The energy sector and building industry accounts for over 40 % of global industry’s heat-trapping emissions combined, according to the World Resources Institute. As the world’s population and the severity of the climate crisis continue to grow, we are challenged to think how to build responsibly – creating high quality spaces for people while also reducing our environmental footprint. As the world’s northernmost energy-positive building, Powerhouse Brattørkaia aims to set a new standard for the construction of the buildings of tomorrow: one that produces more energy than it consumes over its lifespan, including construction and demolition.
▼建筑立面倒影在特隆赫姆峡湾海面，the façade is reflected in the adjacent Trondheim Fjord
Thursday, September 5, 2019 — Powerhouse Brattørkaia is located in Trondheim, Norway, 63° north of the Earth’s equator, where sunlight varies greatly between the seasons. This presents a unique opportunity to explore how to harvest and store solar energy under challenging conditions. The 18 000 m^2 office building is situated by the harbor and connects to Trondheim Central Station via a pedestrian bridge on the rear end of the building. The waterfront façade is the slimmest face of the building, allowing the project to be read at a similar scale with its neighbors. Clad with black aluminum and solar panels, the façade is reflected in the adjacent Trondheim Fjord.
▼大楼通过尾部的人行天桥与特隆赫姆中央车站相连，building connects to Trondheim Central Station via a pedestrian bridge
▼与天桥相连的大楼尾部，the end of the building connected to the footbridge
“能源积极型建筑代表着未来。设计行业的口号应是‘形式遵循环境’而非‘形式服从功能’。这意味着在当今社会，建筑设计首要关注和必须遵循的都应该是如何实现对环境的保护。”Snøhetta的创始人Kjetil Trædal Thorsen说。平均而言， Powerhouse Brattørkaia每天的供电量是其用电量的两倍多。并且它还将通过当地的微电网为其自身、邻近建筑、电动公交车、汽车和船只提供可再生能源。
“Energy-positive buildings are the buildings of the future. The mantra of the design industry should not be ‘form follows function’ but ‘form follows environment’. This means that the design thinking of today should focus on environmental considerations and reducing our footprint first, and have the design follow this premise,” says Snøhetta Founder Kjetil Trædal Thorsen. On average, Powerhouse Brattørkaia produces more than twice as much electricity as it consumes daily, and will supply renewable energy to itself, its neighboring buildings, electric buses, cars and boats through a local micro grid.
▼建筑节能系统示意图，schematic diagram of energy saving system of the project
▼倾斜的五边形屋顶和立面的上部覆盖了近3000平方英尺的太阳能电池板， its skewed, pentagonal roof and the upper part of the façade is clad with almost 3000 m² of solar panels
The aim of the project is threefold; to maximize the amount of clean energy produced by the building, to minimize the energy required to run it, and to serve as a pleasant space for its tenants and the general public. The building’s site has been carefully chosen to ensure maximum exposure to the sun throughout the day and seasons. Its skewed, pentagonal roof and the upper part of the façade is clad with almost 3000 m² of solar panels, strategically placed to harvest as much solar energy as possible. Over a year, this amounts to a total of about 500000 kWh with clean, renewable energy. In effect, the building dually functions as a small power plant in the middle of the city. Ample space for energy storage is built into the building footprint, allowing it to store surplus energy in the summer months of near total daylight, to then use it in the winter months when daylight is at a minimum.
▼俯瞰天井，overlooking the patio
The building is extremely energy efficient, leveraging a series of technologies to radically reduce energy use for its daily operations. This is accomplished through insulating the building for maximum efficiency, installing intelligent solutions for air flow to reduce the need for heating, heat recovery solutions for ventilating air and greywater (wastewater from all sources except toilets), using seawater for heating and cooling and implementing only energy efficient electrical appliances. Daylight conditions are optimized throughout the building design and artificial light use is kept at a minimum.
▼建筑天井细部，details of the sloping roof
For humans to continue to live and thrive on this planet, and in the buildings we inhabit and spend most of our lives in, these need to be built with as much consideration for natural preservation and energy efficiency as for the comfort of the people inside them. As the world’s northernmost energy-positive building, Powerhouse Brattørkaia is setting an example for responsibly constructing our homes and office spaces for the future.
▼倾斜的天井使大楼的每一层都能沐浴到阳光，this skewed lightwell allows daylight to enter the building on every floor
Viewed from the harbor front, the building façade’s sides cants inwards, bringing associations to how the building is bursting with energy. From the opposite approach, the sloping roof of the building reveals a cutout in the center of its plan that allows daylight to flow into the office spaces. Within this illuminated core is an atrium that functions as a public garden with horizontal glass windows on the sides, providing skylight into the below canteen. This skewed lightwell allows daylight to enter the building on every floor, and gives the people working inside a great view of the city. The atrium also limits the amount of artificial light needed inside the building. Large glass windows and pleasant open spaces flooded with daylight contribute a comfortable and inviting work environment.
▼从港口相反方向看去的城市美景，the sloping roof of the building gives the people working inside a great view of the city
为了减少照明设备的能源消耗，建筑使用了一种叫做“液体光”的新概念光源。这种光源的明暗强弱可以根据大楼内的实际情况和活动需要来自由调节。有了倾斜天井和新概念光源， Powerhouse Brattørkaia消耗在照明上的能源还不足同等建造规模的商业大楼的一半。
In order to reduce energy use on lighting, the building employs a concept called “liquid light”, which allows the artificial light to smoothly dim up and down according to the activity and movement in the building. Taken together, these strategies allow Powerhouse Brattørkaia to consume only about half the amount of energy for lighting than a typical commercial office building of comparable size would.
▼办公室节能照明系统， the office lighting system
▼“液体光”，the “liquid light”
The building provides office spaces for a diversity of commercial tenants, including construction and shipping firms, while also housing a significant public program. A café and a visitor center at the ground floor are open to the people of Trondheim as an educational resource for school groups and the general public alike. The visitor center explicates the energy concept of the Powerhouse and supports public knowledge and discourse on sustainable building strategies for the future.
▼建筑一楼的游客中心， a visitor center at the ground floor
▼办公空间，the office spaces
▼办公区域的通风装置细部，details of the ventilation system
The Powerhouse prioritizes the physical comfort and well-being of the building’s occupants with strategies that balance its focus on fresh air and thermal comfort with extreme energy-efficiency. The ventilation system provides pleasant and clean air to the indoor spaces and accommodates Trondheim’s mild and humid climate. The office landscape contains technical installations for air supply that regulate ventilation. The air is let out close to the floor at low speed, while the extraction takes place centrally by suppression in the stair shafts. Further, the building’s structural system consists of thermal mass – low-emission concrete – which is exposed through strategic cutouts in the ceiling. The mass absorbs and retains heat and cold and helps regulate the temperature in the building without using electricity.
▼换气工作集中在楼梯竖井处进行， the extraction takes place centrally by suppression in the stair shafts
Powerhouse Brattørkaia在节能领域所做的努力，得到了BREEAM授予的“杰出”证书认可。这是在目前世界领先的、对资产环境、社会和经济可持续发展性能的评估体系中，所能给出的最高评价。UNFCCC Paris Agreement致力于将全球气温的上升控制在1.5摄氏度以内，而Powerhouse Brattørkaia的节能方法也许能为这一目标的实现提供些许帮助。
For its efforts, Powerhouse Brattørkaia has received the BREEAM Outstanding certification, the highest possible ranking by the world’s leading sustainability assessment method for an asset’s environmental, social and economic sustainability performance. Its solutions support the UNFCCC Paris Agreement that pursues efforts to limit the global temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
▼建筑细部，details of the building