Avant-gardeNO.10— Shuai Feng

The tenth issue of the Pioneer album presents you with four wonderful works by Feng Shuai.

Project Specs

Appreciation towards Shuai Feng for providing the following description:


1 树屋
2 抗震减噪结构
3 树状管脉与微气候(AA最佳毕设,2011年日本新建筑中央玻璃建筑竞赛头奖)
4 AA建筑联盟学院天台加建



Tree House

Tree House (2004) was submitted for the structural course, in the second year. The concept was to limit and re-generate structures through lines of sights in a small scale building, with inputs including views to the stage from the auditorium, and views towards the skies along the paths underneath the auditorium. The resulting generated structure took a ‘tree’ form. Large-scale physical models were created for structural analysis and light diffusion simulations.



Aseismic/Acoustic Structure

Aseismic/Acoustic Structure(2008), is work conducted by the studio of Yufang Zhou. The complex roof structure was formed by a cluster algorithm based on the gradient of solar irradiation intensity and pedestrian densities, to achieve differentiated shading and noise-reduction respectively. Large-scale physical models were constructed to further examine the structural performance of the flexible joints and their threshold of deformation.

抗震减噪结构 (2008),是在周宇舫工作室进行的结构实验,使用集群算法根据基地太阳辐射强度及人流密度图案生成复杂几何屋面,区域化进行遮阳及减噪。大型物理模型测试柔性节点的形变阀值。


Vascular Strategies for Microclimates Concourse of Waterloo Station, London, UK


This project aims to investigate a new microclimatic strategy for the proposedconcourse of the Waterloo Railway Station in London, UK. A hierarchical branchventilation system set within the shell surface acts like a turbulence damper, enhancingthe stability of the air flow supply. The concrete shell incorporates a differentiateddistribution of fibre and aggregate materials, whose distribution corresponds to thearchitectural programmes housed underneath.

A computational method is developed in order to modify the concourse’s envelope formby deforming it towards the prevailing wind direction, while simultaneously promotinglocal variations according to programmatic demands. Computational Fluid Dynamicsanalysis was deployed to investigate ventilation pattern in relation to the aerodynamicarticulation of the volume, the placement of inlet and outlets points and the branchingpatterns of the air ducts. A large-scale, variable section slip form casting machine isdeveloped for multi-aggregate embedded concrete to be cast into doubly curved shellsurfaces.

Key Words:
Microclimates, Biomimetic, Material, Construction, Vascular





“随流赋形”: 湍流与稳流
“随流赋形”: 气流
“随流赋形”: 人流与热能
“随流赋形”: 树状管脉层级
“因流施材”: 湍流与制冷
“因流施材”: 滤光与蓄光
“因流施材”: 履带滑模施工

8.Martin Lüscher蚁穴新陈代谢模型

1.An embedded vascular tunnel network in mounds
2. Two-phase gas exchange in lung system
3.heart lung machine
4.Impedance of the lung and the frequency
5.Respiratory therapy of high-frequency ventilation in operation
6.Measured wind velocity variation at the mound surface
7.Model of water balance in a nest and mound
8.Martin Lüscher’s ‘ model of the conlony’s metabolism
9.Wind-induced pressure value pattern distributed on mound in combination with atmospheric boundary layer effects


The author proposes a new application for airflow engineering in architecture: harnessing constant and steady airflows from the integral surface layer where turbulent winds are generated, through simple Biomimetic approaches. Biomimetic technology can offer inexpensive and simple solutions, which would otherwise require elaborate engineering solutions with high capital and operational expenditure. This is counterpoint to traditional wind engineering philosophy, which captures reliable wind energy from high-rise locations with highly capitalised wind turbines. Within architecture and engineering, winds are into simple empirical models, depicted as a vector with implicitly predictable velocity and direction. In fact air movements are dynamic and constantly changing. This unpredictable nature of wind is generally regarded as ‘inefficiency’.

Within nature, such ‘inefficiencies’ can elegantly and resourcefully be regulated, as demonstrated within a termite mound. In order to enhance the stability of ventilation, the termite mound is embedded with a complex hierarchical vascular tunnel network, damping gusts of wind into constant steady flow supplies.




这般无需高昂造价进入高空便能获得持续气流供给的设计哲学为作为城市大部分组成部分的低层和中层建筑的通风策略带来了启迪。为了进一步揭示工作原理,项目针对关键参数进行了建立在流体力学软件上的虚拟风洞模拟试验。在实验室科学中,风频的测试通常建立在示踪气体扩散追踪(Tracer gas palse-chase)实验数据的基础上,数字实验的检验不可能通过相同的观察型模型建立,但是却可以与之互验。在基于计算机流体动力学软件的虚拟风洞实验建立之初,风洞中的标准方体的表面风压值被拿来与ASHRAE(美国国家空调暖通工程委)的授权数据进行参校。在实验数据吻合的基础上,针对砌体中的管径进行湍流穿透检测,通过输出气流的雷诺数对其风频衰减效能分别进行评估。并进一步对效能更加突出的管径的参数进行测定,包括相对给风方向的向背,管径直径,分支角度等。实验的结果给出了能够保证湍减性能的参数调节范围与阀值。


10.CFD wind tunnel experiment for specific range of duct radiuses, angles and inlet directions
11.Differential penetrance of the different components of the frequency spectrum in transient wind
12.Pressures, flow trajectories and turbulence profiles acting upon the current concourse envelope


Waterloo Station, one of the largest railway terminals in the UK, is situated on London’s South Bank, Waterloo’s location within the urban heat island, and its proximity to the river Thames – a cool body of water – results in cyclical convection winds between the land mass and river, occurring and reversing night and day.  Founded on fluid dynamics research, a computational method was developed aiming to optimise energy savings by modifying the existing form of Waterloo Stations concourse and envelope. This was achieved dynamically by deforming the form towards the prevailing wind directions on either side. In addition to form-finding, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was deployed to investigate ventilation patterns in relation to the aerodynamic articulation of the volume, the placement of inlet and outlets points and the vascular patterns of the air ducts.





13.Microclimate strategy
14.HVAC system and constant climate
15.Passive systemand damped climate
16.Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
18-19.Spatial continuity and gradients in microclimates
20.Manipulateenvironmental energy for extended metabolism
21.Validated experimental dataauthorized by fundamentals of ASHRAE
22.Velocity variation following the generaltendency of the wind shear profiles
23.Traditional wind engineering philosophy


24.Waterloo’s proximity to Thames
25.Cyclical convection winds between the land mass and river, reversing night and day
26.An iterative computational method resulting aerodynamic form
27.Optimised shell surface pressure
28.Flow trajectories penetration path
29.Inner and outer pressures of the shell with four openings
30.Filleting and pressure difference


Spatial continuity was created by merging the four vertical programmatic layers of the station concourse into one continuous geometrical and topological surface, offering the potential to transform the spatial experience by varying microclimates. Meanwhile, the use of pedestrian simulation, calibrated by on-site weekly synthesized photometrology, highlighted the necessity to revise the positioning of the waiting lobbies. These were relocated based on the aforementioned fore-and-aft pedestrian movement.

Consequently, a variety of programmes were reorganized, informed by simulation patterns. Each of the concourse’s were ranked based on pedestrian density, velocity and direction requirements in relation to a variety of spatial and environmental parameters including; volume, height, width/depth, illuminance, temperature and ventilation. A diverse set of space typologies emerged, sometimes with conflicting requirements, which resulted in an array of optimised forms, resulting in a hybrid shell form informed by the activities housed within.

The continuous surface creates a landscape that spreads up above the surged entrance to the underground tube, forming a topography that can include a plethora of rich cultural spaces from temporary art galleries to children’s theaters. The uninterrupted topology of the space acts as a guide for commuters and a complex culture-enriched social hub mixed with the necessary information checking, shopping, catering, entertaining, performing, exhibiting, communicating and celebrating within one of the busiest public space in Europe.

In 2008, 187.236 million passengers travelled through Waterloo station. The body energy generated from half million commuters travelling through the concourse every day radiate enough energy to keep the enormous concourse shell at a constant temperature of 22-25 degree Celsius, if properly insulated. In order to harness this energy, high thermal mass was used through the concourse. This was employed in allocated patterns generated by pedestrian simulations, which was driven by a microclimatic strategy. The simulations were calibrated by weekly, on-site synthesized photometrology, in order to achieve a damped fluctuation in temperature between ‘peak time’ and ‘off-peak time’, meeting demands of differentiated activities.







32.On-site weekly synthesized pedestrian movements


33.Negociated shell form between environmental and spatial requirements
34. Reorganization of a variety of programmes, ranked based on multi-criteria
35.Infrared photography, showing interior heat gain. By Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
36. Thermal mass distribution
37.Calibrated pedestrian simulation


Evaporative cooling, coupled with vigorous ventilation occurs naturally in dogs during respiration. With lungs driven at a very high frequency to specifically match the resonant frequency of the thoracic cage, dogs can retain the transient turbulence within a short distance into its airways, enhancing the evaporation for cooling.  Inspired by this, porous material was deployed at the outer surface of the concourse’s shell and distributed in gradients around the region where high eddy patterns were more sturdily produced. With its high water-absorbance capacity it can reduce the collected rain water loss, therefore allowing for higher evaporation levels which can then cool the air supply.




Hierarchical Biomimetic Vascular ducts are located around the faces that receive the most intensive solar incident radiation. These can then trigger thermo-siphon ventilation phenomena during the early morning and late afternoon’s rapid heating hours, while simultaneously allowing sunlight to penetrate through in early morning, but get bounced in late afternoon.

Placed between the densest terminal vascular ducts, they aim to comply with the strict requirements regarding illumination intensity and air changes for large crowds. Due to the differentiated gradational transformations, the lighting quality fluctuates through the space in different densities.  The resulting concrete envelope is gradationally translucent with fine vascular veins creating ever changing material palette of diffused daylighting and coloured shadows, serendipitously showing the ever-changing flows of the moving city outside. At night the envelope metamorphoses into a glimmering patchwork of darkness and sources of light both mysterious and omnipresent.




38.Coupled cooling with dog’s respiration
39.Turbulence profile over shell surface and water absorption
40.Moisture transportation
41.Solar insolation on a ‘magnetic’ termite mound
42.Annual solar insolation over shell surface
43.Orientations of vascular dusts in relation to direct sunlights


In animals & plants optimal resource distribution is achieved by a bifurcating hierarchy of network branches. The bifurcating Hierarchies are further optimized in radii and length to minimize the flow resistance. This is based on the ‘design rules’ as described by Scaling laws etc.  The terminal units of the network applied in the concourse shell are not like that in capillaries’, but still aim to allow regulation of transient flows of wind within the required environmental performance. Four Hierarchies of vascular ducts are designed to control the air, from the discharge zone on shell’s outer surface through to the numerous terminal units, the frequency increasing proportionally to the proximity to the waiting lobbies.




44.Porosity and transparency
45.Over shadowing test
46.Non-return circulation
47.Lighting analysis
48.Finite element total deformation analysis
49.Local structural reinforcement
50.Four Hierarchies of embedded vascular ducts


51.Vertical and horizontal slip-form casting
52.Doubly curved formwork
53.13 pieces’ constructional division, each with a 15-metre span
54.Formwork seam orientation
55.Water-proof screen
56.Singly curved casting
57.Brick casting
58.Lower deck variable-section casting


The construction of the concrete form will utilise a customised large-scale, variable- section slip form casting machine developed especially for multi-aggregate embedded concrete, which will be cast into doubly curved shell surface, reducing waste material, labour and time with minimal scaffolding.  Horizontal slipping direction avoids the material redundancy in vertical casting. In order to further reduce the construction scale to save costs and labour, the concourse is divided into 13 pieces cutting along the long axis, with each spanning across 15m, constructed separately and get rejoined. A section of the most dramatically bifurcated slab is to be investigated further. The lower slabs are first casted upon the ‘pedrail’ formwork, which is then lifted by hydraulic elevator trusses along tracks, sliding back to the bifurcating position, ready for casting the upper slab with a varied section created by the variable ‘pedrail’ formworks.The hierarchical vascular duct system, is achieved by melting the sacrificial polystyrene moulds buried within the concrete. The seam line of the formwork left after casting, function as guiding lines for the commuters.




59.Upper deck variable-section casting
60.In praise of shadow


62-64.Optimal resource distribution network In animals & plants
65.Pressure data importing
66.Vascular path generation
67.Metabolic laws
68.Through four hierarchies of vascular ducts, flow is dragged from outer discharge zone into to terminal units

69. 内视
69. Internal view

70. 外观
70. External view

AA Terrace Canopy
(2009-2010, 36 Bedford Square, London, United Kingdom) AA建筑联盟学院天台加建(建成项目2009-2010, 英国伦敦拜德佛德广场)

Initial Design/方案设计:Shuai Feng (封帅), Ittai FrankTeam/团队(alphabetic/字母降序): Selim Bayer, Kunkun Chen(陈鲲昆), Stéphanie Chaltiel, Utssav Gupta, Konstantinos Karatzas, Mohamad Khabazi, Tamara Lavrovskaya, Mohammed Makki, Maria Mingallón, Michael Moukarzel, Sara Pezeshk,Sakthivel Ramaswamy, Jheny Nieto Ropero, Revano Satria, Kyle L. Schertzing, Pavlos Schizas, Xia Su(苏夏), Ioanna Symeonidou.

Tutor/老师: Michael Weinsock Consultant/顾问: Wolf Mangelsdorf , Michael Brooks, Luke Epp, Martin Flint, Victoria Littlewood, Andrea Menardo, Jonathan Vidler.(Buro Happold/英国标赫工程) Sponsorship/赞助: Architectural Association(AA 建筑联盟学院), Buro Happold(英国标赫工程), ‘Unto This Last’ CNC(英国永续家具工坊), Alec Tiranti Ltd resin and glass fibre(意大利艾利克斯提拉提建材) .

The AA Canopy 2009 has 9 proposals entered as candidates. Structural engineers from Buro Happold spent one month assisting the 3 final schemes to enhance the engineering design. The winning entry had an opportunity to build a one-to-one scale model; fabricated, assembled and constructed by all the students involved.

The winning scheme attempted to provide partial shelter from the rain, shading from the sun and mitigate the wind for the AA upper terrace- the central public area of the School. The cascading overlapped structures of decorated gateways in the streets of Beijing form a complex and delicate system to offer horizontally structural overhanging that performs as a shading device, whilst sloping properly for draining. Vernacular houses in Shanghai use spaced tile work, giving porosity to the roof, while incorporating drainage with air exchanges through the roof surface. Partially distributed transparent tiles also locally adjust the interior daylight levels. The experimental example of the AA canopy has exceeded expectations of precedent: the overlapped composite wooden stripes behaved as a structural system, meeting the high strength requirements that structural overhanging demands. It also performs well environmentally, guiding rainwater drains along the overlapped cascading paths, and providing layered diffuse light effects and maintaining a damped wind environment beneath it on the terrace. This is trying to recall the atmosphere of sitting under tree boughs, as sunshine forms shadows that dance and spin on the ground, and cool breeze whispers through the branches.

The design development of the project included two research paths: Genetic Algorithms and physical experiments based on material properties. The iterative process of design applied advanced computational tools, deriving input parameters from spatial arrangement and the environmental conditions of the upper terrace. The initial surface was generated after 20 successive iterations, to minimize wind load, and to form a slope to direct the rain to the drainage gutters. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were used to assess the consequences of each geometric modification, the associative digital model progressively reduced the turbulence under the canopy, and enhanced the stability of the air supplies. The differentiated surface porosity patterns were then created following the wind pressure gradients cast on the initial surface, and so reduced the wind load in the most critical areas to enhance its structural capacity, preventing the canopy from acting as a sail.

In order to improve the structural strength while maintaining certain structural depth and weight, mature techniques that have been widely spread in the wooden shipbuilding industry were introduced into the architectural field. The combination of glass fibre and resin was infiltrated between the wood fibres, transforming the original laminated tri- layer plywood into a light-weight super-high-strength composite material. Three vertical fins levered the canopy up above the columns, acting as a crane, which were then connected to the columns as a supporting structure. The construction framework that was used to lever the canopy into place also formed part of the final structure of the canopy, reducing construction waste and costs.

The manufacturing method was constrained by the size of the CNC bed and the standard size of timber veneer and plywood panels, and the only-student-conducted fabrication and assembly had to take place within the school in limited space. Limited access and time brought further constraints on the scale, weight and assembly logic. The glass-fibreized wooden strips were shaved, polished, lacquered and air-dried over five times on both sides. The final finished surface was coated with a thin golden glazy lustre under overcast skies.

2009年的AA 建筑联盟学院天台加建项目有9个方案入围。在进行物理实验3个月后进行决选,并由英国Buro Happold(标赫工程咨询公司)的结构工程师协助三个入选方案进行1个月的工程图纸深化。最终胜出的方案得到等比例建造的机会,全体参赛同学共同参与制造组装建造。

获胜方案试图为AA的天台提供一定程度的庇荫和风雨遮挡。北京街头的牌楼使用层叠搭接的精密复杂结构系统提供水平出挑庇荫,并且形成排水所需的合适坡度;上海地区的民宅在满足排水要求的同时,利用镂空的瓦作铺接,允许了遮蔽物上下方的空气交流,部分玻璃的屋瓦进一步对遮蔽物的采光提供了改进。天棚的设计实验在一定程度上针对既有的工程实践进行革新,使用镂空搭接的复合材料条带作为结构系统,不仅满足了水平出挑的高结构强度,也体现出树冠一样的环境表现性能:规划雨水沿着互相叠压的分支排水管径层层流下,与此同时提供层层漫射的光效和过滤衰减的风环境,形成树荫庇蔽下微风习习,光影斑驳的空间感受。 设计在发展中囊括了两个研究方向:遗传算法以及基于材料性能的物理实验。设计的迭代推演过程中使用了先进的计算工具:将天台的空间排布与环境信息转化为数据,输入到优化算法中,经过20个连续的迭代进化,天棚的最初表面得以生成,用以最小化表面风力荷载,并且形成径直将雨水引入基地的排水管道槽中的坡度。计算流体动力学模拟(CFD)作为设计工具被引入到天台最初表面的历代几何变化中,天棚表面的孔洞的孔径梯度变化根据表面风压强度分布图案生成,避免了天棚在风力荷载下成为鼓满的船帆,增强了结构的稳定性。

为了在保持厚度与重量不变的前提下进一步增强结构强度,广泛应用于木质造船工业中的成熟工艺被引入建筑领域,玻璃纤维与树脂的复合物渗透至木质条带的纹理中,完全改变了木材本身的属性,形成一种轻质超高强度复合材料。竖向的木鳍作为施工过程中的起吊机将天棚吊装起,并在之后将天棚固定于现有的天台上的铁质圆柱上,使得施工机械最终也成为了建筑的一部分, 减少了施工中的财物浪费。

施工的方法为CNC数控机床和木制胶合板的尺寸所限制,而完全由学生人力完成的制作以及吊装又只能在学校内院的狭小区域进行,受限的基地使用时间与空间对天棚的尺寸,重量以及吊装组配策略都提出了更严格的限制。玻璃纤维化条带的表面及背面各经过5遍的打磨,抛光,上漆及风干处理,最终完成的表面在阴天下呈现出一层浅浅的金色琉璃色泽。 Strip wood kayak. 条带木制'(因纽特)划子’艇 (Source /图片来源: http://www.plunderguide.com/cedar-strip-wood-kayak/; http://www.treehugger.com/natural-sciences/guillemot-kayaks-make-your-own-wood-kayak.html; http://www.johnskayak.blogspot.co.uk/; etc)


封帅 Shuai Feng

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