CRA-Carlo Ratti Associati 与全球能源公司Eni合作，研发了一种以蘑菇为材料的建筑结构，并于2019年4月9日在米兰设计周正式向公众展出。这个被称为The Circular Garden的装置花费了6周时间从土壤中生长出来，并在月底重归土壤之中。装置呈一系列的拱形结构，使用了累积1公里长的菌丝体，可持续结构试验保证装置结构可以有机生长后返还土地之中，形成一个完整的循环体系。装置将在米兰Fuorisalone设计周期间在Brera的Orto Botanico植物园内展出。装置是INTERNI Human Spaces展览的一部分，于2019年4月9日至4月19日向公众展出。
CRA-Carlo Ratti Associati, in partnership with global energy company Eni, has developed an architectural structure made of mushrooms, to be unveiled today at Milan Design Week 2019. The installation, called “The Circular Garden,” was grown from soil over the past six weeks – and will be returned to the soil at the end of the month. It is composed of a series of arches, adding up to a record 1-kilometer-long mycelium, and experiments with sustainable structures that can grow organically and then return to nature in a fully circular way. The project will be showcased during Milan’s Fuorisalone at Brera’s Orto Botanico, the city’s botanical garden. The installation, part of the INTERNI Human Spaces exhibition, will be open to the public from April 9th to 19th 2019.
▼The Circular Garden装置呈一系列的拱形结构，The Circular Garden installation is composed of a series of arches ©Marco Beck Peccoz
The Circular Garden 打破了使用菌丝体（蘑菇纤维状的种子）进行设计的界线。近年来，菌丝体被应用于可持续性包装产品和小型砖块状产品之中。The Circular Garden装置将菌丝体扩展到建筑尺度——1千米长的菌丝体生长成为60个散布于Orto Botanico植物园中4米高的拱门。
The Circular Garden pushes the boundaries of using mycelium – the fibrous root of mushrooms – in design. In recent years, mycelium has been employed for sustainable packaging and small brick-like objects. The Circular Garden engages with mycelium at the architectural scale – with a series of 60 4-meter-high arches made of mycelium scattered around the Orto Botanico, for a total of 1 kilometer of mushroom.
▼菌丝体构成60个4米高的拱门散布于Orto Botanico植物园中，a series of 60 4-meter-high arches made of mycelium scattered around the Orto Botanico ©Marco Beck Peccoz
为了让如此规模的菌丝体结构能够自我支撑，项目从伟大的加泰罗尼亚建筑师安东尼·高迪身上汲取灵感，正是他在设计巴塞罗那圣家族大教堂时复兴了博学多识的乔瓦尼•波黎尼 （Giovanni Poleni）首创的倒置悬链线（inverted catenary）方式。按照这种方法，塑造一个纯粹受压结构需要首先使用悬垂的链条找到结构形状，然后再将结构翻转过来。这种方法应用在了The Circular Garden之中，悬链拱形成了4个散布于公园之中的“开放式房间”。
In order to create self-supporting mycelium structures on such a scale, the project takes inspiration from the great Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí. It was he, while designing the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona, who resurrected the “inverted catenary” method pioneered in the 18th-century by polymath Giovanni Poleni. According to this method, the best way to create pure compression structures is to find their form using suspended catenaries and then invert them. The same applies to the Circular Garden, where the catenaries compose a series of four architectural “open rooms” scattered throughout the garden.
▼拱形结构使用了倒置悬链线的方法，inverted catenary method applies to the Circular Garden ©Marco Beck Peccoz
▼散落在植物园中不同的”开放式房间“，”open room“ scattered around the botanical garden ©Marco Beck Peccoz
在真菌学领域重要专家尤其是荷兰Krown.Bio实验室的帮助下，设计团队将孢子注射入有机体中，让菌丝体在The Circular Garden开放的前两个月的时间内生长成型。以同样有机的方式，所有的菌丝体将在米兰设计周结束时被粉碎，以循环的方式重归土壤之中。这种循环方式类似于以前小镇和城市花园中生产食物和有机废物堆肥的方式。
The mycelium was grown in the two months preceding the opening of the Circular Garden with the help of leading experts in the field of mycology – particularly the Dutch Krown.Bio lab. Spores were injected into organic material to start the growth process. In a similarly organic manner, all the mycelium will be shredded at the end of Milan Design Week and go back to the soil, in a circular way. The cycle is similar to what has happened since ancient times in small town or city gardens, through the production of food and the composting of organic waste.
▼土壤中生长出来的菌丝体将在展览结束时被粉碎，以循环的方式重归土壤之中，all the mycelium grow from soil is shredded at the end of the exhibition and back to the soil, in a circular way ©Marco Beck Peccoz
CRA创始合伙人与麻省理工可感知城市实验室（MIT Senseable City Lab）负责人Carlo Ratti说：“自然是比人类更具智慧的建筑师。随着我们集体在追求一个更像是”活着“的建筑，自然世界和人工世界之间的界线将越来越模糊。如果明天我们就能够像种植物一样”种房子“呢？米兰市中心神奇的植物园似乎是进行这种实验的理想场所。”
“Nature is a much smarter architect than us,” says Carlo Ratti, founding partner of CRA and director of the MIT Senseable City Lab: “As we continue our collective quest for a more responsive ‘living’ architecture, we will increasingly blur the boundaries between the worlds of the natural and the artificial. What if tomorrow we might be able to program matter to ‘grow a house’ like a plant? Milan’s amazing botanical garden, in the center of the city, seemed the ideal place for such an experiment”.
▼装置代表着一种像种植植物一样种植房子的实验，the installation is an experiment of ‘grow a house’ like a plant ©Marco Beck Peccoz
▼菌丝体结构细节，detail of the mycelium structure ©Marco Beck Peccoz
“There’s a whimsical short story written by Italian writer Italo Calvino in the 1960s that tells of the wonder of the urbanite Marcovaldo when he suddenly discovers some mushrooms growing in the middle of the city. During our first visits at the Botanical Garden in Milan, we felt a similar amazement,” comments Saverio Panata, project manager at CRA: “We discovered how many varieties of mushrooms were naturally growing in the garden. After that encounter, we thought that mushrooms, with their adaptability and speed of growth, could become our perfect building material.”
▼蘑菇凭借其适应性和生长速度，可以成为完美的建筑材料，mushrooms, with their adaptability and speed of growth, could become perfect building material ©Marco Beck Peccoz
许多为临时展览和展会（如米兰设计周）设计的展馆，在展览结束后造成了大量的浪费，The Circular Garden则可以循环再利用——蘑菇，绳子和木屑重归土壤之中，小金属部件重新回收利用。奥斯卡·尼迈耶曾说过“生命比建筑更重要。”这个宣言是今年INTERNI Human Spaces展览的主题核心。Ratti补充道：”这与人类的生命休戚相关，同时与我们星球上所有生命的关系也日益紧密，实际上这是一个整体性的设计。“
Many pavilions designed for temporary exhibitions and fairs – such as for Milan Design Week – end up generating large amounts of waste. The Circular Garden project will be reused in a circular fashion – mushrooms, ropes and wood chips will go back to the soil and small metal elements will be recycled. “Life is more important than architecture,” Oscar Niemeyer famously said, a dictum that is at the center of this year’s theme at the INTERNI Human Spaces exhibition. “It is certainly about human life – but it is also increasingly about the life of our planet, intended in a holistic way,” adds Ratti.
▼装置夜景，night scenes of the installation ©Marco Beck Peccoz
▼灯光下的装置与建筑、植物相映成趣，installation with light creates an interesting image with building and plants ©Marco Beck Peccoz
▼夜景细节，night view detail ©Marco Beck Peccoz
The Circular Garden
A project by CRA-Carlo Ratti Associati for Eni
Part of “INTERNI Human Spaces” exhibition
Artistic Consultancy: Italo Rota
CRA Team: Carlo Ratti, Giovanni de Niederhausern, Saverio Panata (project manager), Luca Giacolini, Alessandro Tassinari, Nicola Scaramuzza
CRA Make Team: Alessandro Peretti Griva, Carlo Turati, Corrado Castiglioni, Luca Cianfriglia
Renderings by CRA graphic team: Gary di Silvio, Gianluca Zimbardi
Mycologist consultants: Krown.bio
Photo credits: Marco Beck Peccoz
Video credits: Edithink
Where: Milan’s Orto Botanico, Milan, Italy
When: April 8th- April 19th, 2019 (h.10:00-22:00)