2020 ASLA GENERAL DESIGN AWARD OF HONOR: Naval Cemetery Landscape / Nelson Byrd Woltz Landscape Architects

An immersive site experience that provides a sense of peace, refuge and remembrance within an otherwise dense urban environment

Project Specs

“该项目将布鲁克林海军医院的前墓地重新开辟为生机盎然的城市公园,并成为26英里长的布鲁克林绿道中的第一个重要节点。一条无障碍的木栈道如河流一般蜿蜒在场地内,在实现轻盈介入的同时,引导游客们穿越起伏而葱郁的授粉物种栖息地,并深入樱桃树林。细致入微的设计,包括木栈道的精确导向和布局,展现出对场地敏感性的谨慎应对。项目共占地1.7英亩,在城市靠近高速公路的工业地带创造了一个生长着大量本地植物的世外桃源,宁静的自然环境为人们提供了一个从都市喧扰中喘息的机会。”
– 2020年评审委员会

“This urban park reclaims a former unmarked burial ground for the Brooklyn Naval Hospital as the first node along the 26-mile Brooklyn Greenway. A universally accessible wooden boardwalk seems to hover—in part due to a deliberate light touch required for preservation reasons—across an undulating, grassy plane of pollinator habitat to a cherry grove. Site sensitivity is reflected in thoughtful detailing, including a consistent directionality of boardwalk plank layout. At 1.7 acres, it has an outsized impact due to its abundance of native plants within an otherwise industrial pocket of the city beside an expressway, providing locals with respite from the general bustle of city life within its tranquil grounds.”
– 2020 Awards Jury

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Naval Cemetery Landscape | Nelson Byrd Woltz Landscape Architects

 

项目概述
PROJECT STATEMENT

海军公墓景观是布鲁克林绿道计划(Brooklyn Greenway Initiative)的第一个新建公共开放空间,整体规划沿着26英里的滨水绿道延伸。该项目的场地曾经是布鲁克林海军医院的非正规墓园,经过此次重建,原本废弃的地块被重新激活,成为了一个具有文化和生态意义的公共空间,在密集的城市环境中创造出平静、安宁且能够唤起回忆的体验。

入口凉亭作为通向景观的门槛,引导游客走进起伏的木栈道。步道“漂浮”在由本地植物、莎草和非禾本草本植物构成的海洋上,将人们的视线引向纪念草坪和远处的神圣树林。植物品种的选择重点是为蝴蝶、蜜蜂和蛾类建立必要的本地植物饲料——这些传粉昆虫对于该地区的生态健康和社区花园环境有着至关重要的作用。海军公墓是一个广泛开放的景观,为其所在的人工环境提供了一处涤荡身心的休憩之所。

The Naval Cemetery Landscape is the first new public open space to be developed by the Brooklyn Greenway Initiative along the 26-mile Brooklyn Waterfront Greenway. Historically an unmarked burial ground associated with the Brooklyn Naval Hospital, this project revitalizes an abandoned parcel of the Brooklyn Navy Yard into a culturally and ecologically significant public space. The immersive site experience provides a sense of peace, refuge and remembrance within an otherwise dense urban environment.

The Entrance Pavilion provides the threshold to the landscape and guides visitors onto an undulating boardwalk. Floating above a sea of native grasses, sedges, and forbes, the planked path frames the Memorial Meadow and Sacred Grove in the distance. Plantings focus on the establishment of much needed native plant fodder for butterflies, bees, and moths – pollinators critical to the ecological health and community gardens of the region. Universally accessible, the Naval Cemetery Landscape provides an immersive antidote to the built-environment.

▲海军公墓景观设计总平面图,Naval Cemetery Landscape Site Plan © Nelson Byrd Woltz Landscape Architects

 

项目说明
PROJECT NARRATIVE

通过与具有远见卓识的客户以及多方利益相关者的合作,景观团队得以成功完成这个具有重要意义的、根植于场地历史和生态环境的项目,同时回应了街区乃至整个社区对于开放空间的需要。尽管有着严格的场地限制,设计方案仍然在形式和材料等各个方面展现出对真实性、功能性和简洁性的注重,最终营造出亲切又实用的景观体验,使游客们的感知与季节变化形成微妙的联动。

作为主要客户,布鲁克林绿道计划(BGI) 和NatureSacred基金会为项目提供了资金支持,使其得以从愿景变为现实。NatureSacred基金会致力于帮助城市创建能够减缓压力、改善健康并加强社区凝聚力的绿色空间;BGI在十多年来一直努力推动布鲁克林滨水绿道的发展、建立和长期管理。

新公园延续了NatureSacred基金会的使命:通过启发心智、修复心理健康和加强社区的方式来重建人与自然的连接。根植于大量的研究和公众参与,设计方案回应了公园周围的文化历史、城市和社会文脉,以及场地曾经作为布鲁克林海军医院墓园的现实背景。葱郁的环境为授粉物种提供了栖息地,并借助蜿蜒的木栈道为市民们创造了亲近自然和放松身心的机会。通过内敛克制的手法,景观团队在植被的海洋中打造出一条流动的河,展现了兼具抚慰功能和纪念功能的设计美学。

在穿过景观大门之后,游客将立刻置身于一个远离城市喧扰的宁静祥和之地。在公园内部,纪念草坪、露天剧场和神圣森林被一条蜿蜒的洋槐木栈道连接起来。场地周围种植着本地树木和灌木,将附近的建筑物以及布鲁克林皇后区的高速公路遮挡起来。层层包围的自然世界将使游客们在不知不觉中抛却紧张的情绪,进入冥想和遐思的状态。

基于既有墓园的敏感属性,现场设计和施工需要考虑的一个关键因素是国家历史文物保护部门规定的限制条件,即禁止对地面进行深度超过4英寸(10.16厘米)的干扰。为此,设计团队开发了一种利用预制菱形桥墩系统来支撑木栈道和入口建筑的建造方法。

野花草坪的设计和安装同样体现出对敏感场地的回应:植物的品种主要基于四季的色彩、形态、纹理的互补性以及对授粉昆虫和其他野生动物的有益程度来挑选。纪念草坪包含了50多种植物,其重点是为传粉者建立急需的本地植物环境——这对当地的生态健康而言至关重要,同时也有利于促进场地周围的社区花园的发展。野花草坪种植着乳草属植物,能够吸引黑脉金斑蝶,并为其幼虫提供养分;此外还有香蜂草、秋麒麟、紫松果菊、山薄荷和二色金花菊等等,种类十分丰富。

曲折的小路让漫步的过程充满宁静与修养生息之感。由花岗岩石块铺设的路径作为轴线在场地中纵横交错,一方面致敬了海军基地的工业历史,另一方面也为人们提供了额外的深入草坪的机会。河流般的路径蜿蜒地“流淌”在原生的草海之上,并一直延伸到黑樱桃树林深处,营造出被自然包围和庇护的感觉。由NatureSacred捐赠的长椅上附带有一个小本子,可供游客们在海军公墓景观中记录自己的心情和想法——其中充满了祝福和治愈的留言。

社会科学家们试图利用现场和笔记来研究自然体验对于参观者身心健康的积极影响,以及城市环境对人带来的改变。在NatureSacred的推动下,从该项目产生的数据和笔记将被用于越来越多的研究工作,为景观在促进人类智力发展、增强社会和情感连接以及提高恢复和治愈能力上的重要作用提供证据。

朴素而沉静的景观以轻柔的姿态唤起了人们对于定居与耕种、生存与死亡的历史的思索,使游客们在舒缓心跳的过程中静静地感受场地所讲述的故事。公园在举办瑜伽、冥想活动以及养蜂和生态学课程的同时,也为游客提供了参与草地四季变化的机会,从而在潜移默化中增强了社区的凝聚力。与此同时,公众得以在享受自然的过程中了解授粉物种栖息地对城市环境的重要意义。新的生命被吸引到场地之中,以一种奇妙的方式回应了这个原本为纪念死亡而建造的场地。

▲用于公众展示的历史研究资料。蜿蜒的木栈道使人联想到如今已经被完全掩埋的Wallabout溪流形态;纪念树林则呼应了场地的农业历史。A page showing historical research used for public presentations. The sinuous boardwalk hearkens to the meandering form of the now completely covered Wallabout Creek, while the Memorial Grove references the site’s previous agricultural use. © Nelson Byrd Woltz Landscape Architects

 

▲公园入口框出位于后方的纪念草坪的景色。The entry threshold frames the Memorial Meadow beyond. © Max Touhey

 

▲抬升于地面的木栈道犹如漂浮在草地上。定制的菱形桥墩系统使步道得以轻盈而稳固地坐落在神圣的土地之上。The raised boardwalk appears to float within the meadow. A custom designed diamond pier footing system sits lightly and respectfully on the hallowed ground beneath. © Max Touhey

 

▲示意图,阐释了木栈道的基本几何形状。Diagram illustrating the underlying geometries shaping the boardwalk. © Nelson Byrd Woltz Landscape Architects

 

▲洋槐木栈道提供了多个方向的界面,在为景观赋予统一性的同时将人们的视线引向周围的草地。The orientation of the Black Locust decking is consistent across multiple surfaces and elevations, providing a sense of unity while directing the eye to the surrounding meadow. © Max Touhey

 

▲露天剧场带来聚会的空间,使游客得以观看到不断变化的景致。The amphitheater provides a space for gatherings with prospect over the ever changing landscape. © Max Touhey

 

▲与木栈道交错而置的花岗岩块使人联想到石碑和海军造船厂的石锚,同时为游客带来了深入体验草坪的机会。A line of granite blocks intersecting the boardwalk recall both burial and the mooring blocks of the Navy Shipyard while providing an invitation to experience the meadow. © Max Touhey

 

▲夏日盛开的野花吸引着人们漫步其中。Summer wildflowers make for an inviting stroll. © Max Touhey

 

▲郁葱的植物使人沉浸在宁静的氛围之中。Immersive with lush plantings, a sense of calm prevails. © Max Touhey

 

▲蜜蜂养殖是公园举办的众多户外教育活动之一。Beekeeping is one of the many outdoor educational opportunities hosted by the Naval Cemetery Landscape. © Brooklyn Greenway Initiative

 

▲公众可以参与公园的多种活动,例如生态学研讨会、冥想小组和每周三的瑜伽之夜。The park offers numerous popular activities such as ecology workshops, meditation groups, and Wednesday night yoga. © Nelson Byrd Woltz Landscape Architects

 

▲植物的形态决定了景观设计,让植物的丰富性和生命力和得到进一步彰显。Elemental forms structure the design of the landscape, allowing for the fecundity of the plantings to emerge. © Nelson Byrd Woltz Landscape Architects

 

▲长椅上附带的笔记本,记录了公众对海军公墓景观的体验和感受,并为其他游客留下信息。A community notebook to record the experience of the Naval Cemetery Landscape and leave a message for other visitors to the site. © Nelson Byrd Woltz Landscape Architects

 

PROJECT NARRATIVE

In partnership with exceptional clients and engaged stakeholders, the landscape architect developed a meaningful program rooted in site history and ecology while responding to the open space needs of the neighborhood and that of the broader community. Operating within intense site constraints, the landscape architects focused on authenticity, function, and simplicity in every aspect of design, from form to material, to create a grounded experience that gently aligns the senses to seasonal flows.

As primary clients, the Brooklyn Greenway Initiative (BGI) and NatureSacred Foundation provided the leadership and funding to guide the park from vision to reality. NatureSacred supports the creation of urban green spaces that reduce stress, improve health, and strengthen community. For over a decade, BGI has acted as the catalyst for the development, establishment and long-term stewardship of the Brooklyn Waterfront Greenway.

The new park honors the NatureSacred mission to reconnect people with nature in ways that foster mindful reflection, restore mental health, and strengthen communities. Rooted in research and engagement, the design responds to the cultural history and urban and social fabric surrounding the park as well as its former use as a burial ground for the Brooklyn Naval Hospital. A lush environment supporting pollinator habitat and structured by a meandering boardwalk offers immersion and respite for city-dwellers. A process informed by purposeful restraint led to the creation of a design aesthetic that promotes respite and remembrance – a floating river in a sea of grasses.

Visitors pass through the gate of the Naval Cemetery Landscape and are immediately transported to a quiet and peaceful place removed from the surrounding urban environment. Within the park, the Memorial Meadow, Amphitheater, and Sacred Grove, all connected by a sinuous black locust boardwalk. The perimeter of the site is lined with native trees and shrub species that screen views of buildings and the Brooklyn Queens Expressway. This immersion in the natural world allows visitors to engage in soft fascination, reflection, and mindfulness.

Based on the sensitive nature of the former burial ground, a key component of the site design and construction was a restriction from the State Historic Preservation Office that prohibited disturbance of the soil beyond the upper four inches. Working within these constraints, the design team developed a methodology that utilized a precast diamond pier foundation system to support the boardwalk and entry building.

The design and installation of the wildflower meadow likewise responds to the sensitive site. Plants were selected for their seasonal color, form, and complementary textures as well as for their benefit to pollinators and other wildlife. Containing more than 50 species, the Memorial Meadow focuses on the establishment of much needed native plants for the overlooked pollinators critical to the ecological health of the region and needed for the many community gardens surrounding the site. Monarch butterflies, attracted to the Milkweed on which their larvae feed, have been plentiful among the sprawl of wildflowers, which includes pollinator species such as Bee Balm, Goldenrod, Purple coneflower, Mountain Mint, and Brown-Eyed Susan.

The meandering pathway provides a sense of peace and respite when wandering the site. An intersecting axis of granite blocks pays homage to the industrial past of the Navy Yard, offers a physical marker for those buried on site, and provides an additional opportunity to experience the meadow. The river-like boardwalk meanders above a sea of native grasses of the meadow, it then passes through a grove of native Black Cherry trees that provide a sense of enclosure and natural shelter. A wooden bench provided by NatureSacred contains a small notebook for visitors to the Naval Cemetery Landscape to reflect and record their thoughts. Numerous notebooks have been filled with open messaged of gratitude and healing.

Social scientists are using the site, notes, and recordings to research the positive benefits of access to nature on the mental and physical well-being of the people who visit the site, and the impacts of our urban environment on people. Sponsored by a NatureSacred, the data from the project and collected notes will contribute to a growing body of research that demonstrates the important role landscape immersion plays in the development of human intelligence, social and emotional capabilities, and the capacity for regeneration and healing.

This understated landscape quietly evokes the histories of settlement and cultivation, life and death, while slowing the heart rate and connecting visitors with the stories of the site. The park naturally builds community as it hosts yoga, meditation, bee-keeping, and ecology classes while providing an opportunity for visitors to engage with the seasonal changes of the meadow. It engages the public in the importance of pollinator habitat in the urban environment, symbolically attracting many forms of life to a place that has historically commemorated death.

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