MVRDV has completed its first project in India, Future Towers. Located in Pune, India’s 8th largest city and one of the fastest-growing cities in the country, Future Towers provides 1,068 apartments for a diverse section of the rapidly expanding population, a true vertical village that will house around 5,000 people in one building.
“未来之塔”是Amanora Park Town发展计划的一部分。该城镇创建于2007年，这要归功于2005年马哈拉施特拉邦颁布的关于在城市周围发展居住镇区的法规。在浦那，这些镇区拥有大量的汽车制造和技术单位，能够吸引年轻的专业人才。与印度许多其他迅速发展的城市一样，浦那周边的新建筑大都是千篇一律的普通住宅楼。在短短11年的时间里，一系列多样化且高质量的住宅塔楼沿着低密度的别墅区被建造起来，这使得Amanora Park Town的人口迅速扩展至超过2万5千人。同时，建立高密度住宅的压力也始终存在。
Future Towers is a part of Amanora Park Town, a community created in 2007 thanks to legislation passed in 2005 by the state of Maharashtra to encourage the development of residential “townships” near its cities. In Pune, these townships help to house the young professionals attracted to the city by its auto-manufacturing and technology sectors but, as with much of the rapid development all over India, many of the new buildings on Pune’s outskirts are generic, repetitive residential towers. In just 11 years, Amanora Park Town has grown to over 25,000 residents by focusing on a diverse, high-quality mixture of towers alongside low-density villas. But the pressure to expand faster with more high-density, low-individuality housing was ever-present.
▼“未来之塔”位于印度第八大城市浦那，Future Towers is located in Pune, India’s 8th largest city
MVRDV’s design for the Future Towers aimed to offer an alternative to this pattern, while still delivering apartments at the usual low price (since competition for new residents between different housing developments is fierce). Instead of a cluster of freestanding buildings, MVRDV’s response to the brief was a singular mountainous structure with peaks and valleys, under which 1,068 apartments are unified in one building. However, despite its expressive appearance, the design of Future Towers in fact stems from a series of methodical decisions based on MVRDV’s research into Indian housing. A critical deviation from the norm was to convince the client that the entire development would be more vibrant with a mixture of different units. This way, the building would ensure that users from the full spectrum of India’s exploding middle class all mingle—including young, mobile professionals who are new to the city; older, established residents; and families both large and small, all at a range of income levels. Apartments ranging from 45 square metres to 450 square metres are mixed together, a diversity enabled by the building’s mountainous shape and the shifting floor plans that it generates.
▼如山谷般起伏的单体结构将1068个居住单元包含在内，a singular mountainous structure with peaks and valleys, under which 1,068 apartments are unified in one building
MVRDV的主创建筑师及联合创始人Jacob van Rijs表示：“亚洲城市的发展如此迅速，统一而重复的住宅高楼已经成为常态。我们期望通过这次设计为住宅赋予多样性，并将不同背景的人们聚集在一起。项目的最初规划是建造16栋独立的塔楼，且公寓的类型大致相同。基于对印度现代住房的深入研究，MVRDV团队提出了一种新的居住系统，将不同类型的公寓混合在同一栋建筑当中。这样的住宅楼将会吸引不同收入水平的居住者，并且有利于Amanora Park Town的多元化发展。当然，这一切还要感谢委托方的支持和乐于尝试，使这样一个大规模住宅项目能够高效地实现，并且完全保证了居住环境的舒适度。”
“In Asia cities are growing so fast, and uniform repetitive residential towers are the norm”, says Jacob van Rijs, principal and co-founder of MVRDV. “With our design, we are making an effort to offer more variety and bring people from more different backgrounds together. In the original master plan, 16 separate towers were planned, all of which would have more or less the same type of apartments. The MVRDV team thoroughly researched modern Indian housing and came up with a system to create a mix of different types of apartment inside one building. This project will attract residents with a variety of incomes, something that will benefit the diversity of Amanora Park Town. Thanks to the client’s willingness to try something new, the efficiency needed for mass housing has been achieved without cutting back on residents’ comfort.”
▼将不同类型的公寓混合在同一栋建筑当中，能够吸引不同收入水平的居住者，a project with a mix of different types of apartment will attract residents with a variety of incomes
Because construction costs are low in India, and elevators comparatively expensive, the economics usually applied to residential design could be inverted; thus a reduced number of lift cores combined with corridors were in this case more economically desirable than having many towers, each with its own core and fewer corridors. As a result of this calculation, MVRDV’s design features 9 housing wings ranging from 17 to 30 storeys arranged around just 4 circulation cores.
▼9座翼楼围绕着4个交通核心筒布局，9 housing wings arranged around 4 circulation cores
The slabs form a hexagonal grid, which allows for wide views from the apartments and leaves large open public courtyards at ground level. The ‘peaks’ allow for optimized daylight conditions and the resulting inclined roofs allow for a number of exterior terraces, both private and communal. Recessed balconies on the main facades of the residential slabs themselves hint at the diversity of the homes behind, with a mixture of normal size, double-height, double-width and even some L-shaped balconies.
▼以六边形为单元的网格创造出宽阔而开放的公共庭院，the hexagonal grid allows for wide views from the apartments and leaves large open public courtyards at ground level
▼倾斜的屋顶带来私人和公共露台，the inclined roofs allow for a number of exterior terraces
The strong graphical appearance created by the balconies is accentuated by large, brightly coloured openings known as “scoops” that puncture the building’s façade to connect with the central corridor, providing public meeting spaces and cross ventilation in all communal spaces in the process. These spaces—which originated in the need to provide refuge spaces to meet the fire code requirements for long corridors—help to give a sense of “neighbourhood identity” to different parts of the building, with each scoop designated for a different activity (such as yoga or mini golf) or for a different type of resident (such as teens or toddlers).
▼立面上色彩鲜艳的“凹洞”进一步加强了立面的独特性，the strong graphical appearance created by the balconies is accentuated by large, brightly coloured openings known as “scoops”
▼每个“凹洞”都可以被用于进行特定的活动，例如瑜伽和迷你高尔夫等，each scoop is designated for a different activity such as yoga or mini golf
▼“凹洞”空间细部，inside the “scoop”
The courtyards below are linked by four-storey-high triangular gates, creating a 500-metre-long walk, and also feature different uses, with some designated for play, and others for sport, garden spaces, and more. This impressive list of amenities was made possible by the scale of the development: With so many apartments in one project, luxury features such as a 50-metre lap pool only add a fraction to the overall cost.
▼庭院由四层高的三角形大门连接起来，the courtyards below are linked by four-storey-high triangular gates
While much of MVRDV’s approach focused on rethinking Indian housing, the design also recognises which features should carry over from typical housing developments. A simple yet effective natural ventilation system, which both cools the apartments and can help extract air from kitchens, helps to make personal air conditioning units optional for residents. The floor plans also incorporate the principles of Vastu Shastra, the traditional system of architecture (often described as India’s answer to Feng Shui) that has long been expected of new developments in India.
这座已经完工的建筑只是Amanora Park Town“未来之塔”项目的第一阶段。整体项目将包含3期工程和大约3500间住宅。目前MVRDV已经在进行项目的第二阶段。
The completed building is just the first phase of the larger Future Towers project at Amanora Park Town, which comprises 3 phases and around 3500 dwellings in total. MVRDV is currently working on the second phase of the project.
Though “context-sensitive”, “diverse”, and “community-focused” may not be the first terms that come to mind when imagining a building that houses over 5,000 people, MVRDV’s Future Towers is an attempt to upend those perceptions. It is a building that understands the demands of Indian housing and the expectations of Indian culture, and uses the context of a brand new township to reimagine how they can be combined in a way that is better for both residents and cities at large.
▼1层平面图，plan level +1
▼30层平面图，plan level +30
Location: Amanora Park Town, Pune, India
Year: 2010 – 2018
Client: CCL Amanora Park Town
Program: Mixed-use, housing, commercial space and public amenities.
Phase 1 = 140,000m2 with 1,068 units (realised)
Phase 1, 2, and 3 = 370,000m2 with 3,500 units (Phase 2 and 3 for future development)
Principal-in-charge: Jacob van Rijs
Head of Department: Stefan de Koning
Design Team: Oana Rades, Saimon Idiakez, Doris Strauch, Maria Lopez Calleja, Akshey Venkatesh, Wenhua Deng, Jose Ignacio Velasco Martin, Pepijn Bakker, Kate Van Heusen, Ignacio Zabalo, Silke Volkert, Sara Bjelke, Nuray Karakurt, and Ivo Hoppers
Project Negotiation: Inger Kammeraat
Copyright: MVRDV 2018 – (Winy Maas, Jacob van Rijs, Nathalie de Vries)
Photographs: © Ossip van Duivenbode
PMC: Northcroft with Narenda Bhagwat, Nikita Oak, Satin Walla Co-architects: Client team
C&S: J+W with Umesh Joshi
MEP: Client team