Cold pavilion and warm pavilion, China by SU Architects

To know “the cold” and “the warm”: The experiment of cold pavilion and warm pavilion

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冷暖度
The Degree of Cold and Warmth

有关建筑空间的“冷暖度”可分为物理层面和现象层面。从物理层面来讲,建筑空间本无温度的意义,因为它等同于气温。但借由人的触感,材料的导热能力和质感使人产生“冷”和“暖”的主观感受,从而形成对特定材料的共同潜意识的温度感知力。因此,即使未与建筑有直接接触,仅从视觉上对其的温度感知也应运而生。这种因材料本身引起的对于冷暖的感知便是其物理性的冷暖度。

The “cold and warm degree” of an architectural space can be divided into the physical level and the phenomenon level. Physically speaking, it’s meaningless to discuss the temperature of a building as it is equivalent to the temperature of the environment. But by the sense of touch, the thermal conductivity and texture of the material, the subjective feelings of “cold” and “warm” are produced, thus forming a common subconscious temperature perception of a particular material. Therefore, even if there is no direct contact with the building, only from the visual, sense of its temperature has emerged. This perception of warmth and cold of the material itself is its physical temperature.

▼冷暖厅概览,Cold pavilion and warm pavilion ©赵奕龙

另一方面,任一种材料在塑造空间的过程中,均存在如何支撑与覆盖的结构问题。材料受运输和加工过程的极限尺寸限制,在搭建的过程便会面临一个基本的力学问题:材料以何种方式交接?当我们感知帕提农神庙高冷的静默,佛光寺大殿温润的庄重,均是通过材料以及杆件搭接方式互相配合,完成一次空间温度的塑造。这就是现象层面的“冷暖度”。建筑之材料取自于自然,由自然之力形成,组合交接的方式暗示了人的劳作之力,比例隐含了材料力学属性的能量,而光线则实现了空间的凝固。在现代建筑中,结构往往被消极地隐藏到墙和楼板里,但结构本身恰恰是一种自然力以及人力的精巧关联。

On the other hand, there are structural questions as how to support and cover, for any kind of material in the process of shaping the space. Limited by the size of the materials during transportation and processing, architects will be faced with a basic mechanical question: how materials connect with each other? When we perceive the stillness of Parthenon and the lukewarm gravity of Fo Guang temple, we perceive these feelings through their conjunctions of materials. They both achieve the shaping of space temperature by means of materials and rods cooperating with each other. This is the phenomenon level of “temperature”. The building materials are taken from nature and formed by the forces of nature. The way of combination and intersection implies the force of human labor, the proportion implies the energy of the material mechanics, and the light realizes the solidification of space. In modern architecture, the structure is often hidden passively into walls and slabs, but the structure itself is precisely a delicate connection between natural forces and manpower.

▼建筑外观,exterior view ©唐徐国

 

暖结构
Warm Structure

暖亭取材于最常见的木材,木材给人温暖之感,是自然力通过时间累积长成的材料。中国人积累了大量木作的技术,并将其发展成一套内涵丰富的文化体系。虽然以现代数学和物理学的观点审视之,其材料的结构效率不高。但中国传统木构体系的审美和志趣都蕴含极高的艺术价值。

Warm pavilions are made from the most common wood, which gives people a sense of warmth and it is a material that natural forces accumulate over time. The Chinese accumulated a great deal of woodwork techniques and developed them into a rich cultural system. Although viewed from modern mathematics and physics, the structural efficiency of the materials is unsatisfactory, the traditional Chinese wood construction system contains very high aesthetic and artistic value.

▼暖亭南立面,south facade of warm pavilion ©唐徐国

▼暖亭北立面,north facade of warm pavilion ©赵奕龙

▼北立面细部,north facade details ©赵奕龙

因取材自然,造屋往往大料难得,因此用小料搭建大屋是民间造屋的现实问题无法避免。在中国南方大部分地区,穿斗式的屋架方式是一种简洁有效的解决方案。小料密布,柱子和梁就直接暴露在整个空间中。历经数代木料搭接的演进,产生的木构文化,已经让我们对木头这种材料产生一种潜移默化的“木有引力”:木结构,梁柱不独立,总是组合出现形成一种抱团簇拥之感。木材质的集中堆积的数量,往往也是展示人力之强,甚至上升为文化等级观念(斗拱)。这种木料堆积往往出现在目所能及而手不可及之处,它已经远远超出了结构支撑的理性意义。古人常用这种杆件抱团堆积而产生的气场来表达权力或者财力,文人则常用这种杆件的变化来表达某种审美的情志。

Large natural materials are difficult to obtain therefore building large houses with limited small materials is a practical problem that cannot be avoided. In most parts of southern China, “Chuan Dou” Style of roof trusses is a simple and effective solution. The materials are arranged densely, and the columns and beams are directly exposed in the space. After several generations of development, the so-called “wood structure culture” we have today has led us to believe in the power of “wood gravity”. Wood structure, beams and columns are not independent, they often appear in combination forming a sense of collectivity. The overwhelming number of wood material often demonstrates the strength of manpower, or even rises to the concept of cultural hierarchy (Dougong). This accumulation of wood often appears in places where you cannot reach, and it has been far beyond the rational significance of structural support. The ancients often used this kind of pole to express power or financial resources, while the literati often used the change of the bar to express a certain aesthetic sentiment.

▼暖亭结构,warm pavilion structure

▼暖亭内部,warm pavilion interior view ©唐徐国

暖亭,用一种最简化的木料搭接的方式,正交卧搭,经过几次转换,将平面结构体系转化为坡屋顶檩椽体系。整个木杆件无草架明柎之分。符合当代建筑学所追求的建构之风。因结构转接的叠加,木梁呈现出抱团之感,再加上天窗的光线塑形,整个空间如沐暖之气。散柱式,空间再平面上具有“十”字型二向性,因此四根散柱布置具有稳定作用,散柱的方式模糊了柱的比例关系。让柱子从一根变为四根,增加了结构在空间中的视觉权重。

Warm Pavilion, with a most simplified way of conjunction, orthogonal connecting and several conversions, stands there as an example of transferring plane structure system into sloping roof purlin rafter system. The entire wood pole piece, without any extra decorative structure, is consistent with what contemporary architecture pursuits in terms of structure.
Because of the superposition of the structure, the wood beams present the feeling of collectivity. Shed by the light through the sky windows, the entire space is as warm as the summer air. Scattered column type, when seen in plan, shows the characteristics like “crossing roads” with its bidirectional nature. Therefore four-column-layout has a stable effect, and scattered-columns layout blurred the proportion relationship of columns. By changing the number of columns from one to four, the visual effect of the structure in space is enhanced.

▼在暖亭内部远望,looking out of the warm pavilion ©赵奕龙

▼暖亭结构细部,散柱的方式模糊了柱的比例关系,structure details of warm pavilion, scattered-columns layout blurred the proportion relationship of columns ©赵奕龙

  

▼天窗的光线塑形使整个空间如沐暖之气,shed by the light through the sky windows, the entire space is as warm as the summer air ©唐徐国

▼暖亭柱子构造,column structure of warm pavilion

▼柱子穿透楼板,column penetrating the slab ©赵奕龙

 

冷结构
Cold Structure

不同于木质的温暖,“金”属给人冰冷之感。从巴黎世博会机械馆的柱脚,到柏林美术馆的柱头,金属因其强大的力学性能,改变了木石砖需要靠数量叠加才能获得的结构强度。金属材料产生了大量奇观式的结构形式,但金属终究给人一种冰冷的气氛,从身体上产生一种排斥力。如果说暖结构是一种引力关系,冷结构则是一种疏离之感。

Unlike the warmth of wood, “metal” feels cold. From the pillars of the machinery pavilion at the Paris World Expo to the pillars of the Berlin Art Museum, metal, with its powerful mechanical properties, has changed the rule created by wood and bricks that greater the number, stronger the structure.
Metal materials are used to produce a great deal of marvelous forms of structure, but the metal often creates a cold atmosphere, forming force of alienation. If the warm structure shows a gravitational relationship, the cold structure shows a sense of estrangement.

▼冷亭外观,cold pavilion exterior view ©赵奕龙

▼冷亭外观,cold pavilion exterior view ©唐徐国

冷亭采用钢结构,杆件都是市场最易获得的型材。设计希望梁、柱、板之间保有一种疏离的斥力,甚至将两根中柱直接穿透楼板支撑屋顶,让柱子跟楼板无任何搭接关系,产生某种脱离。更甚让柱子穿水面而出,跟水面这种无形之物也排斥开来。

Cold pavilion uses steel structure; whose materials are most easily available in the market. It is hoped that the beams, columns and slabs will retain a force of alienation, and even the two middle columns will directly penetrate through the floor to support the roof, so that the columns will have no overlap with the floor, resulting in some kind of separation. What’s more, the pillars come out through the surface of the water, forming the same force of alienation even from the invisible thing like water.

▼冷亭北立面,north facade of cold pavilion ©赵奕龙

▼北立面细部,north facade details ©赵奕龙

在冷亭中,结构在冰气中挺立,檐柱又同基座以一种吊脚柱的方式脱离开来,强化这种斥力所在,整个空间中重力同人力的较劲,使得隐匿的冷之力量充盈其中。

In the cold pavilion, the structure stands in the icy air, and the eaves are separated from the base in the form of a kind of gondola column, strengthening this force of alienation. In the entire space, the hidden power of the “cold” is filled within everywhere by battles between gravity and human force.

▼冷亭泡池,cold pavilion bubble pool ©唐徐国

▼从冷亭泡池望向室外,looking from cold pavilion bubble pool to outside ©赵奕龙

▼结构在冰气中挺立,檐柱又同基座以一种吊脚柱的方式脱离开来,the structure stands in the icy air, and the eaves are separated from the base in the form of a kind of gondola column ©唐徐国

▼柱子穿水面而出,跟水面这种无形之物也排斥开来,the pillars come out through the surface of the water, forming the same force of alienation even from the invisible thing like water ©赵奕龙

冷与暖,不只是物理属性,更是一种现象的感知,不以空气的温度为计,却以空间的气韵让人冷暖自知。

Cold and warmth, is not only physical properties but also a perception towards the overall surroundings. Its not measured by the temperature but felt by the spirit and rhyme within the space.

▼冷暖亭的空间气韵,rhyme within the space of Cold pavilion and warm pavilion ©赵奕龙

▼总平面图,site plan

▼冷亭平面图,cold pavilion plan

▼冷亭剖面图,cold pavilion section

项目名称:未迟精品民宿咖啡厅及温泉房
cold pavilion and warm pavilion
业主:杭州未迟酒店管理有限公司
Client: vRetreats Hotel Management co. LTD
设计方:素建筑设计事务所
Architects: SU Architects
项目类型:公共建筑
Topology: Public Architecture
地理位置:浙江省,杭州市,桐庐县,合岭村
Location: Jiuxian, Tonglu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China
主创建筑师:马科元
Principal Architect: Keyuan Ma
设计团队:郭少珣,朱松
Design Team: Shaoxun Guo, Song Zhu
摄影:唐徐国、赵奕龙
Photographs: Xuguo Tang, Yilong Zhao
结构:木结构,钢结构
Structural System: Timer Structure,
用地面积:100 m²
Site Area: 100m²
建筑面积:150 m²
Floor Area: 150m²
设计周期:2016年9月-2016年12月
Design Period: 2016.09-2016.12
建设周期:2016年10月-2017年1月
Construction Period: 2016.10-2017.01

More: SU Architects , 更多关于他们:SU Architects on gooood

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