马巷新民宿:群院,甘肃 / 超城建筑

西北高海拔地区的院落生活

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感谢 超城建筑 予gooood分享以下内容。更多关于:CU Office on gooood
Appreciation towards CU Office for providing the following description:

 

项目目标:共同生活的新邻里
Purpose: a new neighborhood of common life

该项目位于甘肃省东乡族自治县唐汪镇马巷村。这里被誉为丝绸古道河湟口,陇上杏花第一村。大接杏是这里的特产,因此每年的杏花节,这个小村落都会云集来自各地的旅游者。同时马巷村是一个位于汉藏交汇地区的多民族、多宗教混居的自然村。村子里既有东乡族的穆斯林礼拜堂,也有藏传佛教的吉祥寺,还有道教的寺庙等。因此村子里有限的开放空间,会被旅游、宗教、民俗等各种活动与节日所占据。因此马巷村的社会空间也就天然具有类似城市的复杂性与多样性。如何更好地共同生活成为了我们这个项目设计的出发点。因此在这个项目中我们尊重马巷村的复杂性与多样性,并以此为基础,寻找一种既能保护其私人领域生活方式的多样性,又能在公共领域实现积极交往与共同生活的建筑空间形式。这个形式被称为共同生活的新邻里。

The project is located in Maxiang Village, Tangwang Town, Dongxiang Autonomous County, Gansu Province of China. It is known as the ancient silk road Hehuangkou, the first village of Apricot blossom on Longshang with a special species named Dajie apricot. Every spring when the apricots blooming, Apricot Flower Festival is taking place in this small village attracting the tourists from all over the country. Maxiang Village is a multi-ethnic and multi-religious  village located at the intersection region of Han and Tibet. The village has not only Muslim mosque of Dongxiang ethnic group, but also auspicious temple of Tibetan Buddhism, and temples of Taoism. Therefore, the narrow open spaces in the village are occupied by various activities and festivals in terms of tourism, religion, and folklore. The social space in Maxiang Village has thus the complexity and diversity as in cities. How to make people live together better has become the starting point of our project. We are looking for an architectural form that protects the diversity of their private realm and also is able to achieve active communication and living together in a public sphere. This form is called the new neighborhood of common life.

▼项目鸟瞰,aerial view of the project ©金伟琦

 

地点与场所:西北高海拔地区的马巷新民宿
Site and place: New Home-stay of Maxiang Village in the high altitude area of the northwest China

马巷村最低海拔超过1700米,气候干燥少雨。项目所在地块由南北两个大小基本相同并紧连一起的宅基地组成。因此这个项目被分成为南北两个部分,以利于土地权属的清晰。场地东侧不远处是一道深达数十米断崖,崖下是黄河的支流洮河。场地西侧是一条连接村中聚落的土路。这个地块虽然并不紧邻村中民居,但其实距离非常近。之所以将选址确定在这里,除了产权等原因,最主要的是这里位于两个主要的民居聚落之间,同时这里与新落成的东乡文化中心非常近,因此当她建成之后将与东乡文化中心共同构成一种新的乡村生活方式。这也是执行了设计师此前的马巷乡村振兴策略的具体化。也就是通过开放的社会生活以及适当的商业化运营,谨慎地将微小规模的城市公共产品与文化旅游复合单元植入乡村有机公共体之中,通过自上而下的公共性投资,带动自下而上的本地服务业。作为一个新建民宿项目,因此本项目没有选址在现有的村落中心区,而是在两个聚落之间的位置,这样可以极大的减小对现有村落生活的冲击,同时也为未来村落城市化的发展指明了方向。

The lowest elevation of Maxiang Village exceeds 1,700 meters. The site of the project consists of two plots that are with a similar size and close together in the north and south. Therefore, this project is divided into two parts, north and south, to facilitate the clarity of land ownership. Not far from the east side of the site is a cliff with a depth of more than ten meters where beside flowing Tao River, a tributary of the Yellow River. On the west side of the site is a country road connecting the villages. Although this plot is not close to the village residences but very near them. Apart from property rights and other reasons, the main reason for the site selection is that it is located between the two main residential settlements of the village and it is very close to the newly built Dongxiang Cultural Center. It is expected that it will contribute to forming of a new countryside lifestyle with the culture centre together. This is also the implementation of the designer’s previous strategy of revitalizing the Maxiang countryside. That is, through open social life and appropriate commercial operations, carefully implanting small-scale urban public products and cultural tourism composite units into rural organic public bodies, to drive the bottom-up local service industry through top-down public investment. As a new home-stay project, it is not located in either the two settlements of the village but in between which can greatly reduce the impact on the life of the existing village but show a direction of the future village urbanization development of Maxiang.

▼顶视图,项目东侧不远处为断崖及黄河支流,top view, to the east side of the project is a cliff, under which is a tributary of the Yellow River ©金伟琦

 

建筑形态:群院
Architecture Morphology: Group Yard

马巷村的传统民居建筑大多采用单层平顶四合院的方式,大多数民居是多个尺度类似的四合院组合在一起的内合院构成。这样就形成了一个由血亲构成的大家庭的内合院空间。新民宿的建筑形态借鉴了当地的建筑传统,也采取了内合院的形式,在南北两地块上分别设计了两组内合院建筑。每个内合院建筑由4个独立的小院构成。因此南北一共建造了8个小院。

The traditional residential buildings in Maxiang Village are single-storey flat-top courtyards, and most residential buildings are composed of multiple courtyards with similar dimensions. In this way, multiple courtyards of a large family composed of blood relatives are formed. The architectural form of the new home-stay project draws on local architectural traditions taking the form of multiple courtyards. Two sets of courtyard buildings are designed on the north and south plots. Each courtyard building consists of 4 independent courtyards. Therefore, a total of 8 small courtyards were built in the north and south.

▼项目外观,分为南北两组合院,external view of the project divided into two sets of courtyard buildings on the north and south plots ©金伟琦

▼道路连接两套合院,road connecting the two sets of courtyard buildings ©金伟琦

▼简洁的建筑体块,building composed of simple volumes ©金伟琦

与当地传统合院不同的是,每组内合院的结构被设计为2级合院结构,也就是在其中增加一个共院,入口首先进入共院,然后分别进入各自的小院。这样做的目的是将私密的专属小院生活空间与大院共同生活空间分割开来,使得大院与小院之间形成一种院落间的有机形态与生活方式。这当然也是出于对未来乡村家庭小型化趋势的考虑。随着乡村大家庭逐渐向小家庭的发展,血亲式的大家庭合院将逐渐被小家庭居住单元所取代,而马巷新民宿方案所形成的的邻里式合院则提供了一种源自传统建筑形态的新形式——群院。这将是一种适应中国乡村土地集约化发展的,全新的低层高密度的集合居住形式。在这里,我们提倡一种回归自然简朴,但同时有具有高品质和现代化的生活方式。

Different from the local traditional courtyards, the structure of each group of courtyards is designed as a two-level courtyard structure with a common yard. Through the entrance, people can enter the common courtyard first and then enter their respective small courtyards. The purpose of this is to separate the private living space of the exclusive small courtyard from the common living space of the large courtyard, so as to form an organic form and lifestyle between the common courtyard and the small private courtyard. This is of course also a consideration about the future trend of miniaturization of rural families. With the development of large rural families into small families, the kinship style and large family courtyards will gradually be replaced by small family housing units, and the neighborhood style courtyards of Maxiang new home-stay plan provide a source of a new form coming from the traditional architectural form: “group yard”. This will be a new low-rise, high-density collective residential form that is adapted to the intensive development of rural land in China. It aims to search a way of returning to nature and simplicity but achieving a high-quality and modern lifestyle for the local people.

▼从入口进入共院,enter the common courtyard through the entrance ©金伟琦

▼共院,连接不同的专属小院,common courtyard with entrance to private courtyards ©金伟琦

▼从小院看向共院,view to the common courtyard from the private courtyards ©金伟琦

 

空间语言:开洞与日光
Spatial language: Hole and sunlight

该项目地处干燥少雨的西北高原之上,空气透明度极高,不仅带来了较高的紫外线照射,也带来了色彩丰富,变化多端的日光与天空。空间既形成了院落,也物化成了建筑体量。通过日光建筑空间的内部与外部被连接为一个整体。日光如同雕刻刀一样将空间切割塑形。开洞成为一个重要的空间语言,它使得日光得以成为整个设计的核心。开洞形态不仅在竖向上形成了院落,也在水平向上连接了室内与室外,院里与院外。

The project is located on the dry and rain-less plateau in the northwest China. The air transparency is extremely high which not only brings high ultraviolet radiation but also brings colorful and varied daylight and sky. The space not only forms courtyards but also materializes into  building volume. The interior and exterior of the building space are connected as a whole through daylight. Daylight cuts and shapes the space like a carving knife in the hand of sculptor. The opening hole has become an important spatial language, which makes daylight become the core of the design. The shape of the holes not only forms the courtyard vertically but also connects the indoor and outdoor, the courtyard and the outside horizontally.

▼开洞在水平方向上连接不同空间,different spaces are connected by opening holes ©金伟琦

白色的墙面在最大限度上呈现了日光投射出的丰富色彩与变化多端。而8个居住建筑的一角朝外的位置都被设计了一个开敞的开洞,并在其中设计了一个突出于外墙的玻璃立方体,使得二层居室的内部空间与院落连接为一体。为了在高度上与村中的民居相协调,马巷新民宿的高度被设定为不高于5.5米,因此每个居住单元被设计为两层,其中首层是半地下,位于室外地坪的负1.5米。这样,群院中的共院的标高保持与室外相同的标高,而每个小院则是负1.5米。这样的设计不仅增加了建筑的使用面积,也保护了小院在视线上的隐私性。同时半地下的设计也使得该建筑在该地区漫长的冬季中可以借助土地本身的保温性而节能。

The white wall presents the rich colors and variations projected by sunlight to the maximum. The corners of the eight residential buildings facing outwards are all designed with an hole, and a glass cube protruding from the outer wall is designed in it so that the internal space of the second-story bedroom is connected with the courtyard. In order to coordinate with the existing village’s residential buildings in height, the height of Maxiang New Home-stay is set to be not higher than 5.5 meters. Therefore, each residential unit is designed as two floors and the ground floor is 1.5 meters underground. This design not only increases the use area of the building, but also protects the privacy of the courtyard in sight. At the same time, the semi-underground design also enables the building to take advantage of the isolation of the earth itself to save energy during the long winter.

▼居住建筑一角设置突出的玻璃立方体,glass cube protruding from the outer wall of the residential buildings ©金伟琦

▼玻璃立方体近景,内设二层居室,closer view to the glass cube with second-floor bedroom inside ©金伟琦

▼玻璃立方体后的卧室,bedroom behind the glass cube ©金伟琦

▼夜景,night view ©金伟琦

▼总平面图
site plan ©超城建筑

▼北院平面图,plans of the north plot ©超城建筑

▼南院平面图,plans of the south plot ©超城建筑

▼立面图,elevations ©超城建筑

 

▼剖面图,section ©超城建筑

建筑师:北京超城建筑设计有限公司
地址:马巷村,东乡族自治县,甘肃省,中国
建筑面积:640平米
占地面积:1028平米
设计时间:2019年
竣工时间:2020年
主创建筑师:车飞、章雪峰
设计团队:梁金平、张耀文
建筑施工图配合单位:中国城市建设研究院有限公司
项目业主:中国扶贫基金会
摄影师:金伟琦

Architects: CU OFFICE
Site Area: 1042㎡
Area: 640㎡
Year: 2020
Chief Architects: Fei Che, Xuefeng Zhang
Design Team: Jinping Liang, Yaowen, Zhang
Local Design Institute: China Urban Construction Design & Research Institute Co., LTD
Client: China Foundation for Poverty Alleviation
Photographs: Weiqi Jin

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