MAD no doubt is one of the most recognized architectural practices in China and worldwide. Every year, MAD receives countless job and internship applications. To be able to work at MAD will definitely enrich your career as even though the people working here might have been lucky, but are undeniably outstanding. What could possibly be on the minds of the MAD interns?
Name: Hiroki Kawashima
Educational Institution: the University of Tokyo, Japan
Year: Second Year Master Degree
Who is your favourite architect? Why?
Kumiko Inui. She was my professor when I did diploma project. Her critique is always logical and also figures out what is most important. She’s not yet world famous but I believe she will be in the future.
What is the major characteristic of your current school’s education?
We emphasize making physical model above all. We don’t usually do 3D modelling or renderings. The professors believe that is the best way to learn architecture design.
What have you gained during the MAD internship?
Rhino, Maya, Maxwell Rendering, Oriental way to design architecture.
What are your thoughts and feelings upon Chinese Architecture and the environment?
I think buildings in Beijing or Shanghai are not that bad. But most buildings in other small cities are just piles of bad copies of world famous buildings. I’m always wondering why those buildings can’t have the essence of thousands years of deep Chinese Architecure Culture. That’s why I like MA’s approach, trying to find an oriental, not western way to design architecture. I believe in the future it will be the mainstream of architecture in China.
What is your dream?
To become a star architect.
What would you do if you were not an architect?
What is your dream project?
I want to meet a good client in the future and design a masterpiece building together. The program of the building depends on the client so anything is OK.
What is your favourite project in your portfolio? Why?
Exude, the first project is my favourite. This project was done when I was in the third grade but I think it is my best project ever. It was a team project of 3 students and the relationship between us was always good during the design process. I believe all of us in the team can become a leading Japanese architect in the future.
Rhino, Maya, Maxwell渲染，东方式的设计建筑方式。
1st Place, Design Studio of 3rd grade
Team: Hiroki Kawashima Takehiko Suzuki Eri Sumitomo
Exude is a mass housing regeneration project located in Nishi-Kasai, Tokyo. Although near to the center of Tokyo, the area, an old mass housing project, unpopular among the Japanese is mainly segregated and occupied by foreigners for its low rent. Even though there is a strong international presence, the fact is that the area is actually economically impoverished and segregated from the rest of the city , thus becoming less a space for inter-cultural exchange and more of a “ghetto”. Our objective was to to design a new media center and renovate the existing buildings to make the city more cosmopolitan.
When thinking about media as a mean to exchange information between people from different countries, the strongest media is in fact what each person does in the building. In the mass housing district, we designed very slim buildings attached to the existing buildings which people can use as extra spaces for living, shopping, studying, gathering, etc. They are to increase as the city becomes more internationalized, so people living here become be able to see the lives of other people. Thus the community in this mass housing, which is now very closed and segregated, becomes open and there will be many places for inter-cultural exchange.
On the contrary, for the new media center, we designed Y-shaped building that consists of three slim “walls” closed to the outside. Inside the building, city functions such as theaters, galleries, amusement shops, schools, and even houses are concentreated. Three different types of voids are generated, one is open to the sky, the other is close and dark, and the other,, a mixture of two “walls”, regulates the communication between people in opposite “walls”. Thus this media center provides an intense information exchange between people from any backgrounds.
This new Y-shaped building exposes the basic structure of these housing units, and it is to become the icon of Nishi-Kasai. Many years later, the walls covering the building will be demolished and activities of the people will exude to the outside thus becoming the real center of the new cosmopolitan city, Nishi-Kasai.
Wooden Rooms, Stone Rooms
1st Place, Design Studio of 3rd grade
This collective housing consists of “Wooden Room” with wooden columns and beams, and “Stone Room” with RC walls.
RC volumes constructed on the ground have spaces for living. Soft sunlight and steady temperature fill “Stone Room” like traditional European houses.
Wooden volumes constructed over the RC volumes have spaces for work or leisure. Great perspectives of distant mountains and wide universal spaces provide “Wooden Room” with the atmosphere of traditional Japanese houses.
All of the housing units have these two contrasting types of rooms, and thus people can choose where they want to be based on their feelings, the climate, and what they want to do.
这些集合住宅由木结构的“Wooden Rooms”和混凝土墙的“Stone Rooms”组成。
Tokyo Highway Shadow
2nd Place, Design Studio of 4th grade
This project aims to become a system to cool down Tokyo city environment. The heat-island phenomenon has become a serious issue in Tokyo since the 1990s. The heat released from Metropolitan Highway running throughout the city is considered one of the main reasons. In Korea, for example, the government took away the main highway placed in the center of Seoul, and replaced it with an artificial river to cool the city environment.
Rivers and trees are usually used as elements to cool down the city by converting sensible heat to latent heat inside the water. However, this does not contribute to air entropy reduction. In order to take away the sensible heat in the air, I designed a system to heat water by using the heat of the road, and use it in public baths under the highway in Kinshi-cho, Tokyo.
The system can produce 190,000L of hot water in a summer day, and send down the temperature of the surrounding environment by 2 degrees Celsius. The open space under the highway is used as an athletic field where people can do baseball, football, tennis, etc, which are actually prohibited in traditional Japanese parks. Besides the highway there is also one of the biggest nightlife districts in Tokyo. This project can provide these people with hot water for bathing at a very low price.
This public bath used may by people from different backgrounds, such as homeless people, high school students, dirty-necks, etc. Inside the building, I designed a very long bath with very long walls; where people can enjoy bathing without communicating with others. In this way, architecture will work as some kind of dark utopia of the city, enhancing thus the functions of both the bright and dark side of Tokyo city.
Double Skin City Kohoku, Yokohama, is a new town
1st Place, Diploma Design Competition
Kohoku, Yokohama, is a new town developed mainly in 1980s and 1990s. A Well-designed green network makes this town very comfortable. On the other hand, in 2010, there were 10 big shopping malls in town, all of them “box type” malls; very closed to the outside to achieve a good financial return by seizing shopping activities only in one building. The green network and the malls make every part of this town very clean so we can’t see its dark side. Places for leisure activities are also very limited.
Fixed on this path, this town will probably soon start to decline. Most cities prosperous for a long time have both light sides and dark sides. So I decided to design a project which will ensure a more balanced economic condition.
I designed a new downtown in the suburb, complex of downtown shops and houses for living. The basic structure of the planning grid follows the axis of the elevated tracks running thorough the center of the town. Since the site is placed between walking path and roadway the scale of the buildings becomes bigger from the east part to the west.
All the buildings are provided both thick walls with high heat capacity and thin walls with low heat capacity. These two walls make different types of overlapping in each building: double skins. By using this, “double skin type”, I created a new relationship between shops and houses. They share the double skins through the windows so they can choose whether they connect or not. When the thick wall is faced to the outside, there will be a strong relationship. When the thin wall is faced to the outside, there will be a weak relationship between the houses and shops.
All these double skin spaces are public spaces connected to the ground so people and cars can go through it from one space to the other. The double skins, are virtually extensions of the programs inside. When people enjoy this city, they can choose just doing window shopping or go further inside. People living here can also enjoy the displays of the clothing shops, the smell of the restaurants, and lights of the game centers.
This way of creating close relationships between people, cars, shops and houses through double skins is a strong medium for creating new commercial and residential activities in a suburb. Moreover, such projects, aiming at creating a good economic balance within the city are needed in many suburban areas in Japan.
1st Place, Design Studio of Master’s course
Team: Hiroki Kawashima David Jenny
SITUATION : The location of our site in the historical center near the mountain foot and two taoist temple is ideal to develop touristic and commercial programs. The difficult question is, how to develop something new which has a relation to the existing historic context.
CONCEPTS : While leaving the existing historic buildings on the site, we try to enhance the character of the historic center by introducing new typologies of courtyards.
PROPOSAL : According to the existing buildings, we defined our masterplan and reorganized the open space into commercial-, residential streets and courtyard spaces. The diversity of spaces can be understand by experiencing a sequence through the proposal. The reflexion on the unique character of courtyard spaces can be found in any part of the project.
为了促进旅游业与商业发展、我们选址于具有历史背景的两座道教庙宇之间、而难点在于:在现存的 历史背景之下、如何衍生出一种全新的事物。我们的概念是:通过介绍一种全新的庭院模式、来增强 现有的历史价值。根据现有的建筑模式、通过重组商业区、居民区和庭院的空间布置从而使设计更 为丰富。而这种多样性的空间布置将有助于理解设计理念和这种庭院的独特之处。
Häfele Student Design Competition 2010
Team: Hiroki Kawashima David Jenny
House with Leaking Forest
Shinnihon Students Design Competition 2010
Team: Hiroki Kawashima Aya Iwai
2nd place, “Keikan Kaika“ Student Civil Engineering Design Competition 2010
Team: Hiroki Kawashima Seiya Takayanagi
This project is a revised version of “Tokyo Highway Shadow” for the civil engineering design competition.
Working with a student from civil engineering department, we redesigned the highway. The new section shape is “W” to increase the solar energy gains.
We also redesigned the building under the highway. consisting now of continuous walls and continuous arches. The pitch between the walls changes according to the function of the rooms. Thus there are more small individual spaces than before.
这个项目是“Tokyo Highway Shadow”的进化版，参加了土木工程的学生竞赛。
TEPCO Intercollegiate Student Design Competition 2010
Team: Hiroki Kawashima Takehiko Suzuki
This house is placed in the desert.
Most people living in deserts are nomads, always moving around to look for comfortable places, water and plants because the environment in deserts always changes even if you stay at just one place.One day there will be a mountain, the other day there will be a valley, and another day there will be an oasis.
This structure works as a kind of basement for nomads, or travelers to stay in. One day there will be a small shelter, the other day there will be a tower, and another day it will look like a big tree. This is the “Tower of Babel” in a desert, which rises and falls with the environmental changes.
Solar Energy Housing Design Competition 2010
Team: Hiroki Kawashima Kenichi Inoue Kozo Takase
This is a collective housing project consisting of 5 walls. Changing the widths between the walls makes 2 different environments in the site.
One is sunny side, the one is dark. Structurally, we used precast concrete panels for sunny sides, and cross laminated wooden panels for dark sides. These two panels have almost the same strength but different thermal property. We call the sunny sides “Solar Volume”, and the dark sides “Living Volume.” Solar Volume can gain energy from the sunlight, as light, heat and hot water. Living Volume, on the contrary, has steady environment but in here people can lead energy saving life through the assistance of Solar Volume.
一种充满阳光，一种黑暗。结构上我们采取了混凝土预制板用于阳光的一面，压层木板用于黑暗的一面。这两侧都拥有几乎相同的结构强度与截然不同的热工性能。阳光明媚的一侧叫“SolarVolume”，较暗的一面叫“Living Volume”。Solar Volume从阳光中获得能量比如光，热核热水，而Living Volume有着稳定的室内环境并在Solar Volume的支援下有着节能的生活模式。
Design Institute for Environmental Physics
Team: Hiroki Kawashima Atsushi Miyazaki
In Japan, there is a serious disagreement between architecture designers and environmental physics engineers. Architecture designers only try to create new forms; as a result, indoor environment of their buildings become very bad. On the contrary, environmental physics engineers only try to produce energy efficient buildings; as a result the building designs become very boring. Thus there are only few good collaboration between them in Japanese architecture society.
Nowadays, the speed of environmental physics simulation for architecture is getting faster and faster. It indicates what we have to do as architecture students. That is to study and design a vast amount of architecture plans or section diagrams to control the basic elements of environmental physics, wind, heat, light, and site. Then simulate the shape again and again to ensure the performance in the reality.
Using the new “architectural languages” created in the workshop is the best way to have a communication between architecture designers and environmental physics engineers. Through a lot of workshops and lectures, we seek to discover the new possibility of architecture design with environmental physics.
Name: Hiroki Kawashima 川岛宏起