更多关于他们，请至：SHoP Architects on gooood
gooood would dig into projects which are appropriate for deeper report, in order to present the project in a more comprehensive way.
In this episode, we interviewed SHoP Architects for their recently topped out super tall project 111 West 57th Street. gooood had an in-depth conversation with Xu Zhang (Associate at SHoP Architects), who’s been working on the Construction Administration for 111 West 57th St for the past three years.
出品人：向玲 | Producer: Xiang Ling
编辑：陈诺嘉，武晨曦，徐馨羽，历剑 | Editor: Chen Nuojia, Wu Chenxi, Xu Xinyu, Li Jian
1. 客户和设计团队对这栋超高大楼有着怎样的寄托? 请谈谈项目从计划到落成的背后故事。
Please share with us the story behind the project and talk about what the client and design team respectively expect from this high-rise building.
如我们合伙人Gregg Pasquarelli在去年年底项目封顶时的致辞: “西57街111号是座有着非凡比例的，被誉为世界上最苗条的大楼。它规模宏伟，1428英尺（435米）的身躯优雅地站在珍贵历史保护建筑施坦威大楼一旁，与其完美的融合，体现着项目本身对纽约历史与文脉传承的尊重。这个项目带给我们团队前所未有的挑战，将我们过去对摩天大楼或纽约市开发项目的先入为主的观念打破。作为纽约本土建筑事务所，我们非常自豪能为纽约又添加了一个全新的地标建筑”。111号, 是我们与JDS结合先前建立的合作伙伴关系下，运用当下先进的建筑技术，结合城市最新发展的政策，携手实现了这一让人惊叹的项目。项目的设计，融资，建设共历经6年，我们始终保持最高水准的团队合作，共同缔造了这一建筑奇迹。当项目最终完成的那一天，我们回首看去，会为这个宏伟的建筑梦的实现而欣慰。整个项目的设计不仅来自团队，也来自客户，更来自这个城市独特的文化气氛。项目的设计与开发，就像在一个熔炉，当每个个体无与伦比的智慧和力量汇聚在一起时，新事物就自然的诞生了。JDS的首席执行官及创始人Michael Stern去年对我们团队说过：“没有人会相信这个楼是真实的，就算它真的被盖出来的那一天”，得到客户这样的赞许，就是对我们建筑事务所或整个团队的最大嘉奖。项目本身也成为了新的建筑设计典范，让大家重新正视建筑的真谛，任何一个成功的项目都应与项目所在地各个方面紧密的融合在一起。（下文西57街111号将简称为“111号”。）
As addressed by our partner Gregg Pasquarelli for the topping out event at the end of last year: “111 West 57th Street is a project of extraordinary proportions and epic grandeur in the scale of the tower, ascending elegantly next to a cherished landmarked pre-war structure. Any preconceived notions that our team had about skyscrapers or New York City developments were replaced with an opportunity to do something that had never been done before. As New Yorkers, we are incredibly proud to add a new icon to our skyline”. 111 West 57th street—it’s that partnership with the client at the right time, engaging technology, engaging politics, and that commitment to making something so beautiful. It’s a hard building to build and hard building to finance and everyone stayed committed and focused for the five or six years that we’ve been working on it and it’s going to be another one or so until it’s done. We would never presuppose to sort of force a kind of aesthetic or a solution onto a client. It only comes from the relationship between you and the client and working through and the team and the city you’re in and the current political climate. It’s that sort of cauldron, those intense forces, that come together and you birth this new thing. Michael Stern, Founder and CEO of JDS Development Group, said to our team last year: “No one would believe this building is real even after when it’s being built.” That to us is the best compliment we could ever get from a client. The project itself has become a new model of architectural design, which allows everyone to face the fundamental aspect of architecture again. Any successful project should be closely integrated with all aspects of the project’s location and cultural background.
111 West 57th Street, Topped out in 11/2019
sitting right on the central axis of the Central Park
with extraordinary proportions ©Evan Joseph
How will such a “slender” high-rise influence its surrounding environment and the existing buildings? What were the challenges that the project had to face from its planning to its conducting?
Within Manhattan, having a project close to the Central Park already could be considered as a dream project for most of the architect firms. It is even rare to have a project like 111 W57th St, which is located right next to the southern edge of Central Park while also happens to be on the central axis of Central Park. In addition, the conversion of the historical landmark – Steinway Building, combining all of these unique features which for sure the supertall will face many challenges both in design and construction.
▼左图：历史保护建筑施坦威大楼（1925年建成），Left image: Landmark Steinway Building (built in 1925)
右图：针对历史保护建筑的设计概念图，Right image: Concept diagram to recess the tower in respecting the landmark building ©Huge Ferriss
首先是建筑的体量。项目初期，设计团队如果本着最大化的利用率来进行整体的设计，塔楼的体量将更宽，以获得更多的开发利用面积。但是考虑到施坦威大楼临街的视觉，以及超高塔楼的阴影投射到中央公园的影响，设计师将新楼体立面从临街向后推移，同时最大化地使建筑体量细长，以减少对环境的影响。这样的楼体尺度处理也最大化地保留了项目南端居民和游客对中央公园的视野，特别是从帝国大厦和洛克菲勒大厦楼顶的观景平台，显示出对这些老牌地标建筑的敬意。同时，111号的设计将楼的宽高比提高至以前建筑领域不可能达到的水平。但如公司的合伙人Dana Getman所说: “我们并不是去创造一个新的属于纽约的建筑类别，这个项目本身只是对纽约经典时代下的摩天大楼的一个回归。这也正是这一项目出彩之处”。 “战前建筑，在空调还没有被研发时，为了能让室内能有更好的光线和空气，建筑的体量往往都很窄。而111号做为一个住宅项目，因此光线和空气又一次成为设计中需重点解决的问题，使我们有机会去回顾历史经典建筑，并去了解这些建筑的特殊之处进而运用到我们的项目中。”
Starting with the mass/volume of the project. At the very beginning of the concept phase, the project team could have designed the project with the maximum utilization ratio to get the most project area. However, such an approach will result in the project having a much wider volume. Considering the importance of maintaining the visibility of the landmark Steinway building on the street level and minimizing the inevitable shadow casts on the Central Park due to the height of the supertall, pushing back further the towel portion from the street elevation to set it away from the landmark portion while maximizing the slenderness of the towel portion have become the wisest and thoughtful design approach. Besides, such a design approach also maintains the Central Park viewing experience for residents or tourists from the south of the project, especially from the observation deck on top of the Empire State Building and Rockefeller Building, as a tribute to the old New York’s landmarks. 111 West 57th is one of a new breed of towers that are pushing that ratio to previously impossible levels. Dana Getman, partner at SHoP Architects, argues that far from being a new typology for New York, super-slender is just a return to its classic era of skyscrapers. “That’s what’s interesting about this new generation of towers,” she says. “Pre-war, before air-conditioning, buildings tended to be thinner to get people closer to light and air. In these new buildings, because they’re residential, light and air again becomes an issue and we have an opportunity to look back to historic buildings and what makes those so special.”
▼超高建筑是源于历史经典建筑体量上的革命，The evolution of NYC supertalls evolved from the classical tower’s volumetric aspect ©SHoP Architects
Moving away from the volumetric aspect of the project, when people walking along the 57th street toward either East or West direction, looking at the tower’s facade design of 111 West 57th St along with the neighbor buildings, you could really have a feeling that the new tower fits the neighborhood perfectly, and creates a harmonious street view. The supertall’s East and West elevations somehow create an “illusion” which seems like the traditional building materials from the neighboring buildings just seamlessly raising in the vertical direction. This kind of effect is inseparable from the building material selection: terra-cotta and bronze.
▼左图：经典材料的垂直延伸，Left: The vertical connection of traditional materials ©Tectonicphoto
右图：高塔部分的后退保留了人们对历史保护建筑视线，Right: The landmark view from the street was preserved by pushing the tower back from the street ©Field Condition
而项目南，北两面则以玻璃及铜合金为主，旨在保留公寓内部对南北两个方向的视野及光线。细长的楼体使得111号必须要运用大量的钢筋混凝土剪力墙来保证结构稳定性，利用建筑的东，西两面与周边建筑共享的地段线（lot line）, 正好安排大面积剪力墙。在保持建筑结构性的前提下，设计了细长分布的玻璃窗，为公寓内的卫生间或衣橱提供了良好的视野及光线。
On the North and South facade, the primary materials transit to glass and bronze in order to provide the maximum views and sunlight into the units. The slenderness of the building was only possible because of the intensive use of shear wall structure and the deep foundations. Due to the East and West facades are adjacent to the shared lot line, which becomes the perfect location for the design team to arrange the primary portion of shear wall to the East and West facade. In addition, regarding the unit layout, the design team strategically located the elevator core, bathrooms and walk-in closets next to the main shear wall to maximize the unit layout while providing the only necessary windows to provide daylight and view while maintaining the structural need.
▼分析图: 剪力墙以及其他结构，Diagram: Shear wall and other related structural elements ©SHoP Architects
▼项目的结构以及房间布局以保留南北主要景观以及光线为主，The structure and room layout maintains the primary view towards the Central Park and city while preserving the sunlight exposure from the South ©SHoP Architects
▼项目北面的中央公园成为了公寓起居室的自然“背景墙”，The Central Park is the natural “backdrop” for the great room for each unit
▼而南面卧室则让人们可以与城市重新连接在一起，The city view from the bedrooms reconnect the unit owners with the city ©JDS Development Group
How could 111 West 57 St stand out from the high-rise clusters in New York and even in the world?
Nowadays, within the high-rise and supertall categories, the ones attract the public attention somehow all seem following the “glass box-like” unspoken rule for the design aspect. Within this group of buildings, the majorities could be easily located in any other major city around the globe. Such buildings do not have the strong physical and cultural connections which only associate with the project’s unique surrounding settings, and somehow this group of architecture could be considered as the “world architecture”. If you only glimpse these buildings online, you might not find the awkwardness they present but you might have a feeling that the buildings seem like just being dropped to the location without any real consideration. They lack a unique sense of belonging and a true connection to the project location. Like our partner Chris Sharples once said: “The idea here was, how could we design a truly New York skyscraper? Not just something that you could take from Beijing or Shanghai or Dubai and plant here.”
The unique design of 111 West 57th Street enables the project
to be perfectly anchored with surroundings ©SHoP Architects
111号，作为纽约建筑新篇章中的第一批超高建筑之一，独特的地理位置已经使其成为最瞩目的新地标。众所周知，纽约最传统地标建筑中，如：新哥特风格的伍尔沃思大楼 （Woolworth Building, SHoP建筑事务所所在地）、装饰艺术风格的帝国大厦、克莱斯勒大厦，都运用了赤陶和金属材料作为项目外立面的主要建筑材料，使这些材料演变为纽约建筑最传统的材料。但随着新型建筑材料的开发与完善，传统的材料逐渐被玻璃铝合金立面材料所取代，使得当下的大楼显得千篇一律。
111 W57th St, as one of the very first supertalls within the new architecture chapter for New York, previously mentioned unique project location has already made our project stand out from the rest, and becomes the most special landmark building. Among the most well-known landmarks in New York City, either the Neo-Gothic style Woolworth Building (where SHoP Architects located), or the Art Deco Empire State Building, and the Chrysler Building, terracotta and metal have been used as the main building facade materials. Eventually, such materials have gradually become the most signature materials for New York architecture. However, with the advancement of material science and technology, this batch of traditional materials has been gradually replaced by the aforementioned glass aluminum alloy curtain wall system, which forged a uniform appearance for the new high-rise buildings.
▼与右图的伍尔沃思大楼的传统赤陶相比，111号的赤陶在新时代创新下使其重获新生，Compare with Woolworth building on the right, the creativity and technology makes the terracotta for 111 West 57th Street to rejuvenate ©Ellen Oh (right)
During the concept phase of 111 West 57th Street, the team set a goal to let the New York signature materials a chance to rejuvenate, and guide people to realize the unique charm of these materials with the help of current technology which was a tribute to the group of the “golden generation” landmark buildings. Our partner Chris Sharples once said in a recent interview: “in order to go forward we have to go back, and look at the traditional materials terra-cotta and bronze, by taking their DNA and adapting into this beautiful facade design”. Meanwhile, our project was hoping to become a key transition piece to link the past and future for the architecture timeline and also redefining the social responsibility of all contemporary architects should carry on. Before the installation of the facade panel, everyone was very curious and doubtful about the construction of our project and wondering why this project’s east and west is not like the typical high-rises (or supertalls) with big curtain wall openings and columns. However, as the installation of the facade progressed, people’s doubts about the project gradually turned into a keen interest. Especially for the New York residents, witness these architectural elements that they were familiar with from childhood, adding another layer of inexplicable intimacy toward our project. 111 West 57th Street project team pursues excellence and timeless design classics, it also stands out from the current architectural design.
▼左图：从施坦威的楼台向上望时，可以看到新老建筑见相似建筑元素链接，Left: Looking up from Steinway’s terrace, you could witness the connection for the similar architectural elements between the old & new buildings ©SHoP Architects
右图：在111项目以致敬经典地标设计的契机下，使得人们可以看到施坦威和111号新老赤陶在同一时代下的对话，Right: By referencing back the classical landmarks’ design, 111 West 57Th St enables the classical and new terracotta to have a conversation within the same era. ©Field Condition
▼纽约市民熟悉的材料组合就因111号，重新回到了人们的视野，The material combination that used to be familiar to the New Yorkers has been brought back to the stage again by 111 West 57th Street ©SHoP Architects
Why do you choose to design the building in a feathered profile?
New York’s zoning resolution began as early as 1916, compared with other cities of the same level, it has already shown its far-reaching and positive impact on the city’s overall planning. Within this concrete jungle, the sky exposure plane is the most important design criterion for middle and high-rise buildings. It is mandatory for the building to continuously recess in a stepwise manner during the vertical rise. This approach ensures the sunlight could have the longest and greatest amount of sunlight reach the street level during the day. On the other hand, maintaining the amount of view of the sky also reduces the sense of pressure when pedestrians and vehicles are traveling among the concrete jungle. Most of the high-rise designs all have such stepped setbacks associated with the location and height of the project.
▼分析图: 强制退缩与羽毛般的退缩的不同，Diagram: the comparison between regular setback and feathered setback ©SHoP Architects
The feathered profile is one of the unique characters for 111 W57th Street. This profile, if compared with the traditional setback that you have seen on other high-rise projects, greatly softens the massive volume of the tower design, ensures a smoother continuation and transition of the overall shape. Each feathered setback is accompanied by an anchor pile that consists of terracotta plates and curved bronze filigree. The anchor piles greatly reduce the sense of gap where the extra spaces generated from each setback. The use of these subtle connections between architectural elements enables the building edges and corners to have a human-scale, letting people easily perceive and relate themself with the project’s unique volume.
▼左图近看的退缩处细节构造, 以及右图远看整体间的协调性，Closed-up details on the left, and the overall balance between different modules ©SHoP Architects (left), Evan Joseph (right)
Each feathered setback is accompanied by an anchor pile
that consists of terracotta plates and curved bronze filigree ©Field Condition
How did you choose the facade material and what challenges did you face during the design?
As the slenderest building in the world (with a width-to-height ratio about 1:24), on the structural portion, the project is only possible is because of the deep foundation, the high-strength reinforced concrete shear walls, and mass dampers work together perfectly to provide the stability of the structure. As mentioned earlier, the large-area of shear walls on the Ease and West facade with the slender windows create two massive “solid” walls, which requires the design team to come up with a material selection to cover the bone of the structure. As we were looking into the most classical New York building material, terracotta has naturally become the best choice.
▼为了避免赤陶外观的单一性，设计团队又通过参数化设计，使其东，西立面呈现出大的纹路设计，The overall moiré waving profile was designed in grasshopper to achieve by arranging the different extruded terracotta profiles strategically to composite the effect ©SHoP Architects
▼23个不同的立体造型组合(左), 以及不同造型在外立面上营造出的别样的美，23 terracotta’s 3D profiles (left) together form a unique beauty for the facade ©SHoP Architects
▼示意图: 平面图上23个不同造型组合在一起，Diagram: 23 unique profiles in plan view ©SHoP Architects
Different from the traditional terracotta installation method to inlay the pieces on the exterior wall with cement, 111 West 57th St locks down the terracotta pieces to the vertical aluminum alloy panels with mechanical screws and uses this as the typical facade module. Then the facade modules are secured to the facade anchors and the overall facade system is being used as the rain screen to protect the building from water and moisture penetration. There are about 43,000 individual terracotta pieces and 23 unique 3D profiles for this project. The overall moiré waving profile was designed in grasshopper to achieve by arranging the different extruded terracotta profiles strategically to composite the effect. The wave pattern responds with the feather setbacks harmoniously and creates a “motion” that the tower is gradually rising upward towards the sky. Each tower floor has about 22 to 28 vertical terracotta modules, changes depending on the height and floor plate. Each vertical module is as tall as the floor height (15′-6″) and has 7 individual pieces. The terracotta module system simplifies the production process for the workers, and enables the construction team to complete the installation process more smoothly. At the highest point of the project, there is a building maintenance unit for the team to use in cleaning the glass and terracotta facade elements.
▼赤陶进步细节，Detail shot for terracotta ©JDS Development Group
How were the decorative elements integrated to the monolithic form of the tower?
如前所述，111号东, 西两面墙上装饰了23个独特的赤陶垂直模组，远远看去犹如光影的变换。而在玻璃上添加的铜合金构件，与赤陶垂直模组互相错开，却是只有从近处才能观察到的细节装饰。这两种组合，重新将装饰艺术风格带回到人们的视野。合伙人们曾说过，在设计阶段，团队花了大量的时间和精力去寻找不同材料间的平衡，使整个超高建筑不过于生硬。不论是3D的赤陶垂直模组还是青铜构建，弯曲的弧度犹如曾经回响在施坦威大楼钢琴曲中的音符，细腻地将 “生硬的”建筑材料连接在一起。
Looking at the east and west facades, you will see a “live show” of the light and shadow casting on the terracottas and filigrees, which responses to the directions of the sunlight and the weather condition. Sometimes you could see the most extruded terracotta pieces reflecting the sunlight at the right moment, which like the sparkings in the golden water. On the other hand, during cloudy days, the terracotta pieces with shallowest extruded profiles become the main element that draws all your attention towards the darkest spots, presenting a subtle beauty. The bronze filigree (unfinished) in-between the terracotta modules adds another layer of aesthetic and complexity to the project when you observe the project from a close distance. The curved profile is like the notes within the music script, delicately connecting different elements together and soften the rigidity the facades presented.
▼如不断重复变化的音符一般，所有不断叠加的赤陶板块和铜合金构件共同完成了这一个建筑的乐曲，Like great music, relies on repetition and variation of notes, the pillings of terracottas and filigrees jointly create this masterpiece ©SHoP Architects (left), Opus 53 for piano by Frédéric Chopin in 1842 (right)
After trying various design options, the amount and distribution of the various materials are also at a very particular ratio. They do not fight over each other while being harmoniously integrated into one unity. During the design phase, SHoP and JDS collectively decided to choose a copper alloy without oxidation resistance, allowing the copper to age with the building over time, gradually changing from gold copper to the final dark black color. Such a unique aesthetic our project’s facades presented, perfectly link the new addition with the music value Steinway portion had. Like the script of music, constantly progressing with the flow of time, and you could only get a complete sense and feeling of the music until the very end of the script. This is something you are not able to see within the “world architecture” style buildings mentioned earlier.
▼刚刚装上铜合金构件(左图)与已经开始老化的铜合金构件的对比.，The comparison between newy installed and aged bronze filigrees ©SHoP Architects (left), Field Condition (right)
The new & classical landmarks under sunset ©JDS Development Group
What problems should be overcome during the construction?What is the engineering and technical challenge of the project?
▼左图：施工人员在将立面板块从北部移出楼体，Left: Moving out the facade module from the opening near the North ©JDS Development Group
右图：项目独有的双层安装悬挂装置，Right: double deck facade installing platform specifically designed for our project ©SHoP Architects
Due to the project being located in the busiest area in New York City while with only limited space in the job site, the construction team has to keep the construction field as clean as possible to ensure the workers have enough space to perform all their works. Where to store the construction materials, how to arrange transportation to perfectly align with the extremely tight construction schedule becomes really challenging. On-site construction activities can only be performed on a site of approximately 17×24 meters (56×80 feet). On top of that, with the height of the tower, JDS Development Group also needs to pinpoint the lift/hoist schedule with all the construction activities as well. With JDS construction team’s specialized expertise and meticulous organization skills have enabled them to conquer all these most difficult challenges with ease.
For our project, while the massive shearwalls provide the required structural requirements but at the same time, it also creates unique challenges for the construction team to install the modules on the East and West facade. Unlike other traditional column grid highrise / supertall buildings with huge open space to install the curtain wall system from inside, our project could only install the facade modules from the outside for the Ease / West facades. The project team needs to use a very project-specific curtain wall installation system to provide a suspended platform for the workers to stand outside of the shearwall to perform all the installations. First, the team will connect the modules with the cables tie into the system then pull the modules out of the building from the North / South openings. Then the team will need to horizontally shift the panels within the very narrow space we have in-between the platform and shearwall. It’s an extremely challenging and high-precision process at the height where the works are performed, the overall process involves many changes of hands to get the panel to the final coordinated location.
Near the top of the project, we have a tuned mass damper which weighed 800 tons (equals to three times of the Statue of Liberty) and located within a triple-height space. Due to the massive size and number of parts involved in the complicated installation process, the project team performed a test run to install the whole equipment in the remote factory to ensure everything works perfectly. The overall weight is being added up by numerous individual thick solid steel panels, and it took 12-20 batches of large trucks to deliver all the pieces. Then the construction crane carried one panel at a time to pull them up to the final location which is 1,200 ft in the air.
Tower top steel structure under installation ©Evan Joseph
Please briefly introduce some other programmes of the main building.
项目总共有91层，外加楼顶的钢塔（57米高）， 3个透风层分别安排在项目的51, 71和86层， 以均匀地减小超高楼体的风荷载。同时项目还设计了一个重达800吨、3层楼高的调谐质量阻尼器，它坐落在项目的88层，以减小由风导致的建筑的振动。另外在项目的最高处，还配有大楼维护装置来提供玻璃清洗或项目建筑配件的更换工作。
The project has a total of 91 floors, with an additional steel tower crown at the top of the project which is roughly 175 ft tall. Three are three windbreak floors located at Level 51, 71, and 86 to reduce the wind load and distribute the impact evenly for our project. In addition, the project also equipped a tuned mass damper weighing 800 tons on the 88th floor of the project to reduce the movement of the building caused by the wind impact. At the highest point of the project, there is a building maintenance unit for the team to use in cleaning the glass or replacing any parts of the project as needed.
Tower top exploded axon diagram for 111 W57th St ©SHoP Architects
项目内住宅部分分为平层与复式公寓两种，在1楼及10楼配有公共服务设施，比如泳池，桑拿房，健身房，酒吧，厨房，及户外楼台。在地下1到4楼设置有商业及零售楼层, 而相邻57街一楼的商业楼层，同时配备了一个有7层楼高的中庭。机械室则分散在整个项目中，主要集中在地下2楼，2， 9， 10， 18，19，20，40，41，63，64，以及84，85楼。同时项目也为业主提供了施坦威楼体内的落客区域(Porte Cochere)以方便业主的出行及生活。
Each unit typically occupies an entire floor, except for duplex units we have for this project. On level 1 and level 10, we also provide amenity space for the unit owners to use, such as swimming pool, sauna rooms, gym, bar, kitchen and outdoor terraces, etc. From Cellar to Level 4, the project also accommodates some retail and commercial space. Facing 57th street, the retail space on the floor has an enormous atrium which has a 7-floor tall ceiling. The mechanical levels are spread within the building, and mainly located on Sub-cellar, Level 2, 9, 10, 18, 20, 40, 41, 63, 64, 84 and 85. In addition, on 58th Street within the Steinway portion, we have also designed a Porte Cochere area to provide the convenience for owners to be picked up or dropped off.
▼高塔部分典型户型平面图，Typical tower unit plan ©SHoP Architects
▼111号的落客区域，Porte Cochere area for 111 West 57th St
▼111号的室内泳池，Interior pool for 111 West 57th St
▼左图：111号58街的入口，Left: Entrance from 58th Street
右图：位于10楼的住户楼台，Right: Terrace on Floor 10 for the residents
▼位于10楼的住户楼台，Terrace on Floor 10 for the residents
What makes SHoP a highly trusted partner to JDS? How was your collaboration distinguished from the conventional ones between architects and clients?
111 W57th Street is the second project between the collaboration of SHoP and JDS (American Copper Building is the first project between SHoP Architects and JDS Development Group). Before kicking off the project, we have already cultivated great teamwork chemistry from the previous collaboration for the American Copper Building. Such a close relationship between the two offices is inseparable from SHoP Architects’ design theory. Since 1996, SHoP has modeled a new way forward with our unconventional approach to design. At the heart of the firm’s method is a willingness to question accepted patterns of practice, coupled with the courage to expand, where necessary, beyond the architect’s traditional roles. This open-minded process allows us to effectively address a broad range of issues in our designs: from novel programmatic concepts, to next-generation fabrication and delivery techniques, to beautifully crafted spaces that precisely suit their functions. Years ago we set out to prove that intelligent, evocative architecture can be made in the real world, with real world constraints.
回顾SHoP建筑事务所一些经典项目, 如Dunescape，Mitchell Park，Porter House以及后来的巴克莱竞技中心，不论项目尺度的大小，还是复杂的程度，公司都成功的完成了这些里程碑式的建筑项目。我们一直都在推进建筑施工的技术：在我们各个项目的操纵中，我们运用了大量的“零件套件”式的施工图纸 (例如 Dunescape和 Porter House)，皆在生成一套独特的项目交付方式，而避免了传统的建筑“蓝图”。努力去消除想象力与实现项目之间不必要的障碍，进而简化创建一流建筑的过程。
Looking back at some noteworthy projects we did, Dunescape, Mitchell Park, Porter House and following by Barclays Center, our office has successfully delivered all these millstone projects with ease regardless of the size or complexity of the project. We have been advancing our approach to construction technology: deep in our practice, delivering these projects as a custom “kit of parts” (such as Dunescape and Porter House), aimed to produce a unique set of project documentation without traditional “blueprint” plans. Working to eliminate the unnecessary barriers between imagination and realization that have always complicated the process of creating great architecture.
▼为MOMA PS1 2000年设计的沙丘，运用非传统的零件套件图纸，Dunescape for MOMA PS1 in 2000, with Non-traditional kit of parts delivery ©David Joseph
On the other hand, for our Barclays Center, with the advanced in house technology development, we have also been developing different model-based processes that integrated all of the information necessary to streamline the design and delivery process. This technique can eliminate the need for conventional drawings, while aligning the imagination of our designers as closely as possible to the capabilities of the automated machinery used in component manufacturing. By keeping this kind of thought behind every project, SHoP’s project documentation is usually more innovative than any other architecture offices. While ensuring the highest design quality and standard, the pursuit of the most efficient and explicit construction drawings (or 3D models) delivery method to enable our clients and general contractors could easily pinpoint how each critical stage of the project will be executed. The number of RFI (most of the time due to insufficient drawing information) during the pre-construction and construction period has been greatly reduced. The quality of the final deliverables also enables the general contracting (G.C.) company to submit their bids which pinpoint the actual construction cost with confidence. Such a process greatly minimizes any potential construction-related financial issues that arose during the entire project lifespan.
Barclays Center (completed in 2012) (click HERE to view more)
In this project 3D model was used to delivery method to support the construction process of the project. In addition, we developed an iPhone app in-house that was used to scan panels and track their path through every stage of production, transportation and final assembly. Our client received real-time graphic updates on progress via a live virtual model. Photograph (top) by Bruce Damonte.
At the same time, if compared with the traditional way of architectural practice, our firm is constantly seeking any other potential opportunity so that architects (or the firm) can take on more project responsibilities (or risks), which enables us to work much more closely with our clients. For Porter House, with our investment tied to the outcome of the project, we discovered a beneficial shift in the client-architect relationship. Design could become bolder as decision-making became more fluid, trusting, and productive. This experience inspired us to repeat the co-investment model in other work—protecting our design intent and helping to ensure the financial success of those projects while forming a much closer business relationship with our clients. We believe our work presents a convincing argument that we are on the right track. These stories behind each project also had a huge impact on New York and even the American architecture industry.
Porter House (completed in 2003)©Seong Kwon
This is the first project SHoP Architects involved as the architect and the investor partners for a project at the same time. The diagram demonstrates the difference between traditional architectural practice and SHoP’s practice for Porter House. The butterfly represents the architect, and by looking at the horizontal axis, SHoP has been taking more responsibilities and involvements compare to the traditional practice (diagram on the left), which accompanies the increase of scopes as well. Such shift in the project team organization has also made SHoP get more rewards from the overall project process.
As one of the closest clients of SHoP Architects, JDS Development Group is one of the very few top real estate developers in the world who have the ability to execute the construction portion of the project by themselves. Compared with the three-party (customer, architect, contractor) relationship of traditional construction projects, the cooperation between JDS and SHoP is a much closer project team that is far more efficient in solving all kinds of problems that occur during the project life cycle. As for our clients, JDS Development Group, who is seeking the most extraordinary design generally prefers to work with architecture firms such as SHoP Architects, who know how to best help and guide the client to achieve the remarkable design with the smoothest construction process. Also at the same time, each member of the JDS and SHoP team is very proud to be part of this project which redefines the standards for the high-rise building design, while achieving the eternal quality of every detail.
▼9 Dekalb Ave
Another supertall project between SHoP Architects
and JDS Development Group under construction ©SHoP Architects
As the first completed skyscraper of SHoP, can you tell us about the structure of the project team?
负责项目的直接合伙人分别是Gregg Pasquarelli, Chris Sharples 以及 Dana Getman (近期被提升为事务所合伙人）。项目设计阶段在2013年秋季完成，施工开始于2014年初。我在2016年秋季从密西根大学研究生毕业后即加入了SHoP建筑事务所，随即正式参与到这个项目中。当时项目地基已经做好，正进行施坦威大楼内饰的拆除工作，同时主塔楼的钢筋混凝土剪力墙已浇筑至10楼左右。除了合伙人之外，在项目建设管理阶段，我们核心现场建筑师团队仅保持2-3人。随着项目接近尾声，目前团队只有项目经理Scot Teti和我。由于项目时间跨度大，现场建筑师处理的工作与项目历史息息相关，使得我们肩负着重大的责任。同时，也正是由于这样的精干的小规模团队分配，也让我们与客户之间沟通更方便与快捷。
除了建筑设计团队外，共同参与我们项目的团队还包括：Studio Sofield (室内设计事务所），WSP（结构设计事务所），JBB（机械设计事务所），L’Observator（灯光设计事务所），Buro Happo (外立面设计顾问）以及JHPA （保护建筑及维护顾问）等等，每个公司都是以最高效紧凑的人员团队协助我们这个项目，对于我们整个项目的大团队来说，大家更像是一个大家庭一般，给与彼此最专业的支持及信任。就像Michael说的那样：“这个项目的材料，强度以及独特的比例充分展现了JDS与SHoP之间的亲密无间的团队合作。我们突破了建筑和制造的界限，并在新旧并存的复杂性中找到了最佳的切入点”。
The direct partners in charge for this project includes: Gregg Pasquarelli, Chris Sharples and Dana Getman (recently been promoted to the partner level). The design phase of the project was completed in fall 2013, and the construction began in early 2014. I joined SHoP Architects in the fall of 2016 (graduated from University of Michigan in 2016) and began to work on this project from my very first day in the office. At that time, the foundation of the project has been poured already. The conversion of the Steinway’s interior portion and the construction of the new superstructure for the tower portion (around Level 10) was going on simultaneously. In addition to the partners, the project team for the construction administration phase has remained with 2-3 people. As the project comes closer to the final stage, the project team has been reduced with two people, our project director Scot Teti and me. Because the problems involved in a lot of work are closely related to the project history of the past few years, everyone in the project team has assumed a lot of responsibilities. Due to many of the construction issues the project team is dealing with, usually involved with lots of institutional memories of the project from the past, everyone in the project team has taken a lot of responsibilities in making sure the decision/solution is to the best of the project. At the same time, as the benefit of the small team organization, the communication between the design team and our client is way more rapid and efficient.
Within the project, we have reviewed thousands of shop drawings on superstructures alone. The timeframe we have for reviewing the drawings is very tight, and the team needs to check other trades’ shop drawings concurrently, such as mechanical, facade, interior finishes, etc. To split your mind in working multiple things at once makes the work itself more challenging. At the same time, the architect’s role is similar to a “half” contractor. With numerous communications between the architects and the engineers (or general contractor) in coordinating the review process, the architect needs to ensure that different trades reviewed their scopes perfectly, and the comments they provided also coordinated with the overall building system to prevent any conflict could emerge during the construction process. Then the design team will return the shop drawing to our general contractor to get the construction process moving forward. To deliver the best quality for work during the construction phase, you must have strong soft skills, to support the design and technical skill that you already developed. Having the ability to communicate cut to the point, smoothly collaborate with others, and quickly narrow down the priorities during the extremely busy schedule are very crucial to all the team members to complete the work efficiently. Another unique thing about our team is we have the absolute trust from our partners, associate principal, and project director. They fully trust and support every decision made by the team members during the construction process, and check-in with the team very often. This kind of relationship is really difficult to get if you practice in other architecture firms without years of practice and working relationship. However, as a young firm and a very young team, the responsibility the firm gives to each member is difficult to seek elsewhere and makes everyone’s contribution much more meaningful. It also gives young professionals the best place to grow, learn and progress in their professional careers.
Beside our SHoP’s team, our other partner firms involved in the project include Studio Sofield (Interior Architects), WSP (Structural Engineer), JBB (Mechanical Engineer), L’Observateur (Lighting Designer), Buro Happo (Facade Consultant), and JHPA (Landmark Preservation Consultant), etc. Within each firm, we all have the best personals assigned to this project, and their team is also very small. Somehow the collaboration with all the parties makes me feel we are like a big family group, everyone is doing their best in giving the support and trust in making the project go as smoothly as possible. Just like Michael said: “The tower’s materiality, strength, and proportions are a testament to the deep collaboration between the JDS team and New York-based design team of SHoP Architects. We have pushed the boundaries of architecture and fabrication and have embraced the complexity in this remarkable juxtaposition of old and new.
Could you please share your experience of participating in such a significant project?
For the past three years, the time I spent on 111 West 57th Street is like an amazing journey that you can’t seek elsewhere. I feel very fortunate that I could join SHoP Architects right after my graduate school and participate in the first supertall project within our office. I still remember during my final interview at SHoP, with the intensive project experience I got while working in the other architecture offices, I specifically mentioned that I hope I could have the opportunity to work on a project in the construction phase to expand my knowledge about how the building components actually come together. I had a mixture of feelings when being told that I will be working on 111 West 57th St, I was excited because I could participate in such a project which might be once of a lifetime opportunity, while being extremely nervous at the same time due to I hardly know what RFI or Submittal was. However, thinking about all the new challenges I will encounter during the construction phase which also boosts my energy to the peak and “force” me to devote myself to this challenging project. I would like to express again how much appreciation I have towards the enormous support, mentorship, and trust I got from Gregg Pasquarelli (founding partner), Chris Sharples (founding partner), Dana Getman (partner) and Scot Teti (Director). Like I mentioned earlier, 111’s project team is like a family, fully backing up each other’s back.
Graduating as an international student, the non-native language and different cultural backgrounds that we have to deal with in our daily life all have subtly influenced the way we study and work. For me, the architectural education students receive from colleges somehow protects the student too much from the real-world issue, and only aims to continuously guide the students in improving the overall quality of their “dream” projects. It lacks to provide the real connection between the ideal design scenario and the real-world design limits. Such things could not be gained through the conversations you will have during each project presentation. When you work in an architecture office, especially for projects around mid or late phases, how much you know about the real construction details and how well you could communicate, solve the problems are also considered as crucial skills, just like your design skill. It was the right time for me to jump out of my comfort zone and start working on the project under the construction phase, to learn how to best communicate with different people or trades who will be also involved in the same project and how to efficiently solve all the tricky issues. Most of the time you need to know what is the most appropriate way to talk to that specific person or team to get things moving the directions you want, to some degree, it’s like an art.
If there is anything I would like to share with gooood’s followers (students about to graduate or young people like me in their earlier age working in the office), I would recommend everyone try their best in participating in as many project phases as possible to become a well-rounded designer or architect. Don’t lock yourself down to a specific project phase only. The different experiences you absorb from different phases will best help you to develop your leadership in the long run and allow you to make the best design decision. Some of us might think there is no design involved during the construction phase, however, the reality is completely the opposite. Through the construction phase, there will be countless redesigns that require you to make the best design decision in a timely manner and produce a well-coordinated design drawing update to your client. You will never know how many people will be involved in a “simple” construction question until you become part of the construction team. Also, the ability to quickly respond to your client’s question/request and provide them the most professional feedback sometime are considered one of the most important elements to set you or your office apart from the rest of the firms. The moment when you know the decision you are going to make by yourself will also be the best approach your partner or director will make, that moment is beyond words!
external view of the project, looking over the city ©Evan Joseph