Avant-gardeNO.10— Shuai Feng

The tenth issue of the Pioneer album presents you with four wonderful works by Feng Shuai.

Project Specs

非常感谢封帅在gooood上分享他的作品:
Appreciation towards Shuai Feng for providing the following description:

第十期的先锋专辑为您奉上封帅的四个精彩作品:

1 树屋
2 抗震减噪结构
3 树状管脉与微气候(AA最佳毕设,2011年日本新建筑中央玻璃建筑竞赛头奖)
4 AA建筑联盟学院天台加建

请欣赏(图片较多,页面若一次没加载完请刷新)

 

Tree House

Tree House (2004) was submitted for the structural course, in the second year. The concept was to limit and re-generate structures through lines of sights in a small scale building, with inputs including views to the stage from the auditorium, and views towards the skies along the paths underneath the auditorium. The resulting generated structure took a ‘tree’ form. Large-scale physical models were created for structural analysis and light diffusion simulations.

树屋(2004),是二年级的结构课程作业。在一个小型建筑项目中,试图使用行为中的视线来限制及切割结构形式。其中包括观众席看向舞台的视线,也包括观众席下方移动路径看向天空的视线。最终切割生成的结构形式呈现树状,以物理模型深化结构与光效漫射模拟。

 

Aseismic/Acoustic Structure

Aseismic/Acoustic Structure(2008), is work conducted by the studio of Yufang Zhou. The complex roof structure was formed by a cluster algorithm based on the gradient of solar irradiation intensity and pedestrian densities, to achieve differentiated shading and noise-reduction respectively. Large-scale physical models were constructed to further examine the structural performance of the flexible joints and their threshold of deformation.

抗震减噪结构 (2008),是在周宇舫工作室进行的结构实验,使用集群算法根据基地太阳辐射强度及人流密度图案生成复杂几何屋面,区域化进行遮阳及减噪。大型物理模型测试柔性节点的形变阀值。

 

Vascular Strategies for Microclimates Concourse of Waterloo Station, London, UK

树状管脉与微气候
英国伦敦滑铁卢车站大厅改建

This project aims to investigate a new microclimatic strategy for the proposedconcourse of the Waterloo Railway Station in London, UK. A hierarchical branchventilation system set within the shell surface acts like a turbulence damper, enhancingthe stability of the air flow supply. The concrete shell incorporates a differentiateddistribution of fibre and aggregate materials, whose distribution corresponds to thearchitectural programmes housed underneath.

A computational method is developed in order to modify the concourse’s envelope formby deforming it towards the prevailing wind direction, while simultaneously promotinglocal variations according to programmatic demands. Computational Fluid Dynamicsanalysis was deployed to investigate ventilation pattern in relation to the aerodynamicarticulation of the volume, the placement of inlet and outlets points and the branchingpatterns of the air ducts. A large-scale, variable section slip form casting machine isdeveloped for multi-aggregate embedded concrete to be cast into doubly curved shellsurfaces.

Key Words:
Microclimates, Biomimetic, Material, Construction, Vascular

项目在伦敦滑铁卢车站大厅改建中倡导了微气候的策略。通过对于蚁冢的仿生学的研究,从世界观上对于风力工程和建筑通风领域的昂贵手段进行了颠覆。在建筑形式生成过程中,计算机程序根据数字风洞模拟试验来优化气流,持续引导车站大厅屋面向盛行风方向分别形变,衍生出符合空气动力学的建筑形体。建筑的混凝土屋面施工过程由大尺度滑模机械完成。履带式变截面滑模机械,特别针对在双曲面屋面中浇筑包括隔蓄光热性能的多种骨料定制而成,缩减工时与开支。

关键词:微气候仿生学材料施工树状

“随流赋形”是针对人工环境与自然环境间日益增大的裂痕与壁垒所提出的策略。在自然界中,藉由材料的性能,生物将体内的新陈代谢成功延伸至体外【1】,通过对于自身以及自身完成的构筑物的改造,操纵了自然中的能量流动来完成自身的能量循环,使得生物个体的能量循环在一个超出个体体积数百倍的空间内完成。蚁冢作为其中的一个例证,其使用的复杂形体和材料手段对环境的控制,极大地模糊了生物,生物构筑物与所处环境之间的界限,进而引发我们对人工自然环境与自然环境在历史上及今天的关系的思考。“随流赋形”,“宛若天工”作为积极对待自然环境的人工改造的哲学,是可以在今天具有普世性的城市环境中得到科学量化与实施的。基于这种思考,方案的选址放在了远离自然环境的伦敦市中心的车站大厅,用以验证积极的设计策略超出城乡与文化差异限制的可能性。

在本方案中,城市环境中常见的完全与室外隔绝的传统空调暖通系统被质疑,而传统的被动式建筑又不能有效地针对具体的环境和功能作出反馈,所以通过严密地勘察与模拟基地的实际环境与功能现状,顺应现状中微气候的差异性与功能的差异性去进行“相地”与对建筑“赋形”,成为了“顺其自然”的建筑设计策略。在下文中,将使用如下的标题来分别叙述具体的做法:

“随流赋形”: 湍流与稳流
“随流赋形”: 气流
“随流赋形”: 人流与热能
“随流赋形”: 树状管脉层级
“因流施材”: 湍流与制冷
“因流施材”: 滤光与蓄光
“因流施材”: 履带滑模施工

1.蚁冢与脉管系统
2.二阶段换气
3.心肺呼吸机
4.肺阻与呼吸频率
5.高频换气呼吸治疗
6.蚁冢表面实测风频
7.蚁冢/穴间水平衡模型
8.Martin Lüscher蚁穴新陈代谢模型
9.冢表风动压差与边界层效应

1.An embedded vascular tunnel network in mounds
2. Two-phase gas exchange in lung system
3.heart lung machine
4.Impedance of the lung and the frequency
5.Respiratory therapy of high-frequency ventilation in operation
6.Measured wind velocity variation at the mound surface
7.Model of water balance in a nest and mound
8.Martin Lüscher’s ‘ model of the conlony’s metabolism
9.Wind-induced pressure value pattern distributed on mound in combination with atmospheric boundary layer effects

TRANSIENTS

The author proposes a new application for airflow engineering in architecture: harnessing constant and steady airflows from the integral surface layer where turbulent winds are generated, through simple Biomimetic approaches. Biomimetic technology can offer inexpensive and simple solutions, which would otherwise require elaborate engineering solutions with high capital and operational expenditure. This is counterpoint to traditional wind engineering philosophy, which captures reliable wind energy from high-rise locations with highly capitalised wind turbines. Within architecture and engineering, winds are into simple empirical models, depicted as a vector with implicitly predictable velocity and direction. In fact air movements are dynamic and constantly changing. This unpredictable nature of wind is generally regarded as ‘inefficiency’.

Within nature, such ‘inefficiencies’ can elegantly and resourcefully be regulated, as demonstrated within a termite mound. In order to enhance the stability of ventilation, the termite mound is embedded with a complex hierarchical vascular tunnel network, damping gusts of wind into constant steady flow supplies.

 “随流赋形”:湍流与稳流

在风力工程,以及建筑的自然通风领域,风作为一种能源常常是被理解为或者简化为具有固定的方向和力度的气流,具有定向的平稳的供给。然而正如我们所观察到的一样,气流随着时间不断产生方向和力度上的瞬时改变。近地面,也就是人类活动所处的风环境,由于地表的复杂地形以及建筑物等障碍物的干扰,主要是由高风频的湍流所组成的。这也解释了为什么风常常被人们描绘为一种动态的瞬时流动,最缺乏的反而就是恒定的可预测方向上的稳定的持续的供给。而不论是在风力工程还是在建筑的自然通风领域,持续稳定的气流供给都是至关重要的。在设计中,风的性质也是被假想成了它恰恰所缺乏的样子,在图纸上表示风向,并用以指导设计的恒定箭头,恰恰成为了现实中诸多建筑通风案例效率不高的肇因。

风力工程领域不能容忍效率不高,为了使风变成我们想要它成为的样子,风力涡轮需要花费高昂的造价穿透近地面层,去获得相对恒定的气流。即使是这样,无处不在的湍流也被视为不被欢迎的成分,与影响效率的罪魁。在自然界,与偏执的人类相比,经济又“顺其自然”的蚁冢,却展现了一种截然不同地对待湍流的态度,展现了从设计哲学上具有颠覆性的世界观。身处“无效率”湍流之中的蚁冢被优雅的转化成为了一个风频的分离器,作为蚁的体外“呼吸器官”,不能依赖肌肉的驱动完成“肺”所应有的持续呼吸,却在蚁冢内外建立起了一个风频的梯度。而设计哲学的颠覆也体现在针对湍流的态度上,不但没有被视为废弃物甚至罪魁,而且被用以预冷进入蚁冢的气流。

这般无需高昂造价进入高空便能获得持续气流供给的设计哲学为作为城市大部分组成部分的低层和中层建筑的通风策略带来了启迪。为了进一步揭示工作原理,项目针对关键参数进行了建立在流体力学软件上的虚拟风洞模拟试验。在实验室科学中,风频的测试通常建立在示踪气体扩散追踪(Tracer gas palse-chase)实验数据的基础上,数字实验的检验不可能通过相同的观察型模型建立,但是却可以与之互验。在基于计算机流体动力学软件的虚拟风洞实验建立之初,风洞中的标准方体的表面风压值被拿来与ASHRAE(美国国家空调暖通工程委)的授权数据进行参校。在实验数据吻合的基础上,针对砌体中的管径进行湍流穿透检测,通过输出气流的雷诺数对其风频衰减效能分别进行评估。并进一步对效能更加突出的管径的参数进行测定,包括相对给风方向的向背,管径直径,分支角度等。实验的结果给出了能够保证湍减性能的参数调节范围与阀值。

10.计算流体动力学的虚拟风洞实验,测定管径的参数范畴与阀值
11.不同频谱瞬流的穿透度
12.现有大厅屋表面风压,瞬时轨迹与湍流轮廓

10.CFD wind tunnel experiment for specific range of duct radiuses, angles and inlet directions
11.Differential penetrance of the different components of the frequency spectrum in transient wind
12.Pressures, flow trajectories and turbulence profiles acting upon the current concourse envelope

CONVECTION

Waterloo Station, one of the largest railway terminals in the UK, is situated on London’s South Bank, Waterloo’s location within the urban heat island, and its proximity to the river Thames – a cool body of water – results in cyclical convection winds between the land mass and river, occurring and reversing night and day.  Founded on fluid dynamics research, a computational method was developed aiming to optimise energy savings by modifying the existing form of Waterloo Stations concourse and envelope. This was achieved dynamically by deforming the form towards the prevailing wind directions on either side. In addition to form-finding, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was deployed to investigate ventilation patterns in relation to the aerodynamic articulation of the volume, the placement of inlet and outlets points and the vascular patterns of the air ducts.

“随流赋形”:气流

方案的选址放在了远离自然环境的伦敦市中心的车站大厅。作为具有普适性的基地选址,滑铁卢车站大厅具有高密度城市环境中所面临的诸多挑战与优势。一方面,车站汇集了包括欧洲之星在内的密集线路,是英国最大的铁路终端枢纽之一,也成为英国人流通勤量最高的公共空间;另一方面,车站位于伦敦城区一区,处于城市热岛的中心位置,同时如同在许多大型城市中可以观察到的一样,它也紧邻横穿城市的泰晤士河-一个大型的冷却水体。水陆质量之间的蓄热差异导致了一个昼夜交替的对流风循环的产生。相对于城市随季节与气候变化的常年盛行风向,水陆对流风无疑提供了相对更加稳定与持久的气流供给。

针对昼夜交替的对流供给,在设计过程中渐进发展出一个基于流体动力学研究的计算机策略,通过迭代优化车站大厅的屋面形式来逐步优化大厅的能源消耗。这个动态的形式生成过程是通过一系列指引屋面末端形变的程序完成的。屋面的西端和东端分别以白昼的水陆流和夜晚的陆水流为驱动针对“风影”进行形变。在每一代的迭代演算中,生成的几何结果都被代入计算流体动力学软件中进行分析,得到的数据被继续用于作为下一次迭代的输入。迭代演算生成的不只是基于流体动力学计算的最终大厅屋面形式,同时通过对入出风口进行假定为直径2米的赋值,也验证了屋面正负压区域的给出风口定位及尺度,以及其相对于车站大厅体积的合理性,为进一步确定树状管脉系统的通路做好了铺垫。

13.微气候策略
14.空调暖通系统与恒气候
15.被动系统与衰减气候
16.计算机流体动力学
17.行人仿真
18-19.空间连续性与微气候梯度
20.通过操纵自然环境中的能量流动来延伸生物自身的新陈代谢能量循环
21.ASHRAE(美国国家空调暖通工程委)授权数据验证
22.风切变轮廓上的变速
23.传统的风力工程世界观

13.Microclimate strategy
14.HVAC system and constant climate
15.Passive systemand damped climate
16.Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
17.Pedestriansimulation
18-19.Spatial continuity and gradients in microclimates
20.Manipulateenvironmental energy for extended metabolism
21.Validated experimental dataauthorized by fundamentals of ASHRAE
22.Velocity variation following the generaltendency of the wind shear profiles
23.Traditional wind engineering philosophy

24.滑铁卢车站毗邻泰晤士河水体
25.昼夜交替的对流风循环
26.迭代计算机优化程序衍生符合空气动力学的建筑形体
27.形变屋表面压差优化
28.气流瞬时轨迹通径测试
29.四开口屋面壳体内外压差
30.倒角与压差

24.Waterloo’s proximity to Thames
25.Cyclical convection winds between the land mass and river, reversing night and day
26.An iterative computational method resulting aerodynamic form
27.Optimised shell surface pressure
28.Flow trajectories penetration path
29.Inner and outer pressures of the shell with four openings
30.Filleting and pressure difference

ACTIVITIES

Spatial continuity was created by merging the four vertical programmatic layers of the station concourse into one continuous geometrical and topological surface, offering the potential to transform the spatial experience by varying microclimates. Meanwhile, the use of pedestrian simulation, calibrated by on-site weekly synthesized photometrology, highlighted the necessity to revise the positioning of the waiting lobbies. These were relocated based on the aforementioned fore-and-aft pedestrian movement.

Consequently, a variety of programmes were reorganized, informed by simulation patterns. Each of the concourse’s were ranked based on pedestrian density, velocity and direction requirements in relation to a variety of spatial and environmental parameters including; volume, height, width/depth, illuminance, temperature and ventilation. A diverse set of space typologies emerged, sometimes with conflicting requirements, which resulted in an array of optimised forms, resulting in a hybrid shell form informed by the activities housed within.

The continuous surface creates a landscape that spreads up above the surged entrance to the underground tube, forming a topography that can include a plethora of rich cultural spaces from temporary art galleries to children’s theaters. The uninterrupted topology of the space acts as a guide for commuters and a complex culture-enriched social hub mixed with the necessary information checking, shopping, catering, entertaining, performing, exhibiting, communicating and celebrating within one of the busiest public space in Europe.

In 2008, 187.236 million passengers travelled through Waterloo station. The body energy generated from half million commuters travelling through the concourse every day radiate enough energy to keep the enormous concourse shell at a constant temperature of 22-25 degree Celsius, if properly insulated. In order to harness this energy, high thermal mass was used through the concourse. This was employed in allocated patterns generated by pedestrian simulations, which was driven by a microclimatic strategy. The simulations were calibrated by weekly, on-site synthesized photometrology, in order to achieve a damped fluctuation in temperature between ‘peak time’ and ‘off-peak time’, meeting demands of differentiated activities.

“随流赋形”:人流与热能

电影《黑客帝国》描绘了人类的文明活动消亡之后机器帝国倡导的能源新策略,将大量存在的人体被简单地理解为以生物发电为原理的电池,使用电解液体刺激生物体发电,再由集成的机械电塔进行电力的储蓄与再分配。在滑铁卢的车站大厅内,从人体身上获取能源似乎不需要如此大费周章,当然更不需要人类的消亡。

在2008年一年中,在滑铁卢铁路枢纽在线票据记录可查的通勤人数是一亿八千七百三十二万,数据还且是建立在2008年欧洲之星的终端枢纽维护的时间区间内。作为欧洲最繁忙的铁路终端之一,通勤人数的数量与密度对于包括中国在内的高密度城市的交通综合枢纽是有可见的参考价值的。平均每个工作日经过车站大厅的逾五十万通勤者所产生的人体热能,在适当的隔热处理后,足够将巨大的大厅空间的气温在自然状态下维持在摄氏22至25度的区间内。为了采集这些热能,不同于倚赖中央通风系统的匀质采集策略,设计为了应对微气候环境中存在的连续动态气候梯度,首先针对车站大厅的通勤人流与功能区块做出了重新的调整与安排。四个主要的车站大厅功能楼层被延展的曲面步道融合成为一个在几何与地形上呈现为连续曲面的室内景观式广场,为潜在的沿地势起伏的连续微气候梯度提供了空间基础,也营造了存在于交通枢纽中流动变化的空间体验。

“摄影测量术”为人流分析的数字模拟提供了物理上的校验。在滑铁卢车站管理层的支持下,以周记的实地人流摄录被分别按照工作日与休息日的分类,使用轮廓识别技术合成为人流密度周图,大厅空间中人流轮廓叠影形成的颜色梯度为人流随时间移动停留的密度、速度与方向提供了图像上记录与呈现。人流观测的结果也得到了数字模拟技术的支持,为了精确捕捉大厅内部不同功能空间的具体人流密度与方向甚至速度,设计在模拟阶段主要咨询了能够提供基于“主体”建模(agent-based)的行人及人流疏散仿真机构。仿真结果在观测校准后,既为后文中重新安置的建筑功能提供了有力的依据,也为热质在围护结构中的分布提供了平面及立面上的密度投影,衰减乃至抹平处于通勤“高峰期”与“低峰期”时段中,地面层主要交通流线上方气温的大幅波动。

经由校准的人流仿真图案驱动,滑铁卢车站大厅的功能组团围绕东中西三部分屏前集散广场展开,并依据各自的功能需求被进行评级。评级基于功能所处区域中行人密度、速度、方向以及与之相对应的空间与环境需求,包括空间体积、高度、宽度/深度、照度、温度、湿度、新风需求等。一种完全多样化的空间与地形从中涌现了出来,基于其中一些并置的功能组团(诸如外延式餐饮、无线候车区与坡道小影院、酒吧等)对于照度、温度等的多样化需求,大厅屋面进一步按照其下覆盖的功能区域做出了局部形变。在一系列诸如功能上“妥协”或“共赢”的分区域评级后,原先纯粹由对流所驱动的曲率被逐区细分调整,综合生成了新一轮的屋面形式;同时,在大厅的地面层,连续的地形景观从站台上方一路蔓延至地下铁入口下方,生长出犹如复杂地势般的几何形式,能够容纳并适应从下沉式临时艺术展廊、地铁入口上方阶梯儿童剧场到景观式餐饮空间的一系列多样化社会行为。

31.摄影测量术
32.合成的基地人流密度周图

31.Photometrology
32.On-site weekly synthesized pedestrian movements

33.空间与环境需求协商重生屋壳
34.大厅功能组团评级重组
35.红外热像摄影,显示室内得热
36.热质分布
37.经校准的人流仿真模拟

33.Negociated shell form between environmental and spatial requirements
34. Reorganization of a variety of programmes, ranked based on multi-criteria
35.Infrared photography, showing interior heat gain. By Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
36. Thermal mass distribution
37.Calibrated pedestrian simulation

COUPLED COOLING

Evaporative cooling, coupled with vigorous ventilation occurs naturally in dogs during respiration. With lungs driven at a very high frequency to specifically match the resonant frequency of the thoracic cage, dogs can retain the transient turbulence within a short distance into its airways, enhancing the evaporation for cooling.  Inspired by this, porous material was deployed at the outer surface of the concourse’s shell and distributed in gradients around the region where high eddy patterns were more sturdily produced. With its high water-absorbance capacity it can reduce the collected rain water loss, therefore allowing for higher evaporation levels which can then cool the air supply.

“因流施材”:湍流与制冷

蒸发制冷,在很多时候是气体交换的自然副产品,或者说是呈“伴生”关系。通过控制呼吸时肺与胸腔的共振频率,犬类可以将风的高频湍流部分排斥在呼吸道的上端位置,恰恰是与上端大面积接触的外部湍流,促进蒸发完成了预冷【3】。在蚁冢内外建立起了一个风频梯度,将所谓“废弃物”的副产品-湍流致密囤积在蚁冢表层,大面积促进了不断遭遇主动增湿的表层土壤中的水分蒸发。从设计的角度思辨,蚁对土壤的主动增湿虽然对于车站大厅多量高密的通勤人群的潜质提出了有意义地设问,但是基于工程的稳定性,设计仍选择从材料角度做出反馈。车站屋面表面的计算流体动力学模拟数据被重新导入计算机辅助建模软件中,根据雷诺数将湍流性状更为突出的屋面表面区域图案转印下来,以多孔材料呈梯度地沿图案进行埋植,在雨季提前预冷被引入大厅屏前集散广场周围区域的气体供给。

LIGHTING

Hierarchical Biomimetic Vascular ducts are located around the faces that receive the most intensive solar incident radiation. These can then trigger thermo-siphon ventilation phenomena during the early morning and late afternoon’s rapid heating hours, while simultaneously allowing sunlight to penetrate through in early morning, but get bounced in late afternoon.

Placed between the densest terminal vascular ducts, they aim to comply with the strict requirements regarding illumination intensity and air changes for large crowds. Due to the differentiated gradational transformations, the lighting quality fluctuates through the space in different densities.  The resulting concrete envelope is gradationally translucent with fine vascular veins creating ever changing material palette of diffused daylighting and coloured shadows, serendipitously showing the ever-changing flows of the moving city outside. At night the envelope metamorphoses into a glimmering patchwork of darkness and sources of light both mysterious and omnipresent.

“因流施材”:滤光与蓄光

谷崎润一郎【4】在《阴翳礼赞》中将乍暗忽明的半透明建筑围护结构形容为:“犹如初雪霁微,将光线含吮其中,有调和明暗的质感”,“美也不存在于物体,却存在于物与物间流转的阴翳的戏剧与明暗之中”。而在车站屋面这样一个宏观的尺度下,允许光线渗透与漫射的机理也势必会有所不同。随着屋面起伏而弥散分布得分支管径,依照着屋面表面全年太阳辐射的投射图案形成天花上深浅浓淡的薄暗阴翳。由于车站屋面如“地磁”蚁冢般,长轴指向南北方向,管径的分布便能够在早晨与黄昏的日照下急速受热过程中在屋面的向阳背阴面之间驱动局部的热力对流。同时,管径也与清晨的阳光形成微妙的角度,并层层过滤午后的直射阳光,在全天中向大厅洒下明灭沉浮的光点。密集的隔蓄光骨料依据全年采光模拟的投射图案,种植在了树状管脉最为浓密的分支之间,用繁杂的微光为下方聚集的人流负向勾勒出屋面中浓荫般沁入混凝土的树状脉管的纤细轮廓。最终,大厅的明暗效果随着空间与功能的转化沉浮流动。在白昼,混凝土屋面迎着太阳的角度忽明忽灭,在渐变的质地中沉淀出漫天密植的分支管径的荫郁,稍纵即逝地过滤着瞬息万变的漫射光线、阴影甚至颜色,模糊地浮现出自周遭川流不息的大都市中心的流动景色。在夜晚,大厅的屋面蜕变为城市中心一片薄暗的暧昧荧幕,在不同尺度上聚集成或纤弱或耀眼的朦胧影像。

38.犬类呼吸与伴生制冷
39.屋表面湍流性状与集水
40.湿度转移
41.“地磁”蚁冢日照辐射分析
42.屋表面全年日照辐射分析
43.管径朝向与日光夹角

38.Coupled cooling with dog’s respiration
39.Turbulence profile over shell surface and water absorption
40.Moisture transportation
41.Solar insolation on a ‘magnetic’ termite mound
42.Annual solar insolation over shell surface
43.Orientations of vascular dusts in relation to direct sunlights

VASCULAR HIERARCHIES

In animals & plants optimal resource distribution is achieved by a bifurcating hierarchy of network branches. The bifurcating Hierarchies are further optimized in radii and length to minimize the flow resistance. This is based on the ‘design rules’ as described by Scaling laws etc.  The terminal units of the network applied in the concourse shell are not like that in capillaries’, but still aim to allow regulation of transient flows of wind within the required environmental performance. Four Hierarchies of vascular ducts are designed to control the air, from the discharge zone on shell’s outer surface through to the numerous terminal units, the frequency increasing proportionally to the proximity to the waiting lobbies.

“随流赋形”:树状管脉层级

“流动”是复杂系统中的无处不在的现象,从气体液体的流动,到更为抽象的热流、人流与物流。“随流赋形”的策略,旨在对于流动中存在的普遍规律对设计的指导意义,在不同尺度上做出探索。在植物与动物的新陈代谢行为中,气液体的最优化传导藉由一个复杂的分级树状脉管系统完成。而整个输送网络的终端单元结构尺度与生物体积无碍,它在人体内是心血管系统中的毛细血管,在植物体内则是维管系统中的叶柄。在本方案中,它具体指前文中能够保证湍减性能的分支管径。分支管径的分布是根据大厅内部不同功能组团的“新风需求”需求评级来排布的,集中分布于三个屏前集散广场周围,并沿大厅围护结构及地面层呈现出浓密疏淡的连续变化。不同于动植物体内的传输系统,前文中经由流体动力学计算得到的赋值为2米的大厅屋面出入风口直径,由幂率理论等确定每一个相邻层级的管脉系统的尺度缩减比值,只经过四层植入建筑围护结构内部的树状管脉层级,便缩减为能够满足湍减性能的末端管径的尺度参数范畴。

44.多孔性与透明性
45.过度遮蔽测试
46.单行流线
47.屋内面采光分析
48.有限元形变分析
49.结构局部加固
50.四层植入树状管脉层级

44.Porosity and transparency
45.Over shadowing test
46.Non-return circulation
47.Lighting analysis
48.Finite element total deformation analysis
49.Local structural reinforcement
50.Four Hierarchies of embedded vascular ducts

51.纵横向滑移式箱梁模架
52.双曲模板
53.构造切割十三跨,每跨十五米
54.模板分缝朝向
55.防水屏幕
56.单曲浇筑
57.砌块浇筑
58.低层变截推移

51.Vertical and horizontal slip-form casting
52.Doubly curved formwork
53.13 pieces’ constructional division, each with a 15-metre span
54.Formwork seam orientation
55.Water-proof screen
56.Singly curved casting
57.Brick casting
58.Lower deck variable-section casting

SLIP CASTING

The construction of the concrete form will utilise a customised large-scale, variable- section slip form casting machine developed especially for multi-aggregate embedded concrete, which will be cast into doubly curved shell surface, reducing waste material, labour and time with minimal scaffolding.  Horizontal slipping direction avoids the material redundancy in vertical casting. In order to further reduce the construction scale to save costs and labour, the concourse is divided into 13 pieces cutting along the long axis, with each spanning across 15m, constructed separately and get rejoined. A section of the most dramatically bifurcated slab is to be investigated further. The lower slabs are first casted upon the ‘pedrail’ formwork, which is then lifted by hydraulic elevator trusses along tracks, sliding back to the bifurcating position, ready for casting the upper slab with a varied section created by the variable ‘pedrail’ formworks.The hierarchical vascular duct system, is achieved by melting the sacrificial polystyrene moulds buried within the concrete. The seam line of the formwork left after casting, function as guiding lines for the commuters.

“因流施材”:履带滑模施工

水平方向的现浇连续滑移式箱梁模架施工是应用于道路、桥梁的大型混凝土施工工艺,不同于竖直方向构筑物诸如烟囱的滑模浇筑,受力结构的等截面使得水平浇筑具有更强的模具连续性。车站大厅的混凝土楼板与屋面在有限元结构形变分析中对受力薄弱的区域进行局部结构层加固,继而沿长轴竖直切割成为十三跨,每跨十五米进行分跨浇筑与重新拼接。曲面连续楼板最为典型的交接驳位所在跨被挑选出来,进行细化探讨:一个大尺度的变截双曲面履带式滑模浇筑器械依照工程需求被研制出来,在下层曲面楼板全部脱模后,履带式滑模沿轨道滑移回楼板接驳位,液压牵引至上层楼板高度,进行变截推移,以缩减工时与开支。骨料沿主要人流行进方向埋植,与混凝土模板的排布方向一同,对大厅的通勤流线做出暗示性界定。计算机辅助制造的大型树状管脉系统由廉价的聚苯乙烯分段预制拼接植入,在浇筑后进行酸腐,脱尽阳模成形。

59.上层变截推移
60.阴翳礼赞

59.Upper deck variable-section casting
60.In praise of shadow

61.流线引导
62-64.动植物体内输流网络优化
65.风压数据读取
66.管脉通径生成
67.新陈代谢定律
68.四层管脉层级将新风由外部高压区引入末端管径

61.Guiding
62-64.Optimal resource distribution network In animals & plants
65.Pressure data importing
66.Vascular path generation
67.Metabolic laws
68.Through four hierarchies of vascular ducts, flow is dragged from outer discharge zone into to terminal units

69. 内视
69. Internal view

70. 外观
70. External view

AA Terrace Canopy
(2009-2010, 36 Bedford Square, London, United Kingdom) AA建筑联盟学院天台加建(建成项目2009-2010, 英国伦敦拜德佛德广场)

Initial Design/方案设计:Shuai Feng (封帅), Ittai FrankTeam/团队(alphabetic/字母降序): Selim Bayer, Kunkun Chen(陈鲲昆), Stéphanie Chaltiel, Utssav Gupta, Konstantinos Karatzas, Mohamad Khabazi, Tamara Lavrovskaya, Mohammed Makki, Maria Mingallón, Michael Moukarzel, Sara Pezeshk,Sakthivel Ramaswamy, Jheny Nieto Ropero, Revano Satria, Kyle L. Schertzing, Pavlos Schizas, Xia Su(苏夏), Ioanna Symeonidou.

Tutor/老师: Michael Weinsock Consultant/顾问: Wolf Mangelsdorf , Michael Brooks, Luke Epp, Martin Flint, Victoria Littlewood, Andrea Menardo, Jonathan Vidler.(Buro Happold/英国标赫工程) Sponsorship/赞助: Architectural Association(AA 建筑联盟学院), Buro Happold(英国标赫工程), ‘Unto This Last’ CNC(英国永续家具工坊), Alec Tiranti Ltd resin and glass fibre(意大利艾利克斯提拉提建材) .

The AA Canopy 2009 has 9 proposals entered as candidates. Structural engineers from Buro Happold spent one month assisting the 3 final schemes to enhance the engineering design. The winning entry had an opportunity to build a one-to-one scale model; fabricated, assembled and constructed by all the students involved.

The winning scheme attempted to provide partial shelter from the rain, shading from the sun and mitigate the wind for the AA upper terrace- the central public area of the School. The cascading overlapped structures of decorated gateways in the streets of Beijing form a complex and delicate system to offer horizontally structural overhanging that performs as a shading device, whilst sloping properly for draining. Vernacular houses in Shanghai use spaced tile work, giving porosity to the roof, while incorporating drainage with air exchanges through the roof surface. Partially distributed transparent tiles also locally adjust the interior daylight levels. The experimental example of the AA canopy has exceeded expectations of precedent: the overlapped composite wooden stripes behaved as a structural system, meeting the high strength requirements that structural overhanging demands. It also performs well environmentally, guiding rainwater drains along the overlapped cascading paths, and providing layered diffuse light effects and maintaining a damped wind environment beneath it on the terrace. This is trying to recall the atmosphere of sitting under tree boughs, as sunshine forms shadows that dance and spin on the ground, and cool breeze whispers through the branches.

The design development of the project included two research paths: Genetic Algorithms and physical experiments based on material properties. The iterative process of design applied advanced computational tools, deriving input parameters from spatial arrangement and the environmental conditions of the upper terrace. The initial surface was generated after 20 successive iterations, to minimize wind load, and to form a slope to direct the rain to the drainage gutters. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were used to assess the consequences of each geometric modification, the associative digital model progressively reduced the turbulence under the canopy, and enhanced the stability of the air supplies. The differentiated surface porosity patterns were then created following the wind pressure gradients cast on the initial surface, and so reduced the wind load in the most critical areas to enhance its structural capacity, preventing the canopy from acting as a sail.

In order to improve the structural strength while maintaining certain structural depth and weight, mature techniques that have been widely spread in the wooden shipbuilding industry were introduced into the architectural field. The combination of glass fibre and resin was infiltrated between the wood fibres, transforming the original laminated tri- layer plywood into a light-weight super-high-strength composite material. Three vertical fins levered the canopy up above the columns, acting as a crane, which were then connected to the columns as a supporting structure. The construction framework that was used to lever the canopy into place also formed part of the final structure of the canopy, reducing construction waste and costs.

The manufacturing method was constrained by the size of the CNC bed and the standard size of timber veneer and plywood panels, and the only-student-conducted fabrication and assembly had to take place within the school in limited space. Limited access and time brought further constraints on the scale, weight and assembly logic. The glass-fibreized wooden strips were shaved, polished, lacquered and air-dried over five times on both sides. The final finished surface was coated with a thin golden glazy lustre under overcast skies.

2009年的AA 建筑联盟学院天台加建项目有9个方案入围。在进行物理实验3个月后进行决选,并由英国Buro Happold(标赫工程咨询公司)的结构工程师协助三个入选方案进行1个月的工程图纸深化。最终胜出的方案得到等比例建造的机会,全体参赛同学共同参与制造组装建造。

获胜方案试图为AA的天台提供一定程度的庇荫和风雨遮挡。北京街头的牌楼使用层叠搭接的精密复杂结构系统提供水平出挑庇荫,并且形成排水所需的合适坡度;上海地区的民宅在满足排水要求的同时,利用镂空的瓦作铺接,允许了遮蔽物上下方的空气交流,部分玻璃的屋瓦进一步对遮蔽物的采光提供了改进。天棚的设计实验在一定程度上针对既有的工程实践进行革新,使用镂空搭接的复合材料条带作为结构系统,不仅满足了水平出挑的高结构强度,也体现出树冠一样的环境表现性能:规划雨水沿着互相叠压的分支排水管径层层流下,与此同时提供层层漫射的光效和过滤衰减的风环境,形成树荫庇蔽下微风习习,光影斑驳的空间感受。 设计在发展中囊括了两个研究方向:遗传算法以及基于材料性能的物理实验。设计的迭代推演过程中使用了先进的计算工具:将天台的空间排布与环境信息转化为数据,输入到优化算法中,经过20个连续的迭代进化,天棚的最初表面得以生成,用以最小化表面风力荷载,并且形成径直将雨水引入基地的排水管道槽中的坡度。计算流体动力学模拟(CFD)作为设计工具被引入到天台最初表面的历代几何变化中,天棚表面的孔洞的孔径梯度变化根据表面风压强度分布图案生成,避免了天棚在风力荷载下成为鼓满的船帆,增强了结构的稳定性。

为了在保持厚度与重量不变的前提下进一步增强结构强度,广泛应用于木质造船工业中的成熟工艺被引入建筑领域,玻璃纤维与树脂的复合物渗透至木质条带的纹理中,完全改变了木材本身的属性,形成一种轻质超高强度复合材料。竖向的木鳍作为施工过程中的起吊机将天棚吊装起,并在之后将天棚固定于现有的天台上的铁质圆柱上,使得施工机械最终也成为了建筑的一部分, 减少了施工中的财物浪费。

施工的方法为CNC数控机床和木制胶合板的尺寸所限制,而完全由学生人力完成的制作以及吊装又只能在学校内院的狭小区域进行,受限的基地使用时间与空间对天棚的尺寸,重量以及吊装组配策略都提出了更严格的限制。玻璃纤维化条带的表面及背面各经过5遍的打磨,抛光,上漆及风干处理,最终完成的表面在阴天下呈现出一层浅浅的金色琉璃色泽。 Strip wood kayak. 条带木制'(因纽特)划子’艇 (Source /图片来源: http://www.plunderguide.com/cedar-strip-wood-kayak/; http://www.treehugger.com/natural-sciences/guillemot-kayaks-make-your-own-wood-kayak.html; http://www.johnskayak.blogspot.co.uk/; etc)

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封帅 Shuai Feng
fengshuaihotmail@gmail.com

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