑感的木制拱形元素如桥梁般延伸在首层空间上方,这一创新性的解决方案使无柱空间得以实现,并最大程度地提高了建筑的可达性和功能空间的辨识度。

The Kansalaistori square (“Citizens’ Square”) across the street from the Parliament House seamlessly continues inside the ground floor level of the library building. The flexible spaces are suitable for both small events and large happenings. The movie theater and the multipurpose hall can be used as part of the open lobby space or separated off to cater for specific events. Walking through the ground floor offers a quick glimpse at the services available in the building. The sculptural wooden surface arches over the ground floor areas as a dramatic bridge-like structure. This innovative structural solution has enabled the creation of a column free public space to maximize the accessibility and visibility of the program.

▼首层空间与Kansalaistori市民广场形成了无缝衔接,the Kansalaistori square seamlessly continues inside the ground floor level of the library building

▼具有雕塑感的木制拱形元素,the sculptural wooden surface arches over the ground floor areas as a dramatic bridge-like structure

▼首层大厅,lobby

▼灵活的空间可用于举办各类小型和大型活动,the flexible spaces are suitable for both small events and large happenings

▼电影院外部休息空间,breakout space outside the cinema

▼公共休息区,public seating area

位于顶层的“图书天堂”是一处规模宏大的开放式景观,其顶部覆盖以白色的天花板,犹如一朵起伏的云。在这里,当代图书馆的强大功能与先进技术带来的种种可能性发生了精彩的碰撞。安静平和的氛围使来访者能够沉下心来进行阅读、学习、思考和放松。楼层的高度更带来360度无阻碍的城市视野。

The “Book Heaven” on the top floor, is a vast open landscape topped with an undulating cloud like white ceiling. Here the best features of the modernist library meet the possibilities provided by up-to-date technologies. A calm, serene atmosphere invites visitors to read, learn, think, and to enjoy themselves. From this level visitors can enjoy an unobstructed 360-degree panorama view of the city center.

▼顶层的“图书天堂”犹如一朵起伏的云,the “Book Heaven” topped with an undulating cloud-like white ceiling

▼安静平和的氛围使来访者能够沉下心来进行阅读、学习、思考和放松,a calm, serene atmosphere invites visitors to read, learn, think, and to enjoy themselves

▼中央阅读区,central reading area

▼细部,detailed view

▼从顶层俯瞰中间层,view to the middle level

▼书架细部,bookcase detailed view

在中间的“阁楼”层,用于支撑顶部桥梁的桁架之间形成了一系列灵活且不规则的空间。这些封闭式的空间可以同时满足安静和嘈杂的活动需要。位于中央的阶梯座位则呼应了建筑西立面起伏的悬臂体量。

The middle floor, the “Attic”, consists of flexible irregularly shaped rooms, nooks and corners inhabiting the spaces between the trusses of the bridge structure. The enclosed spaces are designed to accommodate both noisy and quiet activities. The stepped seating in the open central area of this floor is the result of the form of the cantilevering, twisting west façade.

▼从首层通向中间的“阁楼”层,access to the middle floor

▼封闭式的空间可以同时满足安静和嘈杂的活动需要,the enclosed spaces are designed to accommodate both noisy and quiet activities

▼用于支撑顶部桥梁的桁架之间形成了一系列灵活且不规则的空间,the “Attic” consists of flexible irregularly shaped rooms, nooks and corners inhabiting the spaces between the trusses of the bridge structure

▼螺旋楼梯,spiral staircase

通过直接敞开于周围的城市景观并消解室内外区域的界限,图书馆与Töölönlahti区形成了紧密的连接,首层大厅和装有玻璃幕墙的多功能厅则成为了室外空间的一种延伸。拱形的木制体量在朝向市民广场的入口上方形成一个巨大的顶篷,在带来有顶室外空间的同时,也将地面餐厅等功能空间扩展至广场上。位于顶篷顶端的大型公共平台使可利用的户外空间面积增加了一倍,同时为图书馆的来访者们提供了游玩、聚会和观赏城市风景的好去处。

By opening directly to the surrounding cityscape and by dissolving the border between indoor and outdoor areas, the building engages directly with the Töölönlahti area. The large foyer and the glass-walled multi-purpose hall on ground level act as indoor extensions of the outdoor spaces.The arching wooden volume creates an entrance canopy over the Kansalaistori square forming a covered outdoor space that expands the building’s functions such as the ground level restaurant to the square. The large public terrace on top of the canopy doubles the amount of public outdoor space available for library visitors and creates a new destination where people can meet and observe the city below.

▼拱形的木制体量在朝向市民广场的入口上方形成一个巨大的顶篷,the arching wooden volume creates an entrance canopy over the Kansalaistori square

图书馆大楼设有3个公共入口:南面的入口主要服务于来自中央火车站方向的人群;西面的入口与市民广场相连,由伸出的天蓬提供遮蔽;位于东北角的入口则服务于家庭图书馆和电影院的访客。设备和后勤空间位于地下层。行政办公室和仓库尽可能地远离公共楼层,从而最大化地加强图书馆的开放性和可达性。

There will be three public entrances in the building: one in the south for the main pedestrian flow from the direction of the Central Railway Station, one next to the Kansalaistori square to the west of the building shielded by the overhanging canopy, as well as one for the visitors to the family library and the movie theater in the northeastern corner.  The spaces for maintenance and library logistics are located at basement level. The administration and storage spaces are kept to the minimum on the publicly accessed levels to maximize the open and accessible nature of the library. The administrative and storage functions of Helsinki Public Library will remain at the main library in nearby Pasila.

▼从西南方向望向图书馆入口,view from the southwest

在芬兰,图书馆是法定运营的公共设施,因此赫尔辛基图书馆的基本服务均向公众免费开放。新的图书馆将站在城市图书馆体系的最前沿,为市民提供广泛的服务(例如大量的休息空间等),并为赫尔辛基信息中心、Europa Experience信息中心以及由国家视听学院创立的Kino Regina影院提供辅助支持。图书馆每周7天向市民开放。新的图书馆不仅是赫尔辛基大都市区规模最大的图书馆,同时也将成为当地最受欢迎的目的地和公共空间。图书馆预计每日接待1万名访客,年访问量将达到250万人次。

Library operations are statutory in Finland. Basic library services are free of charge and freely available to everyone. The new library will be at the forefront of the renewal of the city’s library services. In addition to the core operations, there will be a wide range of services available inside the building alongside an abundance of lounge spaces and auxiliary services that support the operations such as Helsinki Info, the City of Helsinki’s information center; Europa Experience, the center for EU related information; and Kino Regina, the National Audiovisual Institute’s movie theater. In terms of services offered, the new library, a public space open seven days a week, will be the largest public library in the Helsinki metropolitan area, and will most certainly also become the metropolitan area’s most popular spot for returns and reservations. The library is expected to attract 10,000 visitors per day and 2.5 million visitors per year.

▼图书馆每周7天向市民开放,the new library opens seven days a week to the public

新的图书馆将使城市环境变得更加多样化,并为所有年龄段的使用者提供活动体验,使人们可以在同一座建筑中共度美好时光。作为商业性的公共空间,图书馆还将充当赫尔辛基本地居民的“大客厅”,同时作为工作和学习空间使用。这样一来,图书馆的用户也将从被动的媒介使用者转变为主动的参与者和内容生产者。

The library will enliven and diversify the new urban environment created in the Töölönlahti area. It will offer activities and experiences for all ages. There will be plenty of spaces that enable people to gather and spend time together, free of charge. The role of the library’s clients will evolve from passive media users to active agents, participants and content producers. As a non-commercial open public space, the new Central Library will act as Helsinki residents’ common living room, work space and learning environment.

▼家庭阅读室,family reading room

 

技术细节 | Technical details  

设计概念以三个独立的公共楼层为基础,通过在首层空间上方置入跨度超过100米的不对称桥梁结构而得以实现。该桥梁结构由钢桁架和钢梁构成,并由两个巨大的拱形钢结构提供支撑,其外部包覆以钢筋混凝土张力板。这一创新性的结构方案能够在构建无柱内部空间的同时,为地下公路隧道的修建提供可能。二级钢制桁架为悬挑的阳台和从屋顶延伸的不对称顶篷提供了支撑,成为一个能够适应永久和临时功能需要的独特结构。

Oodi’s spatial concept based on three individual public floors is executed by building the library as an inhabited, asymmetrical bridge spanning over 100 meters over the open ground floor space. The bridge structure consisting of steel trusses and beams is supported by two massive steel arches, tensioned together with a reinforced concrete tension slab. The innovative structural solution has enabled both the construction of the flexible column-free interior spaces and the possibility for the construction of a future road tunnel under the site. Secondary steel trusses support the cantilevering balcony and roof canopy asymmetrically from the arch structure, forming a unique structural design to accommodate both permanent and temporary functions for both the library and the public realm.

▼结构轴测图,axon of structure

建筑采用当地材料建造,并充分考虑了当地的气候条件。木制立面由预制单元构成。33毫米厚的优质芬兰云杉木被用于外墙饰面。项目团队还特别为木材的切割和加工开发了新的评级和质量控制系统。形态复杂的曲面是借助参数化3D设计工具得以生成并达到预期的精度。立面的质感和色泽将随着时间的推移而变得愈发细腻和富有深度。

Oodi has been built using local materials and with local climate conditions in mind. The wooden façade is made from pre-fabricated elements. 33-millimeter-thick Finnish high-quality spruce has been used for the cladding. A specific grading and quality control system was developed for the timber, the sawing and the treatment of the slats. The complex curved geometry was designed and manufactured using algorithm-aided parametric 3D design methods in order to achieve the required precision. The appearance of the façade will develop over the years towards a deeper, richer version of its initial hue.

▼立面的质感和色泽将随着时间的推移而变得愈发细腻和富有深度,the appearance of the façade will develop over the years towards a deeper, richer version of its initial hue

建筑外墙结构的设计遵循了团队既定的被动式设计目标。对幕墙性能的深入分析为环保型的解决方案提供了有用的信息,使设计团队能够最大程度地降低对机械性环境控制系统的需要。玻璃幕墙为公共区域带来充足的自然光,减少了人工照明的使用,从而使室内空间的质量得到提升。精心规划的布局为空间赋予了更大的灵活性。所以有的公共楼层都配有活动地板系统,使建筑在150年的预期寿命内能够灵活地进行调整和更新。

The design of the building envelope is intrinsic to the passive energy approach adopted by the project team. Detailed analysis of the façade performance has informed the environmental solutions and has allowed the team to minimize the requirement for mechanical environmental control systems, which facilitates the highly flexible architectural solution. The glass facades allow for large amounts of functional daylight in the public areas, reducing the use of artificial light and enhancing the quality of the interior spaces as a multifunctional citizen’s forum. The carefully planned placement and optimization of building services has enabled the flexibility of the spatial arrangements. All public levels of the building are equipped with access floors to allow for changes in use during the estimated 150-year life span of the building.

▼玻璃幕墙为公共区域带来充足的自然光,the glass facades allow for large amounts of functional daylight in the public areas

图书馆建筑拥有卓越的节能表现,其能耗水平接近零能耗建筑(nZEB)的标准。优异的节能性要归功于高效的基础设备系统。木制元素的应用(如建筑外部的木制饰面)也为建筑赋予了材料上的高效性。建筑信息模型工具被应用到建筑设计、施工设计和设计兼容度的分析当中,并将在未来被用于建筑的保养和维护。

The library building will be extremely energy efficient. Its energy consumption level is that of a nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB). This is mostly due to the efficiency of the building services. The material efficiency of the building has benefited among other things from the use of wood in the exterior cladding.  Building information modeling was used in both architectural and engineering design, as well as in checking the compatibility of the designs. Building information model will also be utilized for maintenance.

▼广场夜景,night view of the square

▼施工现场,construction photo

▼效果图,rendering

▼场地平面图,site plan

▼轴测图,axon

▼首层平面图,ground floor plan

▼二层平面图,middle floor plan

▼顶层平面图,top floor plan

▼西立面图,west facade

▼东立面图,east facade

▼北立面图和南立面图,north facade and south facade

▼横剖面图,cross section

Type: Open international competition, 2012-2013, 1st prize Status: Construction started in 2015, library open to public from December 5, 2018 onwards
Program: Library facilities, meeting rooms, group working space, maker space, living lab, recording studios, photography studio, editing rooms, office space, café, restaurant, movie theater, auditorium, multi-purpose hall, exhibition facilities, information booths, 17,250 m2 total
Construction budget: 98,000,000 €
Location: Töölönlahdenkatu 4, 00100 Helsinki, Finland
Client: City of Helsinki
Architect: ALA Architects
Team at ALA:
Competition phase: ALA partners Juho Grönholm, Antti Nousjoki, Janne Teräsvirta and Samuli Woolston with Aleksi Niemeläinen, Jussi Vuori and Erica Österlund, as well as Willem Barendregt, Martin Genet, Vladimir Ilic, Tiina Liisa Juuti, Julius Kekoni, Auvo Lindroos, Pekka Sivula, Pekka Tainio and Jyri Tartia
Implementation phase: ALA partners Juho Grönholm, Antti Nousjoki, Janne Teräsvirta (until 2015) and Samuli Woolston with Niklas Mahlberg (project architect), Jussi Vuori, Tuulikki Tanska, Tom Stevens, Heikki Ruoho (interior architect), Nea Tuominen, Pauliina Rossi, Anna Juhola and Miguel Silva, as well as Michal Bala, Marina Diaz Garcia, Jyri Eskola, Zuzana Hejtmankova, Harri Humppi, Mette Kahlos, Anniina Kortemaa, Felix Laitinen, Malgorzata Mutkowska, T. K. Justin Ng, Marlène Oberli-Räihä, Olli Parviainen, Alicia Peña Gomez, Anton Pramstrahler, Jack Prendergast, Akanksha Rathi, Niina Rinkinen, Mikael Rupponen, Mirja Sillanpää and Pekka Sivula
Collaborators:
Competition phase: Arup (energy technical specialist, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and facade engineering), VIZarch (visualizations), Klaus Stolt (scale models)
Implementation phase: YIT (main contractor), E.M. Pekkinen (contractor for excavation work and basement construction), Ramboll CM (project management) Ramboll Finland (structural engineering, HVAC, energy technology), Granlund (theater technology), Rejlers (electrical engineering and AV consulting), Finnmap Infra & Sipti Infra (geo planning), Helimaki Acoustics (acoustical engineering), Gravicon (BIM coordinator), Palotekninen insinööritoimisto Markku Kauriala (fire safety), Pöyry Finland (traffic planning), Saircon (kitchen design), VIZarch (visualizations) and StoltModels (scale models)

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