法兰克福奥芬巴赫港口区域规划 / 安博戴水道

工业港口的重生

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非常感谢 Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl 予gooood分享以下内容。更多请至:Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl on gooood 
Appreciation towards Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl for providing the following description:

奥芬巴赫是美因河(River Main)畔的前工业港口,位于美因河上游5公里处。地理位置优越,风景优美。此次城市规划设想将水和现有城市的紧密联系,通过一个城市漫步网络把美因河水和更多的城市建筑密集区、城市公园、城市河湖网络连接在一起,使曾经的工业半岛转化为一个新的可持续发展的城市新区。通过植入综合商业、居住、办公等功能空间增加中心广场活力,并通过增加新的公共可达的蓝绿色开放空间来积极改善邻近的Nordend街区。奥芬巴赫(Offenbach)开发项目总共建立了四个大型的公共绿地。

The former industrial harbour of Offenbach, a city by the River Main approximately 5km upstream from the historic city centre of Frankfurt, Germany, is blessed with an advantageous location and scenery. Surrounded by water, a new city district is being created. The urban planning concept envisions the strong connection to the water and the existing city, as well as the experience of the rough harbour past as basic design principles. The plaza by the harbour is certainly the centrepiece of the development, supporting the rejuvenation of the industrial site through a mix of retail, housing and office spaces, and positively enhancing the adjacent Nordend neighbourhood through the addition of new, publicly accessible blue-green open spaces. The Offenbach development establishes a total of four, large-scale, publicly accessible green spaces.

▼总规划概览,overview of the plan ©Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl

 

独一无二的连接中心
Unique Site Context and Location

完成转型后的奥芬巴赫港将有望成为让未来世界为之一振的发展中心。当然,最关键的因素取决于该项目优越的地理位置。这里是最佳的城市入口,拥有最方便的城市公共交通,能为城市居民提供更高的生活品质。蓝绿基础设施的创建降低了噪音和环境污染,沿着美茵河的漫步道骑行二十分钟,人们就可以到达法兰克福城市中心。

通过本次设计,奥芬巴赫市获得了一个将成功转型成为一个现代的、可持续发展的、具有创新性的环保城市。工业时期的粗狂魅力被保留了下来——巨大的生锈钢铁结构的塔式起重机伫立在港口——它成为这个城市独特的记忆,让人们可以沿着水岸回顾这个城市的走过的工业时代。

▼改造前的奥芬巴赫港口,Offenbach Harbour before renovation ©Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl

Offenbach Harbour has the potential to become one of the most exciting, new urban developments worldwide. The site’s location is a key factor. The project site offers a high quality of life for residents, with optimal access and public transport connectivity. Noise and pollution levels are reduced and to the Frankfurt city centre it’s a convenient 20 minutes bike ride along the river Main.

The city of Offenbach has a distinct opportunity to present itself as modern, sustainable, creative and environmentally friendly. The rough charm of the former industrial harbour – with its large, rusted steel construction remnantsand a towering steel crane – is a unique identifier that recalls the site’s industrial roots along the water’s edge.

▼改造后的奥芬巴赫港口,巨大的生锈钢铁结构的塔式起重机伫立在港口,Offenbach Harbour after renovation, with its large, rusted steel construction remnantsand a towering steel crane ©Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl

 

曾经的工业港口与未来发展的蓝图
Industrial Past with Plans for the Future

从历史上看,奥芬巴赫港自1900年代初曾是重要的石油、天然气和煤炭运输中转站。但是在上世纪90年代逐渐失去了它的重要性。从那时起该区域便开始寻求新的空间利用。2004年,Ortner + Ortner 设计出了第一个住宅和办公混合用途的城市规划方案,并于2008年开始建设,但由于其很难推向市场找到专业的投资者而无限期延工。

安博戴水道团队从一个全新的视野来审视城市规划,2007年着手奥芬巴赫港口设计时为这个地区的重新设计带来了突破性的发展。自此以后,在巨大的起重机旁,新的城市蓝图开始建设起来了。

Historically Offenbach Harbour served as a transit point for oil, gas and coal since the early 1900s, but lost its importance in the 1990s. A lengthy planning process began in search of a new concept for utilising the space. The first urban plans were laid out in 2004 by Ortner + Ortner for a mixed use development of residences and offices, which commenced construction in 2008 yet difficulties of bringing the project to the market and finding dedicated investors led to costly delays.

In 2007 a fresh look on the urban design through Ramboll Studio Dreiseit land a positive market development brought the break-through in the development. Since then there are continuously cranes on the site and construction is ongoing.

▼平面图,Master plan ©Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl

 

创造环境友好型的开放空间
Creating People-Friendly Open Spaces

我们将此次挑战看作是机遇,努力重建奥芬巴赫港口,进一步挖掘城市现有水资源的功能和作用,激活城市空间活力。开放空间在整个半岛占据着战略性的位置,它创造了一个开放的视觉焦点。我们希望吸引市民来到港口区域,在这里亲水休憩。或者可以在接近港口地区时想象美因河丰富蜿蜒的形式和形态。

We saw these challenges as opportunities, joining the redevelopment effort of Offenbach Harbour with the desire to bring forward the presence, significance and capability of water to be a powerful, positive spatial enhancer within the urban realm. Open spaces are strategically located throughout the peninsula, creating visually stunning, open views to the water front. Our basic concept is that citizens should be able to see and experience the River Main – or, at the very least, be able to imagine its rich forms and patterns upon approach of the harbour area.

▼內湾开放广场是开放的视觉焦点,plaza opening to harbour creating visually stunning ©Heidenreich

这个开敞空间的一个关键特征是宽阔的波浪状台阶,象征了波浪的节奏。在项目的早期阶段,我们提出在水上搭建舞台的概念,使用台阶作为观众的宽敞座位。设计要求保留现状驳岸边界,但我们通过打开视觉轴使得场地北端面向水面方向拥有开阔视野,实现了实体空间与美因河的精神联系的目标。

另一个重点是,主要港口广场面向美因河,而不是像上版规划中城市布局那样“向后”转向海滨。 广场的概念是在穿越广场空间时营造出一种人们踩着半岛的感觉。广场是中央集会空间,通过城市居民的使用,使得该片区的活力被激活。虽然优化上版批复规划方案很有挑战,但是,为居民积极改善开放空间系统的整体方法使客户和当地政客都深信该提案的宜居性。

A key feature are the wide, undulating wave-like steps that are representative of the rhythm of waves spreading over the plaza. In the early stages of the project, we had conceptualised the idea to create a stage set on the water, using the steps as generous seating for spectators. While concepts for a harbour swimming pool or an indentation into the harbour’s wall edge were not possible to realise, by limiting obstruction along key visual axis and freeing views from the “Nord end” area of the site towards the water, our goal of creating physical and mental connection with the River Main has been accomplished.

Another focal, the main harbour plaza opens towards the River Main instead of ‘turning its back’ to the waterfront, as in the previous urban layout. The concept for the plaza was to create the sensation, while crossing the plaza space, that people were either stepping on a peninsula. This approach required modifying the recently approved construction plan, a task which can typically prove to be difficult. However, the holistic approach to positively enhance the open space system for residents convinced both the Client and local politicians of the proposal’s liveability quality. The results of this controversial effort are visible today as the main plaza is central gathering space and activated through extensive use.

▼宽阔的波浪状台阶是广场一大特色,plaza opening to harbour creating visually stunning ©Heidenreich

▼开放空间的多功能利用,multifunctional pavement  ©Heidenreich

这个广场最大的挑战就是如何平衡城市需求和有限的城市空间。巧妙地建立一个公众聚集区,满足居民的集会需求,以保持这个城市的活跃度。广场北部边缘被规划为一个互动的公共游乐空间,广场南面则更加商业化,提供了一个与广场空间配套的零售购物中心。

A main challenge for this plaza was balancing the creation of a smartly oriented public gathering area that invited and drew people in, while remaining active, maintained and functional, limiting large, non-usable space creation. The northern edges of the plaza are programmed with interactive play areas whereas the south is more commercial in character, providing a plaza space supporting the retail shopping centre land use adjacent.

▼广场临近商业区的水景,waterscape on the plaza near the commercial area ©Heidenreich

相较于上版总体规划在滨水空间设置活动场地,我们选择利用河流内港布置活动广场,通过优美、宽阔、波浪状的斜坡台阶延伸到水里来缓缓拥抱港口水域。

The previous master plan oriented the primary gesture of the main harbourfront plaza at the head of the river away from the waterfront edge. Instead, we opted to open up the space and embrace the harbour waters through the creation of graceful, wide, wave-shaped steps gently sloping and draining towards the water.

▼波浪状的斜坡台阶延伸到水里,wave-shaped steps gently sloping and draining towards the water ©Heidenreich

三个生物净化群落会净化街道右侧道路地表径流(位于街道右侧)后再排入河流。项目的可持续要素是将可持续性纳入城市结构。随着该地区的发展,生物多样性水平继续提高。群落生境为昆虫和蝴蝶以及热带植物提供了新的栖息地。

Three infiltration planters cleanse the surface runoff water from the roads before it flows over a surface runnel (located within the street right-of-way) and into the river. Sustainable elements of the project are made visible, tangible examples for integrating sustainability in the urban fabric. Biodiversity levels continue to improve as the area develops. Biotopes provide new habitats for insects and butterfliesas well as thermophilic flora.

▼生物净化,infiltration planters ©Heidenreich

 

整合工业遗址与港口历史
Industrial Past Integrated through Materials and Elements

受现存遗址和港口历史的启发,建筑材料我们选择了粗糙、坚固和耐用材料。天然的大幅面鹅卵石和耐候钢装饰墙壁和栏杆,带纹理的水泥和胶泥混凝土铺筑人行道。广场照明设计根据标准的八米高建筑开发,并装有可持续的LED设备。

In addition to preserving the old crane as a heritage element, weaving the story of the harbour’s historical working past into the new development was important and inspired our choice of building materials – rough, robust and durable were key factors. We selected natural, large format cobble stones, ‘rusting’ metal for walls and railings, and textured cement and mastic concrete for pedestrian pavement. Plaza lighting features were developed based upon a standard eight metre high construction beam and populated with sustainable LED equipment.

▼建筑材料选择了粗糙、坚固和耐用材料,for the choice of building materials – rough, robust and durable were key factors ©Heidenreich

▼石制座椅,stone bench ©Heidenreich

▼带有纹理的水泥地面,textured cement floor ©Heidenreich

Nordend地区紧邻奥芬巴赫港重建区,位于市中心边缘,基于人口调查数据,这里的移民背景和低收入人群的比例较高。因此,我们希望通过整合面向居民的空间设计和周到的服务设施设计来缓解由于新开发地区租金上涨导致的流离失所以及中产阶级化的担忧和负面影响。创造了新的就业机会。

在项目开发之前曾作为受欢迎的海滩俱乐部,而在建筑完工后重回这里,娱乐和自发性的社会互动再次被激活。城市社区花园吸引市民走向水、接近水、享受新空间。奥芬巴赫港口改造后氛围活跃,为成功的综合性开发奠定了良好基础。

▼水边步道,提升场地服务设施,water runway, improve infrastructure ©Heidenreich

The Nordend area, bordering the Offenbach Harbour redevelopment, is located at the edge of the city centre, and is composed demographically with a higher percentage of people with a migrant background and low income.  Concerns of gentrification and the negative effect of new development regarding rental prices and displacement aim to be abated through the thoughtful integration of civic oriented spaces and facilities for both neighbourhoods to utilise. New job opportunities have been created.

Prior to its current development, the space served a temporary public open space function as a popular beach club, to be reappropriated after the buildings were completed. Further temporary uses were activated as opportunities for recreation and spontaneous social interaction began to take place; the results include the establishment of an urban community garden which was widely accepted by the residents, becoming a successful example of an integration project able to draw citizens towards the water and enjoy the new spaces. The liveliness of these projects coupled with the dynamics of the urban development in Offenbach bear a promising future for the coming years and a good basis for a socially successful and integrated project.

▼吸引市民走向水、接近水、享受新空间,draw citizens towards the water and enjoy the new spaces ©Heidenreich

位于半岛顶端的公园目前正在开发建设中,站在未来绿地的中心,法拉克福如城市画卷一样在眼前展开,静静聆听着周边的海水的海浪声。这将是一个独特的开放空间和整体发展的最大亮点。

The park at the tip of the peninsulais currently under development. Standingin the location of the future green area while looking towards Frankfurt, one is surrounded by the physical presence as well as the sound of the harbour waters; this will be a unique open space and highlight for the overall development.

▼未来的半岛公园,park in peninsulais in the future ©Heidenreich

奖项: 2011DGNB可持续城市区域金奖,德国奥芬巴赫港
2018德国设计奖城市空间和基础设施优秀设计奖
项目委托: Mainviertel Offenbach GmbH & Co. KG
工程设计: Schüßler-Plan
项目类型: 城市规划,水敏城市设计,工业再生性设计,生态基础设施设计,滨水设计
设计时间: 2007~2017年
施工时间: 2011~2021年
项目面积: 一期10.7公顷,共20公顷

Awards: DGNB Gold Sustainable City District 2011
German Design Award Winner excellent communications design-urban space and infrastructure 2018
Client: Mainviertel Offenbach GmbH & Co. KG
Engineers: Schüßler-Plan
Expertise: urban masterplan, water sensitive urban design, industrial regeneration, ecological infrastructure, waterfront
Design: 2007-2017
Construction: 2011-2021
Area: 20 ha,phaseⅠ 10.7ha

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