Seinäjoki City Library by JKMM Architects

A sculpture-like “clover” dialoguing with the civic centre created by Aalto

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塞伊奈约基(Seinäjoki)的市民中心是由阿尔瓦·阿尔托设计的统一建筑群,该建筑群展示了阿尔托从门把手的细节到城市规划规模的精美。这个中心是现代建筑的杰作,也是一个非常有价值的人文环境。图书馆是市民中心的一部分,于1965年建成,是阿尔托(Aalto)著名的图书馆设计系列的一个例子。该图书馆作为小镇的主图书馆在超过四十年的时间里运行良好,但是随着城镇的扩展和图书馆活动的发展,它已不能满足当今的需求。作为解决方案,该镇决定在现有的图书馆旁边建立一座新的现代建筑,使得两座建筑可以合并成为一个有同样功能的复合体。在2008年组织的一场针对其设计的建筑竞赛中,赢得竞赛的就是我们提出的名为“Apila”(三叶草)的方案。

▼视频,video ©JKMM

The civic centre of Seinäjoki is a uniform building complex designed by Alvar Aalto. The building complex showcases Aalto’s exquisite touch from the details of door handles to the scale of urban planning. The centre is a masterpiece of modern architecture and a highly valuable cultural environment. The library was completed as part of the civic centre in 1965. An example of Aalto’s famous series of library designs, it served well as the town’s main library for over four decades. With the expansion of the town and evolution of library activities, however, it was no longer able to meet today’s demands. As a solution, the town decided to co-locate a modern building with the current library, so that the resulting two buildings would merge into a single functional complex. An architectural competition was organised for its design in 2008, in which the winning entry was our proposal titled “Apila” (Clover).

▼塞伊奈约基市图书馆外观,Seinäjoki City Library exterior view ©Mika Huisman

新图书馆设计参考的关键点是它在由阿尔托创建的市民中心环境中的重要位置,其目的是使新旧部分之间发生对话。新建筑作为一个现代建筑,在大胆发声的同时必须尊重受保护的文化环境。换句话说,就是要在和解与挑战之间找到适当的平衡。 该建筑的设计借鉴了阿尔托建筑的独特特征,但是严格避免了直接引用或模仿。

The key point of reference for the new library design was its location in the valuable environment of the civic centre created by Aalto. The aim was to initiate a dialogue between the new and the old part. The new building must respect the protected cultural environment while making a bold statement as a piece of modern architecture – in other words, find the right balance between being conciliatory and challenging. The building’s design references the unique characteristics of Aalto’s architecture, however strictly avoiding direct quotations or imitation of themes.

▼场地鸟瞰:新图书馆与阿尔瓦·阿尔托创建的市民中心环境发生对话,aerial view: the new library dialogues with the valuable environment of the civic centre created by Aalto ©Hannu Vallas 

设计师面临的另一个重要挑战是图书馆活动内容的不断变化,由于社会的快速变化和新交流方式的出现,图书馆的作用正在发生转变,信息可以通过互联网和其他电子媒体轻松获得。因此可以想象,一旦找寻实际信息不再是主要作用,那么图书馆作为与信息交互的场所的重要性便会得到强调。它的主要任务是为邂逅、会议和活动提供场所,同样重要的是鼓励用户主动而不是被动地接收信息和服务。也就是说,图书馆必须是一个多功能的、灵活且适应性强的公共空间。为了吸引游客,一个运作良好的图书馆必须提供体验。在塞伊奈约基(Seinäjoki),关注点在于吸引儿童和年轻人,所以设计是从年轻读者群的视角出发的。

Another important challenge for the designers was the changing content of library activities. The role of the library is undergoing a transformation as a result of the rapid social change and new modes of communication. Information is easily accessible through the Internet and other electronic media. It is thus conceivable that once looking for actual information no longer plays a central role, the significance of the library as a place for interacting with information will be highlighted. Its key mission is to provide a setting for encounters, meetings and events. Encouraging the users to be active, rather than passively receiving information and services, is also important. In other words, the library has to be a versatile, flexible and adaptable public space. To attract visitors, a well-functioning library must provide experiences. In Seinäjoki,  particular attention was focused on the collections for children and young people, which were developed from the perspective of the younger user groups.

▼儿童阅读区,children’s reading area ©Tuomas Uusheimo

▼塞伊奈约基市图书馆的关注点在于吸引儿童和年轻人,in Seinäjoki,  particular attention was focused on the collections for children and young people © Tuomas Uusheimo

将新建筑分为雕塑般的三个部分是一个重要的设计出发点,这很好的协调了它巨大体量和市中心规模之间的关系。 因此,这个建筑很好地融入周边的环境,并且从每个方向都呈现出雕塑感。 另一方面,新建筑小心翼翼地与旧市政中心的轮廓和材料保持距离,它大大方方地置于草坪中间,就像公园里的一栋建筑物一样。 外墙的深铜色在周围的阿尔托(Aalto)白色建筑群的衬托下格外突出,这种对比有助于使新旧建筑分离。 外墙采用了独特的铜面层材料,使建筑具有独特而生动的质感。

Dividing the new building into three sculpture-like sections was an important insight that helped to reconcile its large volume with the scale of the civic centre. The building thus relates to its surroundings, and a different statuesque aspect of it is revealed from each direction. On the other hand, the new building discreetly keeps its distance from the outlines and materials of the old civic centre. With liberal generosity, it was placed in the middle of lawns, as though a building in a park. The dark copper of the facades stands out from the whiteness of the surrounding Aalto buildings, the contrast helping to detach the new from the old. A distinctive copper cladding material was designed for the facades that gives the building a unique lively texture.

▼建筑从每个方向都呈现出雕塑感,a different statuesque aspect of the building is revealed from each direction ©Mika Huisman

▼外墙采用了独特的铜面层材料,a distinctive copper cladding material was designed for the facades ©Tuomas Uusheimo

新建筑室内设计的核心是一个大型中央阅读阶梯,是一个公共活动的场所和消磨时光的地方,它将读者带到地下的藏书楼,然后通过地下通道可以进入旧图书馆。阅读阶梯突出了室内的两个重要主题:为邂逅提供场所,以及新旧建筑之间的功能联系。逐渐下降且相互联系的空间,与作为阿尔托设计的图书馆典型特征的下沉区域相呼应,其目的是使参观者的视线越过书架,一览无余。

At the core of the new building’s interior design is a large central reading terrace, a venue for events and a place for spending time, which leads the visitor to the collections downstairs and, through a subterranean passage, to the old library. The terrace underlines two important themes of the interior: the significance of providing a place for encounters, and a functional link between the new and the old building. The gradually descending, interlinked spaces are a connection with the sunken areas typical of libraries designed by Aalto – the purpose of which was to give visitors an unobstructed view over the bookcases.

▼中央阅读阶梯是新图书馆的核心地带,the large central reading terrace as the core of the new building’s interior design © Tuomas Uusheimo

▼从中央阶梯望向书架,view from the central reading terrace © Tuomas Uusheimo

▼杂志和报纸阅览室,magazine and newspaper reading room ©Tuomas Uusheimo

▼地下层嵌入式座位,the built-in seating area on the basement floor ©Tuomas Uusheimo

▼空间细节,detailed view ©Mika Huisman

▼地下一层楼梯,the subterranean passage ©Mika Huisman

整体形式还与阿尔托设计的扇形图书馆大厅和客户服务台的中央位置遥遥相呼。各种内部空间在开放式设计中彼此融合,所有视线也都经过精心设计。透过高大的主厅大窗户看到的景象是当地的地标:莱克登里斯蒂(Lakeuden Risti)教堂的钟楼和旧图书馆的扇形立面。从主入口和报纸阅览室,读者可以看到剧院后市民中心广场的一部分。因此,新旧图书馆在处理与周围环境的关系上是对立的——由阿尔托设计的图书馆强调间接的自然光,窗户只有有限的外部视野。

▼主厅大窗户,the large window of the high main hall ©Tuomas Uusheimo

The overall form also has distant echoes of the fan-shaped library main halls designed by Aalto and the central location of the customer service desk. The multifarious interior spaces merge into each other in an open plan, opening up carefully designed views. The view through the large window of the high main hall is dominated by local landmarks: the clock tower of Lakeuden Risti church and the fan-shaped facade of the old library. From the main entrance and the newspaper reading room, visitors can see a section of the civic centre plaza past the theatre. The new and the old library are thus opposites in their relation to the environment surrounding them – with its emphasis on indirect natural light, the windows of the library designed by Aalto offer limited views of the outside.

▼从主厅大窗户可以望向旧图书馆的扇形立面,the fan-shaped facade of the old library can be viewed from the large window of the high main hall ©Mika Huisman

▼新图书馆立面,facades of the new library ©Tuomas Uusheimo

▼主厅立面,facade of the high main hall ©Tuomas Uusheimo

该建筑由适合雕塑状的设计的现浇混凝土结构组成,通过使用具有挑战性的大跨度横梁(类似于桥梁结构中使用的横梁),可以实现内部全景一览无余。 视觉外观主要由浇注混凝土面层形成,通过使用凹凸不平的木板模具,并在浇铸后保持未加工状态,而产生简洁、粗糙的感觉。 建筑的技术设施已整合到建筑设计方案中,这意味着拱形天花板和其他内表面可以不安装任何技术设备。

The building comprises a cast-in-place concrete structure that lent itself to the sculpture-like design. The panoramic, unobstructed views across the interiors were achieved by using challenging long-span beams similar to those used in bridge structures. The visual look is dominated by cast concrete surfaces aiming for an unfussy, rough feel produced by using uneven plank moulds and by leaving the surfaces unfinished after casting. Building maintenance technology was integrated in architectural solutions, meaning that the vaulted ceilings and other internal surfaces could be kept free of technical installations.

▼大跨度横梁使内部全景一览无余,the panoramic, unobstructed views across the interiors were achieved by using challenging long-span beams ©Tuomas Uusheimo

▼浇注混凝土面层,cast concrete surfaces ©Mika Huisman

▼阅读室细部,reading room detailed view ©Tuomas Uusheimo

设计方案考虑了可持续发展的观点,高质量的建筑材料具有很长的使用寿命。 紧凑的整体造型、具有良好的保温性能的外围护结构,以及具有热回收功能的空调系统,确保了建筑物具有较高的能效值。 为了最大程度地减少制冷需求,所有大窗户都朝北,从而最大限度地减少了来自太阳的热负荷。

The perspective of sustainable development was taken into account in the design solutions. The high-quality building materials have a long life span. The compact overall shape, good thermal insulation values of the shell and air conditioning system with heat recovery guarantee that the building has a high energy efficiency value. In order to minimise the need for cooling, all large windows face north, minimising thermal loading from the sun.

▼设计最大程度地减少了室内的制冷需求,the design solutions minimised the need for cooling ©Mika Huisman

塞伊奈约基(Seinäjoki)的市民中心是城市景观的组成部分,不需要填充开发。然而由于功能需求产生的图书馆扩建部分,现在已成为城镇中一个明显的新景观。新建筑的设计希望成为一个有趣的新层次,而不去扰乱该地区严谨的建筑平衡。 无论如何如今新图书馆的运营,可以吸引新的访客并为该地区带来活力,这对整个城市中心都有好处。

The civic centre of Seinäjoki is an integral part of the townscape that did not require infill development. However, the expansion of the library sparked by functional needs now comprises a visible new element in the town. Rather than disturb the discreet architectural balance of the area, the design of the new building wishes to be experienced as an interesting new layer. In any case, the services of the renewed library now attract new visitors and vibrancy into the area – to the benefit of the entire urban centre.

▼图书馆夜景,library night view ©Tuomas Uusheimo

项目名称:Seinäjoki City Library 塞伊奈约基市图书馆
设计方:JKMM Architects
公司网站:www.jkmm.fi
联系邮箱:li.shan@jkmm.fi
项目设计 & 完成年份:2009年开始设计,2012年竣工
主创及设计团队
主创建筑师 Principal Architect: Samuli Miettinen
主创建筑师 Principal Architect: Teemu Kurkela
主创建筑师 Principal Architect: Asmo Jaaksi
主创建筑师 Principal Architect: Juha Mäki-Jyllilä
项目建筑师 Project Architect: Teemu Toivio
建筑师 Architect: Aaro Martikainen
建筑师 Architect: Harri Lindberg
室内建筑师 Interior Architect: Päivi Meuronen”
项目地址:Seinäjoki Public Library, Alvar Aallon katu 14,PL 217, 60101 Seinäjoki,Finland
建筑面积:4430平方米
摄影版权:Hannu Vallas, Mika Huisman, Tuomas Uusheimo
摄影师网站 photographer website:
https://www.decopic.com
https://uusheimo.photoshelter.com/index
客户:塞伊奈约基市政府

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