Gasteig in Munich by HENN

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 2018年10月24日,慕尼黑音乐厅在集中使用了30年后,开始了修理改造计划。经过了国际竞赛和投标,HENN的设计方案最终获选。慕尼黑音乐厅是欧洲最大的文化中心,每年要接待大约两百万游客。慕尼黑音乐厅最初由Raue, Rollenhagen, Lindemann和Grossmann作为合作伙伴设计而成,在1984/85年开放。音乐厅的现代化和广泛的文化活动令慕尼黑有了一栋全球独一无二的建筑。新设计中加入了一个新的建筑元素:玻璃栈桥,用来连接建筑已有部分和新的玻璃幕墙区域,玻璃幕墙令过路的行人可以看到音乐厅内部充满活力的景象,并欢迎游客和职员成为城市文化生活的一份子。这个“Kulturbühne”(文化舞台)同时作为新音乐厅的主要象征,另外,从设计方面看,透明、开放的玻璃幕墙和原有建筑类似于庞大石头的体块形成对比。为了实现“一个”(“ONE”)音乐厅的设想,新的文化舞台在水平和垂直方向都有所延伸,来保持音乐厅各部分空间上的连续性。文化舞台同时可以作为交通节点、前厅、展览和活动空间使用。它为游客和员工提供了清晰的视野,同时还作为建筑各个功能之间的连接路径。除去使用功能外,文化舞台的每个元素都有它的定位和特征,无论是交响乐演奏厅(Philharmonic)、卡尔奥尔夫礼堂(Carl Orff Auditorium)、图书馆还是慕尼黑Volkshochschule(继续教育中心——MVHS)。从城市规划角度来看,引人入胜的台阶抵消了音乐厅原先孤立的感觉,使音乐厅与“gache Steig”(从Isar河到新音乐厅的上坡)形成了更合理自然的连接。

October 24th, 2018 – After 30 years of intensive use, the Gasteig cultural centre in Munich is to undergo renovation and remodelling. Following the international competition and tender process, HENN‘s proposal has been selected for the renovation of the Gasteig in Munich. With around two million visitors annually, the Gasteig is the largest cultural centre in Europe. It was originally designed by the architecture partnership Raue, Rollenhagen, Lindemann and Grossmann and was opened in 1984/85. The modernisation of the Gasteig provides Munich with a building that will be globally unique thanks to its wide range of cultural activities. The design introduces a new architectural element in the form of a glazed bridge, connecting the existing parts of the building and bestowing a new transparency on the complex – an innovation that opens the Gasteig up to city, affords perspectives of the inner vibrancy of the building, and welcomes visitors and staff alike to be part of the city’s cultural life. This “Kulturbühne” (Cultural Stage) simultaneously acts as the leitmotif and generates the identity of the new Gasteig, whilst in design terms its transparent, glazed and open architecture stands in deliberate contrast to the monolithic and mineral-like character of the existing building. Following the idea of “ONE” Gasteig, the new Culture Stage extends both horizontally and vertically as a spatial continuum through all the sections of the Gasteig. The Cultural Stage functions simultaneously as a circulation node, foyer, exhibition space and an event area. It provides both visitors and staff with clear orientations and short routes between all of the building’s functions. Regardless of its use, the Cultural Stage gives each element its own locational anchoring and individual identity, be it the Philharmonic, the Carl Orff Auditorium, the library or the Munich Volkshochschule (Centre of Further Education – MVHS). In urban planning terms, the previous isolation of the Gasteig is countered by means of an inviting flight of steps. An emphasis is given to the gradient towards the River Isar, forming a spatial and logical continuation of the so-called “gache Steig” – the steep ascent from the Isar to the new Gasteig.

▼概览,overview

进入建筑后是两个通往更高一层的宽楼梯,部分可以当做座位使用,作为文化舞台(Cultural Stage)的中心景观。这里还可作为大礼堂的前厅,提供餐饮和吧台,还可以用作展览和活动空间。新设计方案中的一个关键点是要同步一系列的设计:翻新交响乐演奏厅,提供最佳声学和空间体验;将多功能卡尔奥尔夫礼堂设计成音乐厅内最灵活的空间;图书馆设计成开放式阅读学习空间;继续教育中心,包括信息咨询区,则沿文化舞台布置。最后,交响乐演奏厅上方的Ausblick(远眺)餐厅处于音乐厅的最高处,为客人提供多角度景观,从慕尼黑安联球场(Allianz Arena)到玛丽恩教堂(Frauenkirche),再到楚格峰(Zugspitze)。

Once inside, two wide staircases, which are partly formed as seating podiums, lead up to the first upper storey – the centrepiece of the Cultural Stage. This is where all of the foyers to the large auditoria are located, together with the accompanying catering and bar areas, as well as the exhibition and event spaces. A major factor in new proposal is that it meets a number of goals in synchrony: the Philharmonic is refurbished to create an optimal acoustic and spatial experience; the multifunctional Carl Orff Auditorium is re-designed to become the most flexible space in the Gasteig; the layout of the library transforms it into an open reading and studying land- scape; and the MVHS – including its information and advice areas – is housed running along the length of the Cultural Stage. Finally, located above the Philharmonic, the new Ausblick restaurant forms the vertical conclusion of the Gasteig, offering its guests a panorama view stretching from the Allianz Arena, past the Frauenkirche and out to the Zugspitze. 

▼两个部分可以当做座位的宽楼梯,two wide staircases, which are partly formed as seating podiums

 

交响乐演奏厅

基于交响乐演奏厅复杂的外壳和屋顶结构,翻新过程中建筑手段要最少化使用,同时创造绝佳的声学和空间体验。舞台位于大厅的中央,一排排座椅围合而置,让声源更加集中在大厅中央。以前吸音材料将观众席占据,现在新的观众席沿边墙而设,充当声学反射元素,令空间更加紧凑。装潢的颜色、地板的纹理还有栏杆的覆层都引用了弦乐器的触觉感受,采用木制材料,并且在声学上起到了有效的缓冲作用。新声帆是其中的核心元素:大角度的声学屋顶反射装置如云朵般悬浮在管弦乐队上方,对于提高音乐家们的演奏质量起到了至关重要的作用。

卡尔奥尔夫礼堂

多功能卡尔奥尔夫礼堂是音乐厅内最灵活的空间。它可以用作电影院、舞厅、表演厅、剧场、音乐厅,因此需要极高的可塑性。为了尽可能灵活地安装和使用礼堂,设计师计划在舞台下安装不同的升降平台,让礼堂中的大部分区域可以在同一个层面上使用,阶梯式的观众席可以按需调整。同时,管弦乐队区要有明显的区分。舞台、简易舞台和边台都是新的设计。新的空间呈矩形,此外在礼堂的上部还设有走廊,这意味着礼堂可以容纳1000名观众。

Philharmonic

In terms of its complex shell structure and its intricate roof construction, the goal in modernising the Philharmonic is to create an absolutely optimal acoustic and spatial experience using minimal architectural interventions. The stage is pushed towards the centre of the hall and is enclosed with additional rows of seats to the rear, moving the sound source more to the middle of the hall. New audience balconies are attached in the areas along the sidewalls previously occupied by the sound-absorbent shell cladding, the balconies acting as acoustically active elements and making the space more compact in terms of design. The colour and the grained texture of the floor and the parapet cladding cite the tactile feel of string instruments. They are executed in wood and are equipped with an acoustically effective relief. The core element is the new sound sails – large curved acoustic roof reflectors that float above the orchestra as if they were clouds and that play a decisive role in improving the sound quality for the musicians. 

Carl-Orff-Auditorium

The multifunctional Carl-Orff-Auditorium is designed to become the most flexible space in the Gasteig. Uses such as cinema, ballet, performances, theatre and concerts require a high degree modifiability. In order to configure and use the auditorium as flexibly as possible, it is planned to install under-stage machinery with various different lifting platforms, allowing the majority of the area of the auditorium to be used at a single level and the gradation in the audience areas to be adapted as needed. Simultaneously, the orchestra has to remain visibly represented. The stage, the stage portal and the side stages are to be newly designed. The new spatial geometry in the form of a rectangular delineation, as well as the addition of a gallery in the upper part of the auditorium, mean that audience capacity is increased to 1,000 persons. 

▼交响乐演奏厅剖面,section of Philharmonic

 

图书馆
Library

图书馆的布局改造成了开放式阅读学习空间,既包含了集中思考的空间还有交流空间。通过巧妙的布置原理,开放区域串联起很多新的工作和学习空间,由很多层组成。不同的家具布置为游客提供了吸引人的空间,在这里可以阅读、检索、学习。额外标记的区域像岛屿一样散布在图书馆的空间中,在这里人们可以一起工作,不会打扰到其他人。图书馆中庭空间的扩大提供了清晰的视觉定位,可以建立各个重点区域的视觉关联。通过RFID系统,图书馆可以追踪到书本、平板和笔记本电脑,无论是在“Kulturbühne”(文化舞台)的哪个区域,都可以保障它们不会丢失。

The layout of the library transforms it into an open reading and studying landscape, offering areas for both concentrated contemplation as well as communication. Following the smart working principle, and in tandem with numerous new work and study spaces, the open-access area is organised over a number of storeys. Differentiated furnishings provide the visitors with attractive places to read, research and to learn. Additional project areas and maker spaces, which intersperse the spatial continuum of the library like islands, allow a number of people to work together without disturbing the other users. The spatial enlargement of the atriums within the library provides clear spatial coordinates and establishes visual lines of association between the individual focal areas. The safeguarding and tracking of the books, tablets and laptops via a RFID system allows the library to be accessed at all levels of the “Kulturbühne” (the Cultural Stage). 

▼“gache Steig”——从Isar河到新音乐厅的上坡, “gache Steig” – the steep ascent from the Isar to the new Gasteig

 

继续教育中心

慕尼黑Volkshochschule (继续教育中心 – MVHS)有独立的位置,包括一层的信息咨询处,还有文化舞台从东到西的通路上,无论从哪个入口进入建筑都可以马上看到。MVHS由它的子中心运营,同时构成清晰的定位系统,所有的学费室配备了最现代的数字设备。空间的多样、流线的布局为音乐与表演艺术大学(University of Music and Performing Arts)和文化提升服务提供了交叉协同作用。两个宽敞的中庭为学费室和工作区提供了充足的日照。

“Ausblick”(远眺)餐厅

音乐厅是一个可以从城市中很多位置看到的地标性建筑。同时,显著的高度让它成为了一个绝佳的平台,从这里可以俯瞰整个城市,甚至阿尔卑斯山(Alps)。为了让慕尼黑的每个人都有机会享受绝佳景观,新的“Ausblick”餐厅占据了音乐厅的最高点。游客可以通过电梯直接到达餐厅,入口位于Inneren-Wiener-Straße街道。餐厅延长的轮廓意味着所有的桌椅都在欣赏景观的前排位置。夏天整个玻璃墙面都会打开,让室内与室外平台相通。

The Centre of Further Education

The Munich Volkshochschule (Centre of Further Education – MVHS) has its address, including its information and advice rooms on the ground floor, along the thoroughfare from east to west in the middle of the Cultural Stage. It is immediately visible from both entrances. The MVHS is organised via its sub-centres, which simultaneously constitute a clear system of orientation. All of the tuition rooms are equipped to the most modern digital standards. The spatial constellation and layout of the circulation and sanitary cores provide cross-synergies with both the University of Music and Performing Arts (HMTM) and the cultural promotion services. Two spacious atriums guarantee optimal daylighting of the tuition rooms and the workspaces. 

Restaurant “Ausblick”

As a landmark the Gasteig has a tangible presence seen from many vantage points in the city. At the same time its prominent height makes it a fantastic platform from which to view the city stretching out to the Alps. In order to allow everyone in Munich to enjoy this exclusive panorama, the new“Ausblick” restaurant forms the vertical culmination of the Gasteig. Visitors reach the à-la-carte restaurant directly via a sky lift, the entrance of which is located at street level along Inneren-Wiener-Straße. The elongated delineation of the restaurant means that all of the tables and seating are located practically in the front row. In summer the floor-to-ceiling glass facade slides open and the interior space merges with the terrace. 

▼室内远眺公共空间,interior public space for distant view

 

运输流线
Logistics

运输和垃圾回收工作都会在地下室进行,采用单向行驶系统,货物进入中央区域,入口位于Inneren-Wiener-Straße街和Kellerstraße街的交叉口。卡车和货车通过坡道进入地下一层,坡道位于Kellerstraße街上新的艺术家入口下方。选取道路上没有地窖的位置进行挖掘,建立地下一层必要的垂直路线。交响乐演奏厅、卡尔奥尔夫礼堂和餐饮设施的货物坡道沿着后勤路线分开布置。后勤出口挨着地下停车场出口,朝向Rosenheimer Straße街。保留现有的交通灯系统。

Deliveries and disposals are organised at basement level via a central goods entrance feeding from the one-way street system. The entrance is situated at the corner of Inneren-Wiener-Straße and Kellerstraße. Lorries or vans access the first basement level via a ramp that runs beneath the new artists’ entrance on Kellerstraße. The necessary vertical clearance at the first basement level is achieved by means of a dipping of the roadway in the non-cellared area. The loading ramps for the Philharmonic, the Carl Orff Auditorium and the catering facilities are arranged separately along the length of the logistics route. The exit is situated beside the underground car park exit towards Rosenheimer Straße. The existing traffic-light system is retained. 

▼体块分析,blocks analysis

▼功能区域划分,analysis of functions

 

户外布局
Outdoor layouts

设计师将新音乐厅室外空间设计为一个互通的元素,拆掉以前醒目的屏障式构筑物,将音乐厅的新文化空间和周边环境之间建立明显的联系。室外环境设计的核心是宽广又壮观的踏步,让音乐厅面向Rosenheimer Straße街,踏步延伸向Isar河。明显的指引令人们走出一个空间自然地进入另一个空间。巧妙的材料运用强化了布局的亮点,例如明亮自然的石材。树木像一个个单独的纸牌,在夏天提供绿色和自然遮阳。它们由小型的树木格栅围起,自然地与其它流通空间结合。设计师也特别选取了树木的种类来调节公共区域的色彩,例如枫香树。长阶梯为游客进入音乐厅提供了优雅的方式。从新建筑向外延伸的台阶与最南端的普通室外踏步相连。为了保障无障碍通行,设计师设立了朝东的坡道。新建筑的东部入口很容易到达火车站,这里同样是一个开放的无障碍空间,可以直接进入建筑。场地东部铺设了一片“绿地毯”迎接游客,预示着一个特殊王国的入口。“地毯”上面种植的都是地表植物和灌木,由西到东用网状板铺成小路。站在建筑内玻璃走廊上的游客可以看到“绿地毯”的图案,打造室内外的视觉联系。室外材料的选择定位于高质量的建筑材料,例如天然石料和不锈钢——能够反映出音乐厅的丰富历史以及它对于慕尼黑文化的重要性。

▼总平面,site plan

The open-air installations of the new Gasteig are conceived as interlinking elements, dissolving the previous markedly built-up and barrier-like design, and thus formulating a prominent connection between the new cultural space of the Gasteig and its adjacent urban surroundings. The heart of the outdoor layout is a broad and imposing set of steps, which opens the Gasteig up facing Rosenheimer Straße and above all towards the River Isar. It is a lavish gesture, allowing all of the spaces to flow into one another as if naturally. The high quality of the materials deployed, for instance bright natural stone, reinforces the light character of the layout. Trees set as single solitaires provide a subtle greenery and natural shading in summer. They are framed by minimal tree grates, integrating them seamlessly into the otherwise flowing circulation space. Particular species are to be planted, for instance Sweetgum trees, chosen in order to introduce a controlled colour accent to the public space. The long stairway steps are designed to stage a graceful measured approach towards the entrance area of the Gasteig. Their flowing edges run in a sweeping line outwardly from the new building, coalescing to form a bundle at the southern-most end where the steps assume the dimensions of conventional outdoor stairs. In order to keep the entire sweep barrier-free a stair ramp is integrated into the layout towards the east. The second entrance on the east side of the new building enables easy access to the train system, where again an open and barrier-free space is created that appears to flow directly into the building. At the eastern edge of the site a “green carpet” is metaphorically rolled out for visitors and guests, signifying the entrance to a special realm. It is planted flush with the floor with shade-resistant ground cover plants and shrubs, which arranged in meshed rows form a path from west to east. The pattern of the “green carpet” is revealed to visitors standing above in the glazed gallery, forging a further visual relationship between inside and outside. The choice of material characteristics of the open-air layouts – defined by high-quality, dignified building materials such as natural stone and stainless steel – appropriately mirrors the rich tradition of the Gasteig’s history and its great cultural importance for Munich. 

▼宽广又壮观的踏步,a broad and imposing set of steps

▼平面图,plan

▼立面图,elevations

▼剖面图,sections

Project data
Competition: 1st prizes, May 2018 (1 of 3 awarded), winner of tender process
Client: Gasteig München GmbH
Location: Munich
Architect: HENN
Team: Gunter Henn, Martin Henn, Stefan Sinning, Paul Böhm, Francesco Capuzzo, Tanja Dietsch, Andreas Fuchs, Marta Galdys, Denise Gellinger, Johanna Graßl, Joachim Grund, Ralph Hempel, Attila Horvarth, Malte Köditz, Thomas von Küstenfeld, Max Langwieder, Paul Lawrence, Peter Lee, Che Liu, Nelli Maier, Sonja Millauer, Wolfgang Mühlhölz-Hirschmann, Armin Nemati, Moritz Ossenberg-Engels, Klaus Ransmayr, Daniel Recklingloh, Ibrahim Saad, Grzegorz Schnotale, Jovan Topalovic, Peter Weber, Fredrik Werner, Wolfgang Wrba
Projekt partner:
Rainer Schmidt, landscape architecture
Nagata Acoustics, acoustics

Climaplan, MEP

Nees Ingenieure, fire safety
Kunkel Consulting Int., stage technology

EKZ Bibliotheksservice,library

Ingenieurbüro Knab, electrical engineering

SSP, structural engineering

Regierungsbaumeister Schlegel, transportation planning
Transsolar, façade engineering
MIR, visualizations

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