UNStudio近日赢得了哥德堡缆车的设计方案竞赛。参赛的竞争者包括BIG, WilkensonEyre，White Arkitekter以及Diller和Scofidio+Renfro等。新的缆车系统将涵盖一条包含4个车站及6座索道塔的路线。该项目预计2021年建成，届时将为哥德堡建市400周年添上光彩的一笔。缆车系统将为整座城市提供快速而高效的空中交通，这也是瑞典自1930年代开通地铁之后首次引进全新的公共交通模式。
UNStudio’s design has been selected as the winning entry in the competition for the Gothenburg cable car. Proposals were also submitted by BIG, WilkensonEyre and White Arkitekter with Diller, Scofidio+Renfro. The new cable car system will comprise one cable car line with four stations and six towers and is one of a number of projects undertaken by the City of Gothenburg to mark its 400th anniversary in 2021. The cable car system, which will provide fast and efficient aerial transport across the city, will be the first new mode of public transportation in Sweden since the subway was introduced in Stockholm in the 1930s.
▼新的缆车系统将涵盖一条包含4个车站及6座索道塔的路线，the new cable car system will comprise one cable car line with four stations and six towers
悬于河流上空的缆车线路将为哥德堡的市民提供新的出行选择，在缩短路程的同时还能有效地减少对环境的影响，届时位于河流北部的地区将直接与南部的旧城区形成连接。Ben van Berkel说：“缆车系统不仅能够满足可持续交通的需要，使不断扩大的城市彼此相连，还能够避开地面交通的拥堵，以最短的路线保证居民和游客出行的便捷性、高效性和可靠性。除了基本的实用功能之外，它还使人们能够以全新的方式来体验城市的风景。” 总长为3公里的缆车线路以南岸历史城区的Järntorget为开端，与公交站和电车枢纽相连，随后跨越河流向城市北部延伸，途经余下的三个站点。
For the people and the City of Gothenburg the cable car will provide an alternative form of public transport by way of aerial shortcuts across the RiverCity. Travel times will be significantly reduced with minimum environmental impact, while an efficient and direct connection will be established between areas north of the river and the old city to the south. Ben van Berkel: “A cable car system can not only provide much needed sustainable transport between otherwise disconnected parts of our growing cities, but by travelling ‘as the crow flies’ and bypassing traffic congestion on the ground, it can ensure extremely fast, reliable and efficient travel for both residents and visitors alike. Although primarily a pragmatic solution, cable cars are also a very congenial way to travel as they enable us to see and experience our cities in a whole new way.” The 3km long Gothenburg cable car line starts at Järntorget in the historic city on the south bank of the river, where it links to a bus and tram transfer node. It then crosses the river and continues to three further stations in the north of the city.
▼缆车线路与公交站和电车枢纽相连，the 3km long Gothenburg cable car line links to a bus and tram transfer node
索道塔 | TOWERS
6座索道塔的设计以哥德堡当地的船厂起重机为参照，如雕塑般矗立在景观之间，定义出全新的城市天际线，同时具有象征性地连接了城市的历史与未来。Ben van Berkel说：“索道塔的设计参考了船厂起重机的不规则外形，以及它们作业时的移动方式。设计的目标在于体现出哥德堡的工业历史，同时反映出这座城市的广阔未来。”
Inspired by and referencing the steady motion of Gothenburg’s famous shipyard cranes, the six towers will continue across the landscape as sculptures, defining a new city skyline and symbolically connecting the history of the RiverCity with its future. Ben van Berkel: “The design of the Gothenburg cable car references the asymmetrical shapes of the shipyard cranes and their movements as they carry their loads throughout the day. The aim of the design is to reflect the robustness of this industrialised city’s past, whilst alluding to its expansive future. Although the towers are pieces of high engineering, they are also very sculptural, slender and transparent within the urban landscape.”
▼索道塔定义出全新的城市天际线，the six towers will continue across the landscape as sculptures, defining a new city skyline
The innovative structural concept of the towers enables them to be positioned and adapted to blend into the various urban situations at ground level. This light and open structural solution also facilitates urban paths, streets and green spaces to pass through the base of towers, thereby avoiding the creation of dark, socially unsafe conditions. The open tower structure will also avoid the casting of heavy shadows and will ensure a pleasant wind climate at the towers’ base. The highest tower at the Lindholmen quay could also become a city balcony located on the water: a new urban focal point that makes the water accessible and provides a new destination for social gathering.
▼索道塔几何结构示意，tower geometry system
▼65m索道塔立面图，65m tower elevation
▼100m索道塔立面图，100m tower elevation
信号灯 | BEACONS
At night the illumination of the towers is achieved by spotlights that line the inside of the tower beam surface. Light cutting through a gap between structural components creates a thin, sharp line which subtly emphasises the silhouette at night. A daytime scheme of white tones ranging from cold to warm will also be applied. Colour and brightness sensors will track the ambient light condition in order to adjust the illumination to an optimal level.
车站 | STATIONS
The stations are not only designed around principles of natural wayfinding and social safety, but also with a strong identity in mind that will make them clearly recognisable as destination points within the city. In their formal representation, with their faceted roofs, a family is formed with the tower structures to create a strong line-long, green link identity.
▼车站流线示意图，intermediate station accessibility
The geometric ceilings, along with the walls, both clad in wood, bring a warm glow to the stations and guide people up towards the platform level. Here the ‘floating’ roof structures enable unobstructed panoramic views to the surrounding city and the arrival and departure platform. Within the self-supporting roof structure, large skylights flood the platform with daylight, while all vertical transportation routes are carefully positioned to allow for the shortest routes and different speeds of travel. In their basic geometry the stations are designed to be adaptive to different urban conditions. For the intermediate-stations, a conceptual hinging mechanism around the station’s ‘centre point’ enables their main geometry to ‘kink’ in different required directions.
▼车站立面图，intermediate station elevation
▼车站纵剖面图，intermediate longitudinal section
可持续的城市交通系统 | SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORATION
The designs of both the towers and the stations follow strong sustainable principles, incorporating passive measures, active technology and most importantly, social sustainability. The towers are made from prefabricated fibre reinforced spun concrete and have a low material use and minimal maintenance requirements. The short construction time will also greatly minimise environmental impact. Energy is generated by the stations themselves by way of PVT panels (Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collectors) which are integrated within the roof structures to provide both electrical energy for lighting and thermal energy to heat floors and stairs. Energy use is limited by the incorporation of large skylights that flood daylight into the stations and artificial lighting that uses low energy systems. Lighting fixtures are hidden behind the wood clad walls and ceilings and provide a gentle wash of light over the interior surfaces. The resulting glare-free, indirect light, produces optimal conditions for safety, visual comfort and efficiency.
▼车站结构示意图，station structural concept
The large structural elements underneath the stations are intended to be clad with an innovative moss culture cladding which removes fine dust, nitrogen dioxide and ozone gases from the air and reduces the urban heat island effect by way of evaporation. Noise absorbing qualities also reduce traffic noise. Carefully designed surroundings for the stations, with public seating and leisure zones, will allow for social integration on a neighbourhood level. Kjellgren Kaminsky are the local architects for the project, while Knippers Helbig are the structure and engineering advisors. Licht&Soehne advised on the lighting design.
▼车站首层平面图，intermediate station ground floor plan
Gothenburg Cable Car, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017
Client: The City of Gothenburg – Traffic and Public Transport Authority (TRAFIKKONTORET)
in collaboration with:
The City Planning Authority (Stadsbyggnadskontoret)
Västtrafik AB , The Architects Sweden
Location: Gothenburg, Sweden: terminal station and tower at Järntorget, towers and intermediate station in the area of Lindholmen, towers and intermediate station in the area of Västra Ramberget, tower and terminal station in the area of Wieselgrensplatsen
Programme: cable car facilities, integrated into public transport system consisting of 4 stations (2 terminal, 2 intermediate) and 6 towers (height varying) Length: cable car line ~3km in length
Status: Winning competition entry
UNStudio: Ben van Berkel with Arjan Dingsté and Juergen Heinzel, Ayax Abreu Garcia, Xinyu Wang
Local Architect: Kjellgren Kaminsky Architecture AB
Structure & Engineering: Knippers Helbig
Lighting Design: Licht&Soehne
Visualisations (CGI): Plompmozes