2017 ASLA 地标奖: 保罗盖蒂艺术中心, 洛杉矶 / OLIN

一个展示艺术、建筑、景观的综合项目

Project Specs

Design Firm:

“这是一个颇具特色的成熟项目,它的魅力已显而易见”。
– 2017年评审员委员会

“It’s an interesting project because as it has grown, its beauty has become more apparent”.
– 2017 Awards Jury。”

来自ASLA对gooood的分享。
The J. Paul Getty Center by OLIN
Appreciation towards ASLA for providing the following description:

 

项目陈述
PROJECT STATEMENT

经过近二十年的设计和建设过程,保罗盖蒂艺术中心在圣莫尼卡山脉上形成了一个展示艺术、文化和设计的堡垒。盖蒂艺术中心的景观设计不仅与南加州的自然环境和场地内标志性建筑物有着紧密的联系,而且它体现出了地中海和加利福尼亚传统园林的特点。利用现代科技和古老技艺,盖蒂艺术中心的景观结合了实用性与娱乐性,园艺学与美学,人工技艺与自然元素,并与建筑、地形相辅相成,为洛杉矶的居民及游客呈现了一个非凡独特的游览胜地。

Conceived and constructed over a period of nearly twenty years, the J. Paul Getty Center stands atop the Santa Monica Mountains as a bastion of art, culture, and design for all people. The landscape of the Getty is indelibly connected to the context of Southern California and the iconic architecture of the museum campus, and it springs from many generations of the Mediterranean and Californian garden traditions. Utilizing modern technology and ancient skills, combining utility with pleasure, horticulture and aesthetics, artifice and nature, the landscape elements of the Getty Center combine with the architecture and topography to create an extraordinary and unique addition to the environment of Los Angeles. 

▲在洛杉矶,保罗盖蒂艺术中心是一个很受尊敬的机构,其场地内融合了艺术,建筑和景观三方面的设计创作,营造出了一种宁静、平和的体验气氛。
The J. Paul Getty Center is a revered institution in Los Angeles, blending art, architecture, and landscape architecture into a cohesive and serene experience.

 

项目说明
PROJECT NARRATIVE

保罗盖蒂艺术中心坐落在圣莫尼卡山脉的山脊上,俯瞰着整个洛杉矶、圣贝纳迪诺山脉、圣盖博山脉和太平洋的美景。这个占地110英亩的场地内汇集了各种艺术品、收藏品和设计项目。该中心的建筑部分,体现出了对意大利文艺复兴时期经典别墅的重新诠释,渗透出盖蒂艺术中心的地位和其收藏品的主要风格,庭院部分则被作为南加州当代公共艺术的展示场所。

享受在洛杉矶地中海气候下的盖蒂艺术中心,是展示欧洲当代艺术的主要机构。因受西班牙,法国和意大利的地中海环境影响而创作出的景观空间,恰如其分地融入到了当地环境中。由于设计师受到了意大利文艺复兴时期山坡别墅的启发,因此该场地实现了建筑、台地,花园和庭院相融合的形式。

在建筑群框出了海洋、高速公路、洛杉矶城和山脉等的远景的同时,庭院景观与之相配合,通过植物的颜色、纹理、光线、阴影、芳香和形式上的序列和韵律,共同营造出了保罗盖蒂艺术中心的地域特色。随着人们在盖蒂艺术中心游览过程中的移动上升,会发现植物表面的温度和颜色也会随着与太阳接触程度的变化而变化。在较低或是北面地区,展现更多的是冷色调(像蓝绿色,蓝色,紫色和灰色)的植物,而在较高且温暖些的南面地区则能看到更多显得温暖(像绿色和黄色)的植物。对于工作人员和来访者来说,庭院部分为办公区和博物馆营造了一个精致的室外空间和展示的舞台。

为了营造将大型建筑综合体置于城市和高速公路上方的山脊上的震撼效果,并设置缓冲带,屏蔽掉部分来自相邻社区的干扰,设计师在艺术中心周围的600英亩的山坡上,种满了本地橡树、松树、地被和数十棵雪松。由于这些挑选出的植物都具有一定抗病虫害和耐火能力,因此,这片区域不仅很快成为了众多本土动物和鸟类的栖息地,实现了人与动物的彼此信任的目标,而且在增强环保责任和塑造美丽景观方面,在当地树立了榜样。

对艺术中心的参观起始于远远低于博物馆建筑体的雕塑花园。设计师采取了整体设计的方法对雕塑作品进行了布置,将建筑、景观与28个作品进行整合,设计出了适合场地的布局。从雕塑花园出发的有轨电车穿过山腰,经过橡树林,最终出现在博物馆面前。自艺术中心开放以来,展示空间及其广场一直免费并全年向公众开放,该地区的许多居民已经将这里视作了公园和聚会场所。意大利石松一字排列在入口,并被修剪成了罗马风格,以突出了其独特的轮廓。另外,伦敦悬铃木展示出的复古风格重现了古代园艺中的剥皮技艺,这是美国很少见到的修剪技术。这里的较大乔木是经过逐一挑选,并预先购买到这里的,以保证栽种后的视觉效果。

盖蒂艺术中心的花园秉承了加州花园的传统,通过采用传统与创新相结合的造园做法,展示了大量本土植物和异域植物。而像屋顶花园和枝条编织这样的景观则体现了功能性与娱乐性、人工技艺与自然材料、当代工艺与古代传统相结合的造园特点。

作为花园,它们不仅可以展示出技术层面上的丰富特点,而且在叙事层面也发挥着积极的作用。有时候,园艺中某一物种会被附以一个特殊含义,例如荫护着人文园的橄榄树是智慧女神雅典娜的象征;意大利松则通过其突出的形体将新西方艺术中心与罗马联系了起来,即艺术中心创作灵感的来源。有时候,园艺还会被附以一个更大层面的想法,例如,农业景观是西方世界众多园林艺术的源泉。在这里,这个想法体现在树木规整的种植结构,以及芳香植物和食用植物的线性排列上,而这种模式恰巧是地中海农业景观的特点。

和花园一样,盖蒂艺术中心的喷泉既暗示了南加州的自然环境,也体现出了具有历史感的当代文化遗产的特点。几个长长的喷水池可以理解为是林荫道的延续,或是在表现南加州的灌溉渠,或是体现着意大利、西班牙和法国众多运河或净水池的抽象形式。中央花园上方的石灰墙上雕刻的安菲拉喷泉则是采用古老形式创造出的一个现代石窟。尽管已经变得暗淡阴郁,但这个新式石窟却像器皿一样依旧在捕捉和反射着南加州的光彩。

博物馆庭院中心充满生机的喷泉和相邻庭院内由内华达山脉大理石构成的静水池,共同诉说着加利福尼亚的历史。喷泉中的石头与加利福尼亚淘金热时期开采的石头一样,二者均形成于同一个地质转变过程。然而,比金矿更重要的是,该喷泉为参观者和工作人员提供了在干旱环境中体现着永恒和感性的享受。若加州处于长期干旱情况,博物馆会通过关闭喷泉来节省水源。但即便处于无水状态下,喷泉的雕塑形式仍是场地内极富艺术性的景观元素,与周围的建筑和天然山地相呼应。

园内的所有的植物都是根据园艺要求(主要涉及水,土壤和阳光)而精心挑选的。无论是本土物种还是非侵入性的外来物种,只有能够适应洛杉矶地中海气候的才会被选中。由于艺术中心的花园有具体的美学要求,因此拟定盖蒂艺术中心的园艺维护手册也在该项目的任务范围内。

惹眼的仙人掌和多肉植物被视为极端环境条件下的种植选项之一。有一段时期,洛杉矶景观中的人工干预程度很高,而且需要大面积灌溉。盖蒂艺术中心的设计团队精心挑选出一些特定植物,不仅能抵抗加利福尼亚的灼热阳光,而且极其抗旱,构成了一个不依赖于灌溉的特色景观,同时也作为自然界中的有关脆弱性和复原性的教育故事。

如今,盖蒂艺术中心依旧是珍贵的洛杉矶地标,被誉为欣赏全球艺术,建筑和景观的目的地。经过艰苦的物种和材料选择过程,这里的景观经受住了加州最近的干旱压力。

随着气候变化不断重塑着人们的生活场所,以及经济和政治压力不断制约着人们获得艺术鉴赏和文化学习的机会,盖蒂艺术中心成为了展示艺术弹性和提公平展示原则的佐证。

 

▲左:盖蒂艺术中心坐落在圣莫尼卡山脉山脊之上,身在其中,可以欣赏到整个城市以及下方山脉和海洋的壮丽景色。 右:场地平面图
Left: The Getty is perched on a ridge line of the Santa Monica Mountains, offering expansive views across the city and to the mountains and sea below. Right: Site plan.

 

▲山腰上围绕着一个600英亩的当地橡树园。
A 600-acre native oak preserve envelops the mountainside around the campus.

 

▲有轨电车在风景如画的山坡上停下来,让游客有时间放松身心,准备体验盖蒂艺术中心。
An electric tramcar winds up the picturesque hillside, giving visitors time to relax and prepare to take in the experience of the Getty.

 

▲前往盖蒂艺术中心的参观者首先会穿过设有艺术展品的弗兰和雷雕塑花园,然后登上电车,直通主园区。
Visitors to the Getty pass through the Fran and Ray Sculpture Garden, the first encounter with the art collection, before boarding the tramcar up to the main campus.

 

▲一排巨大的意大利石松引导访客进入盖蒂艺术中心主庭院。
A row of massive Italian stone pines guide visitors into the Getty’s main courtyard.

 

▲园内丰富的园艺景观,如屋顶花园和枝条编织充分体现了功能性与娱乐性、人工技艺与自然材料、当代工艺与古代传统相结合的造园特点。
Horticultural techniques throughout combine function with pleasure, artifice with nature, and modern technologies such as those required for planting over structure, with ancient horticultural practices such as pleaching.

 

▲盖蒂艺术中心免费对外开放,确保公众可以欣赏到场地内的非凡景观和艺术中心内的瑰宝。
Admittance to the Getty is always free, ensuring that all people will have access to the institution’s extraordinary grounds and the treasures within the galleries.

 

▲该地区的一些居民已将盖蒂艺术中心作为了当地的公园和聚会场所。
Many residents of the region have come to use the Getty landscape as a public park and meeting space.

 

▲加州的历史在这里充分体现在了中央庭院喷泉内的岩石上。这些岩石原本是海底的一部分,由于大陆板块撞击,把它们推上了内华达山脉,在饱受冰川侵蚀后,展现出了内含的金矿质地。
California’s history is embodied within the rocks of the central courtyard fountain. Originally part of the ocean floor, colliding continental plates thrust them up to become the Sierra Nevada mountains only to be eroded by glaciers, leaving gold deposits behind.

 

▲盖蒂艺术中心的户外空间是由建筑和景观合力打造的,例如这个被惹眼的仙人掌和多肉植物覆盖的屋顶。
Architecture and landscape work together at the Getty to crate unique outdoor rooms, such as this roof covered by the striking cacti and succulent .

 

▲盖蒂艺术中心的户外空间是由建筑和景观合力打造的,例如这个被加利福尼亚梧桐荫护的庭院。
Architecture and landscape work together at the Getty to crate unique outdoor rooms, such as this courtyard shaded by a bosque of California sycamores.

 

▲这里的较大乔木是经过逐一挑选,并预先购买到这里的,以保证栽种后的视觉效果。
Superb, large specimens of trees were purchased to guarantee both hardiness and visual impact upon installation.

 

▲一排优雅的墨西哥柏树镶嵌在了内设低拱喷射式喷泉的水池旁。
A linear fountain basin animated by low arching jets is bordered by a row of graceful Mexican cypress.

 

▲靠近中央广场的咖啡厅/餐厅被棚架和树木所包围。依偎在棚架上的三角梅,经阳光直射,在露台上投射出斑驳的阴影。
The Café/Restaurant pavilion adjacent to the central arrival plaza is embraced by trellises and trees. Bougainvillea gracefully threads through the structure, creating dappled light across the terrace.

 

▲盖蒂艺术中心作为艺术,文化和公平展示的堡垒仍将屹立于此,而它的景观不仅具有持久性,而且鼓舞人心。
The Getty continues to stand as a bastion of art, culture, and equity, and its landscape is enduring and inspirational.

 

PROJECT NARRATIVE

The J. Paul Getty Center sits on a ridgeline of the Santa Monica Mountains overlooking Los Angeles, with extensive views of the San Bernadino Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. The 110-acre site brings together the diverse programs and collections of this iconic art institution. Reflective of the Getty’s stature and historical focus of its collections, the complex is a reinterpretation of a classic Italian Renaissance villa and garden as a contemporary public arts institution in southern California.

The Getty Center is a contemporary arts organization about European art, located in the Mediterranean climate of Los Angeles. It seemed only appropriate to create landscape spaces inspired by the larger Mediterranean context of Spain, France and Italy. Not surprisingly, Italian Renaissance hillside villas inspired the architect’s concept for the composition, where architecture meets terrain with stepped terraces, gardens and courtyards.

While the building ensemble frames views that capture the larger setting – the ocean, the freeway, Los Angeles and the mountains – the gardens create unique local identities with plantings that develop a sequence and rhythm of color, texture, light and shade, fragrance and form that complement the architecture. As one moves higher within the complex, the temperature and color of plants increases in relationship to the degree of exposure to the sun. Cooler blue-greens, blues, purples and greys prevail in lower areas and northern exposures while warm greens and yellows characterize the hotter, south-facing exposures at higher elevations. For staff and visitors, the gardens create an exquisitely appointed vestibule for the offices and museum and set the stage for the treasures encountered within.

In order to help settle the large complex of buildings into its dramatic setting atop a ridge high above the city and freeways, and to buffer and partially shield nearby communities, a vast, 600-acre preserve of over ten thousand native oaks, tens of thousands of ground cover plants, hundreds of pines, and dozens of cedars has been created on the slopes surrounding the Center. Selected for their ability to prevent erosion and fires, the bane of human habitation in the hills of Southern California, the plants of this forest quickly came to be inhabited by numerous indigenous animals and birds, thus achieving the Trust’s goal of being a good neighbor while setting an example of environmental responsibility in terms of conservation and reclamation with beauty.

Visitors’ experience of the Getty begins far below the museum itself, in the Fran and Ray Stark Sculpture Garden. The designers took a holistic approach to siting the sculpture collection, integrating architecture and landscape with the 28 works to create site-specific placement throughout the campus. From the sculpture garden, an electric tramcar shuttles patrons up the mountainside and through the oak grove to emerge at the museum. Since its opening, the Getty and its grounds have been entirely free and open to the public year-round, and many residents of the region have come to use the Getty landscape as a public park and meeting space. Italian stone pines line the entrance drive, pruned as in Rome to highlight their distinctive silhouette. A bosque of London plane trees revives the ancient horticultural practice of pollarding, a pruning technique seldom seen in the United States. Superb large specimens were individually selected and pre-purchased to guarantee their visual impact upon installation.

The Getty gardens embrace the California garden tradition, characterized by original and inventive use of a wide range of plants, native and exotic. Horticultural techniques throughout combine function with pleasure, artifice with nature, and modern technologies such as those required for planting over structure, with ancient horticultural practices such as pleaching.

But the gardens also create a narrative. Sometimes single plants condense a world of meaning: Olive trees—the symbol of Athena, goddess of wisdom—shade the Scholars Garden; and the Italian stone pines, with their unmistakable silhouette, link this new center of western art to Rome—its source of inspiration. Sometimes a larger idea is invoked. The agricultural landscape, for example, is the wellspring of much of the garden art of the western world. This idea is embodied at the Getty in the formalized structures of bosques of trees and linear plantings of aromatic and edible plants, patterns that characterize the Mediterranean agricultural landscape.

Like the gardens, the Getty fountains refer to both the natural context of southern California and the cultural legacy of a new world institution with its roots in the old world. Several long water basins with jets are descendants of the alamedas, or irrigation ditches of southern California and their numerous abstractions in the canals and reflecting pools of Italy, Spain, and France. The Amphora Fountain, carved into the travertine walls above the Central Garden, uses an ancient form to create a modern grotto. Although historically shaded and damp, this new version of the grotto serves as a vessel to capture and transform the southern California light.

At the center of the Museum Courtyard, an exuberant fountain and its more contemplative counterpart in an adjacent courtyard embody the history of California with spectacular marble boulders from the Sierra Nevada. These distinctive stones are as unique to California as the gold rush, each the result of the same geologic process. Most emphatically, however, the fountains of the Getty bring to visitors and staff the timeless and sensual pleasures of water in an arid environment. The museum also responded appropriately during the lengthy California drought by turning off the fountains to conserve water. Even when not in use, though, the sculptural form of the fountains, harkening both to the surrounding architecture and the natural mountain landscape, remain artful elements within the landscape.

All plants were carefully chosen based on their horticultural requirements, primarily water, soil, and sun needs. Both native and non-invasive, only plants that are proven performers in the Mediterranean climate of Los Angeles were selected. Due to the specific aesthetic requirements of the gardens, a horticultural maintenance manual for the Getty became part of the project scope.

The striking cacti and succulent garden serves as a model of plant selection based on extreme environmental constraints. At a time when many Los Angeles landscapes were highly artificial and heavily irrigated, the design team at the Getty specifically selected a palette of vegetation which not only would thrive in the hot California sun but would survive extended periods of drought. The result is a landscape feature completely non-dependent upon irrigation, a pedagogic tale of the fragility—and resilience—of the natural world. To this day, the Getty remains a treasured Los Angeles landmark and is known worldwide as a destination for art, architecture, and landscape. The landscape has withstood the strains of the most recent California drought due to painstaking selection of species and materials which would not only withstand but thrive under harsh conditions. As the effects of climate change continue to reshape the places where we live, as economic and political strains threaten people’s access to art and culture, the Getty stands as a testament to resilience and equity.

Architect:Richard Meier & Partners 
Landscape Architects for Main Complex: 
OLIN:Laurie D. Olin, FASLA – Principal-in-Charge,Dennis C. McGlade, FASLA – Principal,Robert J. Bedell – Associate,Howard J. Supnik, ASLA – Project Manager,Whitney Armstrong,Leslie Bishop ASLA,Lundy Clark, David Elliot,Frank Garnier,Mitchell Glass ASLA,Kathleen John-Alder, Elaine Rosenberg,
Fong & Associates (now Fong Hart Schneider + Partners):Allen Fong – Principal,Michael Spaulding ASLA – Senior Associate,Timothy White – Project Manager,David Schneider,Shelley Bachelder,
Raymond Hansen Associates, Inc.:Raymond Hansen – Principal
Dennis Hickok (with Richard Meier & Partners)
Andrew Spurlock Martin Poirier Landscape Architects (Lower Central Garden with Robert Irwin, Artist)
Landscape Architects for slopes and entrance facilities at foot of hill: Emmet L. Wemple & Associates ,The Office of Dan Kiley ,JPGT’s Manager of
Grounds and Gardens:Richard Naranjo
Irrigation Consultant:Lance Sweeney Consulting (now Sweeney + Associates) ,Lance Sweeney – Principal, Daniel ZumMallen 
Fountain Consultant:CMS Collaborative 
Landscape Contractor:Valley Crest Landscape Inc., American Landscape (partial slopes),Tracy and Ryder (partial slopes)
General Contractor:Dinwiddie Construction Co. 
Civil Engineers: B & E Engineers,RBA Partners, Inc.
Structural Engineers:Robert Englekirk, Inc.
Soils Consultant:Philip J. Craul and Soil and Plant Laboratory, Inc.
Fountain Consutant:CMS Collaborative

More:OLIN

Post a Comment