在海外专辑第八十七期 – 张梦娇

第八十七期为您呈现的是毕业于哥伦比亚大学、现就职于Handel Architects的张梦娇

项目标签

海外存知己,天涯若比邻。
在海外专辑分享海外华人的故事。希望这份分享可以让世界更加海阔天空。
第八十七期为您呈现的是毕业于哥伦比亚大学、现就职于Handel Architects的张梦娇。

A bosom friend afar brings distant land near. The Oversea album shares the lives of Chinese living abroad with all. The No.87 episode is about Mengjiao Zhang, who graduated from Columbia University and is now working for Handel Architects

 

为什么出国?
Why going abroad?

最初是求学,之后是因为想接触更多元的文化与可能性,也挑战自己对困难的接受与解决能力。对建筑的现在与未来时保持着好奇心。

Initially because I wanted to pursue a M.Arch program. Later because I wanted to challenge myself with a diverse culture and be open to more realities as well as possibilities. I was also curious about what’s more to come in the field of architecture.

 

在国外遇到了什么让你印象最深刻的事情?
What impressed you the most when you are abroad?

对个体化和差异化的追求,对“不随意评判”的坚持。极端多元和生动的城市比如纽约、东京。

The emphasis on individuality and “no-judge.” How diverse and vibrant a city can be like New York City and Tokyo.

 

最想念祖国的什么?
What do you miss the most about China?

家人好友,食物和事物。夏日午后的暴雨,便利店。

Family & friends, food and places. Rainy afternoon on a hot summer day. Familymart.

 

你会回国吗?为什么?
Will you come back China? Why?

都可以,应该会。

It depends. Likely yes.

 

出国后在不同的背景下再看中国是否看得更清晰,有哪些感触?
Is it more distinct to view China in a different environment after going abroad? Any thought?

是的。能够站在一个不同的角度来重新认识自己成长的文化和背景是非常珍贵的体验,中国文化的底蕴和丰富性都能浅浅体味。中国的城市与乡村一直在变化与创新,对于单单成长于西方语汇和论述下的人来说是很难理解其中的原因和背景的。

Yes. I do feel seeing from a different aspect I was finally able to understand the implications and understated complexities in Chinese culture. China’s cities has been rapidly changing and innovating, this is not easy to see or understand for someone who grew up only in the Western context, vice versa.

 

你的学校有哪些教育特点?
What makes the curriculum of your school different from other architecture schools?

哥大在我看来是一所强调理论、历史和概念的学校。在项目中必须做出有力的论述并以其导引整个过程。但同时学校又极度自由,支持鼓励奇思异想,充满理想主义。对思考、批判、评论的强调,对社会现状及如何改变的思考根植于课程与项目中。所幸的是哥大没有一个统一的风格与教条。设计课上来说哥大M. Arch项目与其他学校不同,没有thesis而是由6个studio构成,因为thesis的过程和思考已经融合在每一个studio的过程中,学生永远需要主动发问,深入研究,提出思考,展开论述。

GSAPP is a school that emphasizes very much on the theoretic and conceptual aspects of the projects, one has to make a strong argument in order to achieve a successful project. Critics are open to every kind of random thoughts and will push you in their own ways. School/studio is utterly an idealistic and optimistic place. Avery library is amazing. The emphasis of thinking, not just out of historic precedents but one that’s grounded in the contemporary narrative and socio-political context is critical to the school’s education. GSAPP does not have one style or pedagogy.

Curriculum wise GSAPP does not have a thesis studio either, because the process of making a statement and pushing the project based on it is imbued in every single studio. M.Arch program requires six history-theory courses and all of them are well curated and thought after. Tschumi’s seminar and Frampton’s history course are extremely poignant and thought-provoking. Rhetorically manifestos not only focus on “the spectacular” but also “the commonalities,” the emphasis on specificities rather than the generics.

 

你现在工作公司的特色和有趣的地方?
What are the characteristics and interesting points of your firm?

有很多员工自发组建的“白板小组”,分享与工作或生活相关的技能、经验、兴趣。

Employee-established whiteboard groups that share interest and aim in professional developments.

 

最喜欢的艺术家(绘画音乐电影等广泛范围)是谁?给你创作带来了什么影响?
Who is your favorite artist (in wider range such as art, music, movie)? What is the influence?

Christo和Jeanne-Claude, David Hockney, Sarah Oppenheimer。他们都或多或少体现了艺术中吸引我的“极致”和“瞬间”的部分,而一些空间艺术装置的做法也对建筑空间有很大启示。

Christo and Jeanne-Claude, David Hockney, Sarah Oppenheimer. The emphasize on extremeness and moments, manipulations through specific spatial techniques are fascinating. The way artists work are very much different from architects as they do not need the reasoning process. That’s why artworks are strikingly influential and touching in a certain way. I do appreciate the non-compromising aspects of artists.

 

觉得自己的作品集有哪些迷人的特质?
What fascinates viewers the most in your portfolio in your opinion?

谈不上迷人,很多时候自己的想法是偶然而发的一些奇思异想,但能以这些小的看似不重要的想法作为出发点去一点点深入思考、推进设计,这个过程是我看重的罢了。作品集叫做 “In Experience,” 因为对空间的亲身经验与感受,空间所营造的关系还是我最看重的部分。

Many of my thoughts are rather random and whimsical, and the way the narrative was constructed and representations are made are in reflection of so. The portfolio is a collection of work for me to communicate my ideas through the process of thinking, making and iterating. The name of the portfolio is “in experience,” because I appreciate the moments, human experience and spatial relationship most in my design projects.

 

什么时候开始看谷德网的?欢迎你提出建议哦,谢谢。
When did you start to follow gooood? Any suggestions?

大二时候开始看的。谷德的访谈和专栏是设计媒体中很独特的栏目,可以说是伴随我成长,希望越办越好。

Since sophomore year. It’s been a great platform that constantly share new works and stories. Thanks Gooood for accompanying me growing.

 

 

 

 

 

W O R K

 

01.

引子
A CRITIC ON SOLO HOUSE

这是我硕士第一学期时视觉表达课的作业,也是我在哥伦比亚大学建筑系求学期间最重要的图之一,课程作业要求选取先例、并通过绘图的方式对其进行评价论述。我选取的案例是一个当代的villa(Office KGDVS建于巴塞罗那郊外的Solo House),将其与villa的archetype(帕拉迪奥的Villa Rotunda)并置,并对功能空间进行解构呼应,从而剖析了自己对这一类型的认知。这种 “质疑 – 思考认知 – 表达 – 再质疑” 的反复推敲过程正是我所坚持的工作流程。

This is probably one of the most important drawings I’ve made during the course of study at Columbia GSAPP. It’s from an assignment during first year’s architectural drawing+representation class. The requirement of the class was to make a critic towards a selected precedent. I chose Soho House from Office KGDVS, which is a contemporary villa. By juxtaposing Soho House with Villa Rotunda, the archetype of villa, and by dissecting spaces with functions within, I expressed my critic through this representation drawing. This iterative process of questioning – impression – expression – requestioning is a workflow that I insist and continue to work with.

 

 

 

 

02.

重构丝路
SILK NETWORK RE-IMAGINED

这是我在哥大最后一学期设计课的作品,在犬吠工作室(贝岛桃代+塚本由晴,助教:伊藤维)指导下于2017年春季完成。
Critic: Momoyo Kaijima + Yoshiharu Tsukamoto, TA: Tamotsu Ito

场地位于日本福岛县南相马小高市,该地区在2011年东日本地震与海啸引发核电站事故后,遭受了毁灭性的破坏,致使所有居民迁出。经过五年的清理与安全工作,禁令在2016年正式解除:该地区被宣布可以重新迁入居住。但是由于原有居民已经在日本其他大城市生活多年、建立了新的生活与社交圈,面对一片荒芜的昔日故乡,他们并没有回迁的意向。贝岛与塚本作为专注研究日本本土文化、尤其对住宅与生活形式感兴趣的建筑师,应当地政府邀请,肩负起了研究与重新振兴当地“社会网路”的责任。两位建筑师提出了一个很有趣的概念——“演员网路”,意思是在构成社会与人们日常生活的丝丝关系网路中,有一些关键性的因素:或是场地、或是人物、或是活动,它们可以作为“主要演员”,来帮助重建社会关系网路。

Odaka, in Minamisoma, Fukushima, is one of the many vacated towns during the 2011 nuclear power plant meltdown accident in Fukushima. Recently a five-year ban of the town has been lifted as the town and adjacent area has been cleared for residents to move back. The studio looks at the actor network in Odaka, seeking to reconstruct part of the network that has been mostly destructed before and after the accident. Specifically I focused on the silk network in Odaka, looking to reconstruct this relational network for locals and visitors to work and live together.

小高市的丝绸制造业曾经非常发达,但这在产业化之后逐渐衰败,至2011年地震核电事故后已彻底消失。我注意到,由于地震核电事故的影响,该地区极其难以发展大规模的农业制造业;加上对于商店类型学的兴趣,我在设计这个项目的时候开始思考能否以丝绸装饰品这种易于制作且价值较高的手工艺品作为切入点来组织与纳入这样的网路。在重构网路的时候,“resilience / 韧性”是我考虑的主要因素。意欲使 “修复”后的关系网路比传统的模式更为坚固,我引入了更多“演员元素”:相较于传统单一产业的发展方式,引入更多与生活和生产并行共存的模式;通过实现产品多样化,进而使得新的关系网络对于变化更具防御能力和韧性 (resilience).

Odaka area has been historically rich in the production of silk and fabrics. But even before the nuclear disaster the economy has been decreasing and threatened. The culture around silk production in Odaka has been almost forgotten, the landscape of mulberry fields and the usage of silk farming rooms dramatically became unmanaged. After the 3-11 accident the industry has been decreased to its minimum. Through this re-design process, I seek to re-integrate more elements into the network to suit today’s scenario while introducing alternative products of the process, thus enabling a stronger and more resilient network to happen.

小高在古代是一个驿站城市。作为交通枢纽,其市中心曾遍布旅店。我所挑选的场地位于小高市区的主要街道(一丁目),它连接着两条主要的陆路干路,建筑类型“町家”百年前便已这条街道上出现。项目场地狭长且连接两条街道,南侧面对主街,北侧则面对后街。前面被设计为行人主入口,后街则被安排为车辆驶入及停放区域。场地大小为18米宽50米长,传统的町屋多以两组边靠边的形式存在,尺度与其相符。

My site is located on the main street with a long history as an inn-town and two blocks from the Odaka Station, at the interlocking of two major transportation roads. It is the area where there was a street-scape of Machiya building types since centuries ago. The south side is facing the Main Street and north side more back of house space with a back street. The front street will be more pedestrian access and back street with car access and parking spaces. The plot is 18m x 50m, the typical two plots of Machiya typology side by side.

第一个设计策略是在尺度上延长町屋,激活屋后连接后街的部分,使其成为一个连通整个街区的建筑类型。这一策略将半沿街商业形态引入后街,前街则设计为商店、展示与儿童游乐等功能,从而使得更多“演员”元素进入到生活生产的舞台中。房屋的中间部分是桑蚕养殖房、桑叶茶作坊与手工艺工作场所,屋后部分则保留为丝绸制造与停车功能。由于停车的引入,通过将生活空间提升到二楼来区别并重新定义隐私空间。

The first strategy is to elongate the machiya to be a through-block type, while the back of house is reserved for silk production and parking, it introduces a half-storefront scenario to the back street. The front street will be shops and playground space. In between there would be silkworm cocoonery, mulberry tea production space and atelier space. Because of the introduction of parking, privacy is reinterpreted by elevating the living sector to second floor.

设计的施工方式为2×4制作技术。该技术运用了易于实施的木工节点与构造来创造无柱的自承重空间。剪力墙能适应日常使用及突发的地震情形。木墙结构简单明了,运用当地的技术,便于异地制作再现场装配施工。木材可以就近选取福岛会津若松区域的原木。

在这个项目中我想思考的是:“怎样从人们日常的生活状态出发,在不去破坏这样一种原生态的生活场景的前提下,介入更多“抗力”与“韧性”的因素?” 从而促进新增网络/生态系统的原创性、多样性,并且能够应对突发的情况,抵挡严重衰败的场景。

The structure is envisioned as 2×4 construction. This type of construction utilizes wood joists as framing system and panels to form a column-free space. The wood dividing walls sustain the shearing force for both normal and seismic activities. The wood panels are easy to fabricate off-site, utilizing techniques of local carpenters and wood from Fukushima Prefecture, such as in the Aizu area.

 

 

 

 

03.

秘视艺术行
SECRET VIEW BANK

项目完成于2015年春季,指导教师是Julian Rose.
Critic: Julian Rose

纽约皇后区的长岛市长期以来以其浓郁的艺术气息而闻名。长岛市内坐落着MoMA PS1、雕塑中心、野口勇博物馆等艺术场馆,并且有着众多艺术家的工作室。这个项目的场地也设置在长岛市的艺术集中发生区域—— Court Square附近,这里交通方便,文化氛围浓厚。

Situated in the hyper-active art community with MoMA / PS1, Sculpture Center, The Noguchi Museum, and many artists studios within touch, this project explores the possibility of an art bank in the Long Island City.

项目的命题是“艺术银行”(Art bank)。从项目要求上来说,这要求设计一个兼顾展览与存储功能的空间,而“银行”的命题则意味着该空间需要有策略地为所展示的艺术增加价值。在设计这一项目时,我的切入点来自于对欣赏艺术的不同形式的观察:我发现在艺术欣赏过程中,最有价值的瞬间往往是个体在私密空间一对一欣赏艺术的时候,即“收藏家、策展人”的模式。但在传统的艺术馆中,观者在高度公开的空间中与他人摩肩接踵、同时欣赏一件艺术品。这种作为纯粹“参观者”的模式,很难使观赏者领略到最有价值的艺术欣赏瞬间。

In this project, I took inspiration from discussions and precedents drawn from both architectural history and art events and precedents. The project analyzed an alternate experience of understanding art, in contrast with traditional museums which only provide a monotonous and indifferent experience. I explored an alternative spatial relationship to exhibiting and perceiving art while considering the artist’s perspective and the characteristics of space that would be most conducive for creating and showcasing art.

因此,本项目以此为出发点,试图创立一个新型的艺术场馆。

I started the project from the observation that the most valuable and exclusive experiences of art are the most private ones. This creates a fundamental problem for traditional museums, which must provide a public experience of art and so often unintentionally end up providing a low-value one.  The project seeks to create a new type of museum that incorporates moments of high-value private experience into its program.

 

本项目的立意在于认为艺术场馆的作用不止是储藏艺术品的容量空间;利用建筑设计思维,艺术场馆本身能够承担更为积极的角色,帮助观赏者打造更为立体丰富的艺术欣赏体验。通过不同的设计策略来营造这样高价值的、一对一的艺术体验瞬间,项目在建筑的层面上提供了一种新型的建筑类型。我通过操控排布被低估价值的储藏空间,来给予参观者对艺术品的不同欣赏视角,通过打碎连接艺术画廊的储存空间的体量,营造出空间尺度上的框架,去提供一种独特的、质感饱满的艺术品欣赏视角。

By utilizing strategies to create high-value key moments, the project provides architectural possibility of a new typology by proposing that museums could be not just about containing works of art but to play a much more active role in shaping the viewing of artworks. I set to manipulate such views through the utilization of underestimated storage space. By cutting through these storage volumes, which are conjunctive in between art galleries, I created a spatial frame to amplify and provide exclusive view to certain artworks. In this way, one single visitor would be able to occupy and enjoy artwork through his own private “frame”. I created 15 such framing volumes to amplify valuable artworks as well as the complexity of space.

同时我也采取了体量上交错呼应的设计策略,让欣赏艺术的体验更加丰富多样。试想当你身处上层空间,却可以通过天井看到下层空间的展品,建筑空间上提供与你的欣赏视角会比直接处于底层公共开放空间更加私密敏感。

I also utilized the strategy of volumetric displacement to further enrich/activate and differentiate this private experience. i.e. when you are standing in a level above and viewing artworks in the lower level below you would enjoy a more private experience than the people in the gallery below.

 

 

 

 

04.

有社区的房子
HOUSING FOR COMMUNITY
项目完成于2016年秋冬,指导教师是Robert Marino.
Critic: Robert Marino

在美国的城市场景下,并没有小区一说,所有住宅几乎都是从同一类型学的理论发展而来。这个项目旨在通过学习与改进两种美国常见的住宅类型 —— 中庭住宅与露台住宅——来创造出一个融合了以上两种风格的新型住宅类型。

The concept of typology s a powerful method of taxonomy used in the categorization of housing projects. After careful and thorough analysis of precedents based on one housing typology – the courtyard housing, we investigated a new type of courtyard housing and produced a building scheme upon research while combining atmospheric moments into both representational and design aspects. I led the team from the initial concept stage to the task assignments to advancing each phase of the project.

在初期,我思考了两种已存在的住宅形式-带有中央庭院的住宅以及带有露台的住宅。 相比中庭住宅对于公共与私有空间没有中间的过渡空间,露台住宅则更加具有私密性。此设计中的重点是希望可以将两种形式取其精华兼容合并,创造出半私密的过渡空间,从而促进社区感的形成。

I started the project by rethinking two existing housing types – courtyard housing and terrace housing. While the courtyard housing provides no gradient between private rooms and public courtyard, the terrace housing tends to be exclusively private. The argument I seek to make is to combine the advantages of these two types and create a semi-private buffer zone between the shared courtyard and individual housing units, thus to encourage mutual communication and build a sense of community.

我对于空间的私密性、公开性、以及处于这两者中间的过渡阶段——半公开性,一直很感兴趣。在这个项目中我试图创造出除了传统极度私密或是开放空间外的另一种可能。通过结合这两种传统住宅类型的优势,以及住宅单元剖面上的关系,本项目创造出高低错落的、层层叠进的露台空间,并向内打开至共享庭院,向外则根据街道的尺度决定是否叠出。因此,面向庭院的一侧住户们产生了丰富的交互关系,而面向街道的一侧也获得了足够的“缓冲空间”。这与传统的“打开门就是大街”的纽约住宅产生了对比与联系,构建了更强的互动和社区感。

The sectional relationship is divided into two types – A and B. While A owns one side of courtyard-facing terraces, B has its both sides terraced. The sections are organized according to the logic of stacking, utilizing individual unit sizes to create either inward or outward-faced terraces. The distribution of A and B on different sides of three individual blocks are determined by street size, sunlight conditions and privacy considerations.

 

 

 

 

05.

人、机器与工业化景观
MAN MACHINE AND INDUSTRIAL LANDSCAPE
这是我与韩宇婧的合作项目,指导教师是Sean Gallagher
Collaborated with Mandy Yujing Han. Critic: Sean Gallagher

目前,纽约市内废物产生与回收遵循着一个单程路线:垃圾在城市产生、被统一收集;只有20%左右被回收,而其中大部分又被送到远至南卡罗来纳等州的处理中心,或焚烧或填埋。经历这一耗尽大量资源的运输过程,被回收的废弃物最终还是面临短暂的利用周期。

Currently in New York City, waste materials are going a one-way trip – they are produced, collected, only 20% recycled and most of them get transported to places as far as South Carolina to be dumped in landfills. The life-cycle of these materials is very short despite the long transportation.

与此同时,在纽约附近有许多曾经的采石矿区正在被遗弃。当矿石资源耗尽后,污染后的水与泥土被填入矿区;当地留下了很多不再使用的生产装置和场地、大量的失业人口、以及被彻底破坏的自然景观(如矿坑和隧道)。我们被这两个极度消极系统所同时吸引,并开始思考能否通过设计干预将它们转化为积极的系统。

Concurrently, a large number of inactive hard rock mines are no longer used as sites of material extractions. After these mines are decommissioned due to mines’ limited life-cycles, the sites are left with polluted water and soil, idle land and facilities, larger number of unemployed local labor, and also physically transformed landscape (excavated pits and tunnels, etc).

通过深入挖掘两者的联系,我们提出了如下设计思路:将回收的金属废物运送到纽约周边州市的废弃矿区进行再次处理及利用,并在环境合宜的空置的采矿隧道中进行食用菌种植。食用菌在美国曾经长期未得到重视,如今其经济价值越发显现、食用菌栽培业也日渐兴盛。废弃矿区中熔炉产生的余热与气体能够产生栽培珍贵食用菌的有利环境,促进食用菌的生长。在将循环利用后的金属运回城市的过程中,也可以将食用菌这一副产物带回城市重新销往纽约市的各农夫市场等场所,达成“回路”的效果,闭合了废物回收被再次利用消费并增值的循环链。相比于目前将废旧金属运往600英里外的处理措施,我们提出的办法能将回收路程缩短到150英里以内,大大减少了运输成本。

We challenge to take on the negative impacts of the two systems and turn them into more productive assets. We propose to transport recycled metal scraps in NYC to the decommissioned mines in tri-State area for further recovery Furthermore we introduce mushroom farming in vacant mining tunnels. Waste heat and exhaust from the furnace can be captured and monitored to create an optimal micro-climate for different types of mushrooms all year round. Mushrooms, a traditionally undervalued product in America, is becoming more popular and economically valuable, not just for food consumption, but also for medical and industrial uses. Recycled metal and mushrooms will then be transported back to NYC. As a result, instead of sending waste metal to destinations 600 miles away, we turn them into more valuable products at sites that are less than 150 miles away. The return trip also completes the cycle of the consumption of recycled products.

 

 

 

 

06.

进阶幕墙设计
ADVANCED CURTAIN WALL
这个项目是在Daniel Vos和Robert Heintges指导下的进阶幕墙设计,是我在哥大技术选修课上完成的作品。
Critic: Daniel Vos, Robert Heintges

幕墙的设计基于Brice Maden的一副构成主义绘画。建筑本身的功能为宾馆。通过三个层次的横向与纵向铝制元素交错并置,我在设计时试图重绘出Brice Maden作品中的复杂性与层级关系。此外,我注意到绘画中纯平风格的白色背景,并通过在第一平面的陶瓷烤釉熔块图案及灯光投射效果创造了出相似的风格。这一设计也从外观上保护了宾馆入住者的隐私。

The curtain wall design is based on a Brice Maden abstract drawing. The program of the building is a hotel with location in New York City. Utilizing a custom unit system consisting of three layers of horizontals and verticals, the design aims to capture the complexity and hierarchy of the drawing. The extreme flatness in the drawing background was achieved by a layer of ceramic frit on the number one surface and a series of strategically placed lighting fixtures hidden under some of the horizontal members in the system. The frit and lighting system enhances the contrast of the curtain wall. It also helps protect the interior privacy of the hotel.

 

在海外时间:2014年至今
在海外地点:伯克利,纽约
姓名:张梦娇
籍贯:安徽合肥
学校:哥伦比亚大学,同济大学
工作单位:Handel Architects
联系方式:mzhang.arch@gmail.com
网站:maggiezhang.co

When: 2014-present
Where: Berkeley, New York
Who: Mengjiao Zhang
School: Columbia University, Tongji University
Firm: Handel Architects
Contact: mzhang.arch@gmail.com
Website: maggiezhang.co

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