Social Production of Housing: Sierra Nororiental de Puebla / Comunal Taller de Arquitectura

Traditional materials, contemporary method.

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墨西哥国家住房委员会(CONAVI)在 2016 年 2 月重新制定了提供联邦补贴的操作规则。根据新的法规,使用传统材料:竹子、稻草、棕榈、木材等为主要结构建造的建筑是具有不稳定结构的危险住房,所以联邦委员会不会为这些建筑提供补贴。因此,面向 Tepetzintan 社区开展的自建住房技术培训和参与式设计工作坊被搁置了,失去了政府的支持,居民更加难以自行建造他们的家园。为了改变当前这种状况,建筑师决定与 Tosepan Titataniske 和 Tosepan Ojtatsentekitinij 原住民合作社一起进行第二次住房运动,避免使用当地竹子作为结构要素,以符合 CONAVI 的新规定,帮助当地居民获得政府的补贴。

In February 2016 the National Housing Commission, CONAVI (for its acronym in Spanish), renewed its operating rules for providing federal subsidies. New regulations established that the use of traditional materials and constructive systems such as bamboo, straw, bajareque, palm, carrizo and wood, is considered precarious, denying access to federal funds to self-construction practices with these materials. Therefore, the first housing exercise, carried out jointly with the community of Tepetzintan through five workshops of technical training and participatory design, was discarded to receive government support, making it difficult for residents to self-construct it. Given this scenario, together with the Tosepan Titataniske and Tosepan Ojtatsentekitinij Indigenous Cooperatives, we decided to make a second housing exercise that avoid using local bamboo species as structural elements in order to comply with the regulations already imposed by CONAVI.

▼为了满足政府的规定而设计的新型住房,the developed constructive structure to meet the requirements of the government

▼新建筑的结构避免使用了不稳定的传统材料,new structures avoid using the precarious traditional materials

▼室内,interior

第二次住房实践中的建筑保留了竹木面板的设计,模块化的预制结构使用了三个元件:两个桁架结构、一个面板和它的变体。一旦完成结构的框架,预制的元件可以快速组装,显著减少了现场施工的时间。此外,一周的装配时间可以降低劳动力成本和项目预算。

This second exercise preserves the modular and prefabricated building system based on panels made with bamboo oldhamii. The construction system uses only three elements (two trusses and a panel with its variants); these elements are pre-fabricated and assembled once the structural frames have been finished, which significantly reduces site construction time. Also, the approximate assembly time is one week, reducing labor costs for a low budget project.

▼模块化的预制元件,the modular and prefabricated building system

▼简单明确的结构降低了施工难度和成本,simple and explicit structure reduces labor costs and budget

在内部空间方面,房子响应了当地纳瓦特尔人的习俗和传统:他们将主厅是为整个房子的中心元素 – 用于干燥咖啡和玉米作物。厨房墙壁上的格子状开孔使得室内外的通风良好,可以放出烧柴时产生的烟雾。

In terms of space, the house responds to the customs and traditions of Nahuatl people, who employ a main hall where they locate the altar – the central element of the house – and dry the coffee and corn crop. The kitchen has a permeable character to let out the smoke of the firewood and the design of traditional lattices is recovered.

▼内部空间,the interior of the altar

▼良好的通风有助于适应当地的高温,the design is good for ventilation that suits the local climate

安装完成后,竹木面板上涂上一种名叫 istle 的涂料,这是当地制作咖啡袋的材料;和一层薄薄的砂浆。一旦地基的结构完成建设,梁和面板会被固定在基本结构之上。然后一种由食品级铝废料制成的产品会被运用在建筑的建造过程中。这种产品有着优异的声学、热学和抗菌性能。除了使用当地的传统建筑材料之外,村名可以亲身参与到建筑的建造过程中,降低了家庭住房的建设成本,得到了极佳的环境效果

Once installed, bamboo panels are coated with ixtle (local tissue used to make coffee sacks) and a thin layer of mortar. Once the base structure has been placed, the beams and subsequently the ecolam sheet are fixed. This last one is a product made from food-grade aluminum waste, which gives thermal, acoustic and antibacterial properties. In addition to local materials, which allow the villagers to contribute in kind and labor to reduce the cost of their homes, the project has an optimum environmental performance. 

▼厨房空间的格子状墙壁有助于通风,the kitchen has a permeable character to let out the smoke of the firewood

▼竹木面板上的涂料有助于提升材料的寿命,bamboo panels are coated with ixtle which is good for maintenance

在建筑用水的方面,设计师将雨水收集的共能纳入到建筑设计当中,建筑背阴一侧的湿地将中水进行生物处理。气候方面,采用了基本的生物气候战略以应对该地区的高温。

In the case of water, rainwater harvesting is used, as well as wetlands for reuse of gray water and biodigestor for sewage treatment. As for the climate, basic bioclimatic strategies were implemented to combat the region high temperatures.

▼环境策略,environmental strategy

▼平面,plan

▼立面,elevation

▼剖面,section

▼结构细部,detail

Collaborators: Unión de Cooperativas Tosepan Titataniske
Location: Cuetzalan del Progreso, Puebla. México.
Year: 2016
Builded Surface: 60 sqm
Photographer: Onnis Luque

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