2016 ASLA GENERAL DESIGN HONOR AWARDS: Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park by Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl

”The hydrological and ecological pulses beat through this.”

Project Specs

Location:

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“景观建筑师应对洪水的方式让人影响深刻。水文与生态的脉搏在此跳动。水獭的回归振奋人心,野生动植物与自然才是这里的主人。”
-2016年评审委员会

“The fact that they found a way to deal with flooding is impressive. The hydrological and ecological pulses beat through this. Getting otters back into the city is really impressive. Wild life and nature have been given precedence.”
– 2016 Awards Jury

 

来自ASLA对gooood的分享。
Grand Teton National Park Craig Thomas Discovery and Visitor Center by Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl更多关于他们:Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl on gooood.
Appreciation towards ASLA for providing the following description:

更多关于本项目 More about the project: Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park and Kallang River Restoration

 

项目陈述
PROJECT STATEMENT

通过热带景观设施,碧山宏茂桥公园展示了一种新的热带城市水文景观处理方式,这种方式同时满足了新加坡水独立供给与洪水暴涨治理的双重要求,同时在紧凑的城市中创造出了河岸生态系统。再开发之前,加冷河的混凝土身躯将公园和生活社区清晰的分割开来,这种状态亟待改善。设计团队与公园和水利部门考虑重新使用传统方法来最大化满足土地,经济和人文需求。这种拆除运河混凝土沟渠,修复自然河道的大胆举措,不仅使其花费比运河改造设计减少了15%,同时还增大了容量,使其超过了目标承载能力。同时河流也成为公园的一部分,增加了社区对城市水系统的亲和力。

Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park provides a new model for tropical urban hydrology through the instrument of landscape infrastructure, addressing Singapore’s dual need for water supply independence and flash flood management while creating access to a thriving riverine ecology within the dense city. Prior to redevelopment, Kallang River was a clear dividing line between the park and community as a straight fenced concrete canal in dire need of an upgrade. The design team worked together with the park and water authorities to rethink traditional infrastructural approaches in order to maximise land, financial and human resources. The brave move to break the canal and restore the river exceeded the targeted carrying capacity while costing 15% less than the redesigned concrete canal. Simple, yet highly engineered, this blurred line between park and river has transformed the community’s pragmatic perception of urban water systems to a relationship that is proud and close to nature.

 

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▲ 新愿景 A New Vision
碧山公园向人们展示了蓝绿城市基础设施的新愿景,在满足水资源独立共供给与洪水治理的同时,在高密度的城市中心创造生态、社会与生态价值。
Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park epitomizes a new vision for blue-green city infrastructure, addressing the dual needs of water supply and flood management while adding ecological, social and biophillic values in the heart of a dense city. Photo Credit: Public Utilities Board

 

项目说明 PROJECT NARRATIVE

主角

20世纪60年代-70年代,新加坡经历了快速的现代化与城市化,这一时期城市中大量修建混凝土排水与运河系统以防患大范围的洪水。加冷河水道的几处关键位置被建设为混凝土沟渠,使得雨季时水可以快速排出。作为新加坡最长的一条河流,10km长的加冷河贯穿中心岛,从皮尔斯水库流向滨海水库,是城市供水体统的一部分。

碧山宏茂桥公园是新加坡最受欢迎的中心地带公园之一。建于1988年的公园最初是为了在碧山居住新区与宏茂桥区之间形成绿色缓冲带,并提供一定的休闲娱乐空间。然而,排水管道犹如一条粗线,将公园明显的分割开来。

2006年新加坡国家水务局(PUB)发起了一项“活力,美丽,清洁”水计划项目,提倡改善国家水体,在满足给排水功能的同时,创造出供社区娱乐休闲的活力空间,促进社区融合。碧山宏茂桥公园空间急需升级整合,然而提升运河供给与防汛能力又将进一步分离公园空间,然而新的方案设计整合了这两个看似相反的要求。这也是新加坡首次提出拆除加冷河的混凝土沟渠恢复自然河道。

设计方案基于河漫滩的概念,当水量小时,露出宽广的河岸,为人们营造出一个可供休闲娱乐的亲水平台;当因暴雨水量上涨时,临近河水的公园用地可加宽河道,使水顺流而下。这一概念确保了足够的公园用地,创造出更多交流空间。重新设计的河道断面使河道通过洪水的最大宽度从原来的17-24m拓宽到现在的几乎100m,将对河水的运输能力提升了近40%。

付诸实践

加冷河的修复工程于2009年10月份启动,要在新河道施工的同时确保河流系统仍能正常运行。一维和二维的水力学模型研究确保了团队能够预测水道,建设更稳固和更多变的河流。传统的土壤生物工程技术也用于加固新河岸,以作为对计算机技术的补充。12种热带新技术在公园内测试,以开发新技术和平息质疑。结果证明,模型应该根据植物生长密度,土壤条件,坡度以及植物根强度进行调整。最后,设计师和客户对建设团队进行了大量的培训,帮助他们将第一稿草图最终建设成型。

活力十足的滨河公园

改造后的河道蜿蜒曲折、宽窄不一,如同自然河流般拥有着多样化的流动形式与流速,塑造出极为宝贵、自然而又多元化的栖息地,为生物多样性奠定了基础。而泛滥平原的设计为新加坡城市环境中创造了一种新型高质量公共空间,无论是跨越河流的三座新建桥梁,顺着河道延伸的台地状滨河走廊,滨水平台,供人横渡河道的踏石,抑或是引用干净河水的戏水广场,种种设计都拉进了人与河流的距离。而在这种亲密的接触中人们所体验到的自然韵律与美也进一步树立了人们对保护环境的责任感。

此外,公园中还新建了两个游戏场地,两个餐厅,厕所以及用旧河道回收混凝土块建造而成的地标性观景台 - “回收山地”。这个充满活力,全年无休的公园俨然已成为了当地居民日常生活的一部分:人们在广场上练习太极,孩子们在运动场地中追逐比赛,而两两相依的情侣则在长凳或隐秘的角落中共度时光。

生态多样性

景观设计团队并没有刻意将野生物种引入公园,然而自从恢复河流的自然化后,公园内的物种多样性增长了30%, 迄今,已有66种野生花卉,59种鸟类与22种蜻蜓在此安家落户。

由于新加坡位于拥有50余种迁徙候鸟的亚洲-大洋洲候鸟迁徙路线之内,这也使得公园成为了观赏候鸟的最佳场所。而包括源自非洲的黑臀巧织雀,印尼雨林的点斑林鸮以及安曼群岛的长尾鹦鹉在内的“访客”已带给了人们无数惊喜。

在2015年,水獭一家五口在此安家落户,迅速得到了周边社区与当地媒体的关注。在此之前,水獭仅在沿海地区生活,而它们的出现证明了河流自然化的实现与成功。如今,随着5位新成员的加入,这个家族正在茁壮成长之中。

河流恢复设计创造了各种各样的微型栖息地,不仅增加了生态多样性,同时也提升了公园内生态物种的弹性,提高了其长期存活的能力。热带雨林气候带中生存着极为丰富的植被群落,而公园所处区域毗邻仅次于亚马逊、拥有全球第二多物种的马来群岛地区,其生态多样性的潜力也是无可比拟的。

安全性

野生与自然的状况并不意味着危险,事实上,如果发生严重的洪水,河水水位缓慢上升,游客有充足的时间从水边转移到高处,这也表明新系统更为安全。加冷河还安装了一个包括河水水位感应器、警告灯、报警器以及广播组成的综合监视报警系统以确保在暴雨和水位上涨之前向公众发出警报。

共同努力实现多个目标

在公园还未完全建成之前,就出现了“自我管理”的现象,居民开始注意公园的清洁和他人的安全。如今,自发组建的小组定期开会,而学校也不时组织学生对公园进行实地考察。所有的这些现象都体现出了公众对河岸公园态度的转变并产生了主人公意识。

当城市开启综合水管理系统时,就意味着各机构之间的界限变得模糊,面临着重新划分的挑战。但这并不会让局面混乱,反而会因不同机构之间的交流产生出许多新观点。以往,公园由国家公园局管理,排水河道由PUB管理。而两个部分的合作,给社区带来了多项益处。虽然说服从土地利用总体规划层面到儿童艺术、教育培训班的利益相关者和吸引每一领域的专家增加了重重困难,但最终团队的愿景得以实现。许多下游项目借鉴了这种工作模式,催化了许多类似的机构之间的合作。

这个项目采用的是局部之和大于整体的方法。碧山宏茂桥公园不仅仅是公园,加冷河也不仅仅是一条排水沟渠,两者相互依存,是社会和生态的基础设施。碧山宏茂桥公园是公园与水资源、洪水管控、生物多样化、娱乐的巧妙结合,与此同时增进了人与水的情感联系,增加了公民对水资源的责任感,是城市公园作为生态基础设施的优秀案例。

 

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▲ 总平面图 Illustrative Site Plan
占地63公顷的公园空间经过精心设计,以承载处于动态变化中的河流系统。2.7公里长的笔直混凝土排水渠被拆除,被一条3公里长的蜿蜒自然河流取代。
63 hectares of park space has been tastefully redesigned to accommodate the dynamic processes of a river system. The 2.7 km straight concrete monsoon drainage channel has been restored to a 3 km long sinuous natural river. Photo Credit: Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl

 

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▲ 社区中心的公园 A Community Centric Park
这个充满活力,全年无休的公园俨然已成为了当地居民日常生活的一部分:人们在广场上练习太极,孩子们在运动场地中追逐比赛,而两两相依的情侣则在长凳或隐秘的角落中共度时光。
At the center of local life, the vibrant park is open 24/7; there are plazas to practise Tai Chi, fields to play soccer & catch, and beautifully crafted benches & nooks for lovers. Photo Credit: Lim Shiang Han

 

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▲ 更多的河流空间,更多的公园空间 More River, More Park
曾经的混凝土排水渠不仅割裂了城市空间,同时也无法应对暴雨灾害事件,而如今取而代之的奔腾河道不仅使公园的蓄水能力提升了40%,生物多样性提高了30%,同时也让人类活动空间有了12%的增长。
Once a dividing utilitarian concrete channel that was inadequate for huge storm events, it is now a robust throbbing river that boasts 40% increase in capacity, 30% increase in biodiversity and 12% increase in recreational space. Photo Credit: Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl

 

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▲ 跨机构协作 Multi-Agency Collaboration
各机构间界限的模糊并不代表混乱,而是为社会、文化与环境方面带来了更多潜在的机遇。
Blurring the boundaries of jurisdiction does not mean chaos but rather multi-functional opportunities for social, cultural and environmental benefits. Photo Credit: Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl

 

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▲ 100%回收利用 100% RECYCLED
从混凝土排水渠中拆除下来的混凝土块全部被用于重塑河床,砌筑群落生境、步行道以及打造为到访者提供俯瞰公园与河流全景的“回收山地”。
All the concrete from the canal was reused in the river bed, cleansing biotope walls, footpaths and the “Recycle Hill”, a feature from which residents can get a vantage point of the integrated park and river. Photo Credit: Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl

 

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▲ 热带地区首创的土壤生物工程 Pioneering Soil Bioengineering in the Tropics
景观团队引入12中生物工程技术,在一条60米长的支线排水道旁进行了为时一年的研究,以测试植物的适应性与生长状况,这种大尺度的研究在热带地区并无先例。
Unprecedented at such a scale in the tropics, a one year study was conducted to test plant suitability and growth by using 12 bioengineering techniques along one of the side drains (60 meters) in the park. Photo Credit: Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl

 

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▲ 暴雨管理 Stormwater Management
当遇到极端灾害性洪水事件时,加冷河水体上涨,滞留大量雨水,再缓缓地排向下游地区。这一过程仅耗时数小时,其后河岸地区将再次开放,供人游玩。
The Kallang River powerfully embraces the extremes of disastrous flooding by swelling and retaining large bodies of water then slowly discharging it downstream. After a few hours, river banks are once again open for play to the community. Photo Credit: Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl

 

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▲ 与自然融合的设计 A Biophillic Design
传统设计手法中大量使用护栏,隔绝了人与河流的关系,带来了对水体的恐惧,而如今温柔美丽的河岸景观则拉近了人与水的距离。这是属于居民的河流与公园空间,供他们享受美好的时光。
Instead of the old approach of fencing, distance and fear; the soft and beautiful new river landscape brings water closer to the people. It is their place, their park, their river – something to enjoy. Photo Credit: Lim Shiang Han

 

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▲ 迎接自然生态 Embracing Wildlife
改造后的河道宽窄不一,如同自然河流般拥有着多样化的流动形式与流速,为野生动植物群落塑造出极为宝贵、自然而又多元化的栖息地。
The varied width of the river replicates the diverse flow patterns which are characteristic of natural river systems and create valuable ecologically diverse habitats for flora and fauna. Photo Credit: Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl

 

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▲ 水体日均净化量达到86万立方 8,640,000 Liters of Pond Water Cleansed Daily
自公园落成以来,河流与池塘便通过生态净化群落维持水质,用以植被修复与沉淀为主要手段的过滤系统取代了化学药品的使用。
Since the park’s inception, water quality of the river and pond has been maintained without the use of chemicals via the Cleansing Biotope, a system of filtration through phytoremediation and sedimentation. Photo Credit: Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl

 

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▲ 水资产 Water As An Asset
戏水池的水源来自经生态净化群落处理的回收用水。极富创造力与想象力的空间设计让孩子们在游戏与互动中学会欣赏、了解水的价值。
Play is 100% operated with recycled water from the Cleansing Biotope. The innovative and imaginative playground allows children to appreciate and learn about the value of water in a fun and interactive manner. Photo Credit: Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl

 

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▲ 曾经消失的水獭的回归 Once Extinct, Now A Resident
在经过了70年代与80年代20年的缺席后,水獭重归这片再次呈现出自然面貌的河流,这一消息不仅让整个社区为之兴奋,同时也获得了当地乃至世界媒体的关注。
After its absence in the 70s and 80s, the presence of the naturalized river has allowed otters to make a comeback, generating excitement within the community while capturing local and international media attention! Photo Credit: Max Khoo

 

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▲ 社区参与 Community Participation
社区参与也是公园设计中极为重要的一个环节。年幼的学生们为游乐场绘制图案,监控河流水体的健康,并为公园与河流设计教学路径。
Community participation has also played a key role in designing elements of the park. School children have created art motifs for playgrounds, monitored river health and developed learning trails for both the park and river. Photo Credit: Lim Shiang Han, Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl

 

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▲ 成为旅游热点的公园 A Destination Park
修复性的设计为已然开发成熟的城市区域注入了新的活力,每年前来游玩的参观者多达6百万人。这座公园已成为新加坡象征性的符号,同时也为水敏城市设计树立了典范。
The rejuvenation has injected new buzz into the mature estates and receives approximately six million visitors each year. The new park serves as a driver for Singapore’s symbolic capital and as a model for water sensitive urban design. Photo Credit: Lim Shiang Han

 

 

The Protagonist

With the rapid modernisation and urbanisation of Singapore in the 1960s and 70s, concrete drains and canals were built to alleviate widespread flooding. Likewise, the Kallang River was set within a concrete channel in several key places so that water from heavy monsoons would drain out quickly. As the nation’s longest river, it flows 10km through the centre of the island, from Lower Peirce Reservoir to the Marina Reservoir, also serving as part of the larger system providing drinking water to the city.

Bishan – Ang Mo Kio Park is one of Singapore’s most popular heartland parks. It was constructed in 1988 as a leisure destination and green buffer between the residential new towns of Bishan and Ang Mo Kio. However, the detachment of the park was apparent with the drainage canal demarcating a harsh line.

In 2006, Singapore’s national water agency, PUB, initiated the Active, Beautiful and Clean Waters Programme – a long-term initiative to transform the country’s water bodies beyond their functions of drainage and water supply, into vibrant, new spaces for community bonding and recreation. As part of a much-needed park upgrade and plans to improve the capacity of the canal bisecting the park, the new design integrates the seemingly opposing requirements. And thus, the plan to break down the concrete channel and create a naturalized waterway was conceived for the first time in Singapore.

Rebirth of the River 

Designed based on a floodplain concept, people can get closer to water and enjoy recreational activities along the generous river banks when water level is low, and during heavy rain, park land that is next to the river doubles up as a conveyance channel, carrying the water flow downstream, enabling multiple land uses within the park and creating more spaces for communal activities. The re-engineering of the river cross section means that whereas before the channel had a maximum width of 17-24 m at flood capacity, the river can now spread to almost 100m in width. This increases the river’s conveyance capacity by approximately 40%.

Making It Work

Construction of the naturalised river started in October 2009. In a feat of sequenced engineering, works to create the new river started while the canal was still functional. 1D and 2D hydraulic modelling studies of the planned river were made so that the team could predict the water course and design for a more robust and varied river. Complementing the computer simulations, traditional soil bioengineering techniques were proposed to stabilise the new river banks. A site within the park was commissioned to test 12 techniques new to the tropics, developing new knowledge and quelling doubts. Results proved healthy vegetation growth and in a reiterative process, soil conditions, slope and plant root strength were examples of adjustments made to the models. Lastly, design experts and clients invested heavily into the training of construction team, who took the first sketches into built form.

A Vibrant River Park

The alignment of the new river channel integrates meanders and varying widths to create diverse flow patterns which are characteristic of natural river systems, creating ecologically valuable, natural and diverse habitats for biodiversity. The design of the floodplain has also introduced a new typology and quality of public space in urban Singapore – three new bridges, a terraced riverside gallery, river platforms, stepping stones across the river and a water playground fed with naturally cleansed river water are all features that enable one to connect with the river. This ability to get close to water and experience all its natural rhythms and beauty transforms peoples’ sense of responsibility to their environment.

Other new facilities include two playgrounds, two new restaurants, toilets and the landmark “Recycle Hill”, a look-out point built from blocks of concrete recycled from the old channel. The vibrant park is open 24/7 and is at the centre of local life; there are plazas to practise tai chi, fields to play soccer and catch and beautifully crafted benches and nooks for lovers.

Biodiversity 

No wildlife was introduced to the park, but the presence of the naturalized river has seen the park’s biodiversity increased by 30%. A total of 66 species of wildflower, 59 species of birds and 22 species of dragonfly have been since identified.

The park has the advantageous opportunity to host migratory bird visitors due to the country’s location within the Asian-Australasian Flyway, an area with over 50 migratory species travelling along it. A few surprise visitors have already been spotted, including Zanzibar Red Bishop, native to Africa, the Spotted Wood Owl, native to the jungle forest in Indonesia and the Long Tailed Parakeet, native in the Andaman Islands.

In 2015, a family of five otters called the park home, with their presence capturing the hearts of the community and even the local media’s attention. This is a significant win for all as otters had been spotted only around the coast previously – a testament to the re-naturalisation of the river. The family has grown bigger since, with five new pups joining the famous clan.

The restoration of the river has created a huge variety of micro-habitats, which does not only increase the biological diverseness, but also the resilience of species within the park, making vast improvement to their long term survival ability. With the tropical rainforest climate home to an abundance of lush vegetation, and the area located near to the Malay Archipelago (one of the world’s greatest biodiversity hotspots, second only to the Amazon), the potential for biodiversity is fantastic.

Safety 

“Wild” and natural is not necessarily more dangerous, the new system is actually a lot safer — even in a heavy flood downpour, the river fills slowly providing ample time for people to comfortably move away from the water to higher ground. A comprehensive river monitoring and warning system with water level sensors, warning lights, sirens and audio announcements are in place to provide early warning in the event of impending heavy rain or rising water levels.

Working together to fulfil multiple objectives 

Even before the park was completed, the phenomenon of “self-policing” had been observed with locals looking out for the cleanliness of the park and the safety of others. Now, self-organised interest groups meet regularly and schools have field trips to the park – all a reflection of a changing attitude and ownership towards the river park.

When integrated water management is applied in cities, it often means that the boundaries of agencies are not as clear and have to be redefined. This does not mean chaos, but rather, the opportunity for cross-pollination of ideas. While before, the responsibility of the park laid with the National Parks Board and the drainage channel, PUB, the two agencies collaborated, bringing multi-beneficial results to the community. The graceful and effortless outcome is a result of the team’s determination to see the vision come to life – from the master plan level of land use planning to art and education workshops with children, convincing stakeholders and engaging experts at every level added complexity but robustness to the project. This work model has catalysed similar inter-agency partnerships for many downstream projects.

The holistic approach recognizes that the whole is more than the sum of its parts. Bishan–Ang Mo Kio Park is not just a park and the Kallang River not merely a drainage channel. This is ecological and social infrastructure: the two are integrated and interdependent. The park is an inspiring example of how a city park can function as ecological infrastructure, a smart combination of water source, flood management, biodiversity, recreation, and thanks to personal contact and an emotional connection with water, increasing civic responsibility towards water.

PROJECT CREDITS

Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl Team:
Herbert Dreiseitl, International ASLA
Gerhard Hauber
Tobias Baur
Leonard Ng
Hendrik Porst
Andreas Bockemühl
Stefan Brückmann
Jeff Boggess
Angelika Büchele
Jason Chia
Edith
Gustavo Glaeser
Tobias Klinger
Martin Koller
Birgit Kühlbrandt
Wi Ming
Herbert Montervirgen
Vera Sieber
Angela Soler
Chanida Suebpanich
Sebastian Walker
Melissa Yip
Ingo Zoefelt
Christoph Hald
Rudolf Mager
Nengshi Zheng

Engineer: CH2M Hill
Bioengineering Specialist: Geitz & Partners
Horticulturalist: Uvaria Tide
Contractor: Chye Joo Construction Pte Ltd

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更多关于本项目 More about the project: Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park and Kallang River Restoration

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